Political parties , pressure group, and role in political system
Political Parties Defined There is no single definition of political parties on which scholars can agree, However, A political party is a political organisation that seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating inelectoral campaign. Parties often espousean expressed ideology or vision bolstered by written platform with specific goals, forming coalition among disparate interests.
According to Gilchrest• A political party is an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit, try to control the government. - GILCHRIST
Nonpartisan• In non partisan system, no official parties exist, sometimes reflecting legal restrictions on political parties. In non partisan election, each candidate is eligible for office on his or her own merits. The administration of George Washington and first few sessions of US congress were nonpartisan. The unicameral legislation of Nebraska is the only state government body that is nonpartisan in united states today. Many city and governments are nonpartisan in Canada, the territorial legislatures of Northwest territories and Nunavut are nonpartisan. Tokelau also has nonpartisan parliamen7.
One-Party System• Pros – The winner always has a majority• Cons – Only one person runs for each position• EXAMPLES: – China, Cuba, North Korea
One-Party System• In single par7y sus7em, one par7y is legally allowed 7o hold effec7ive power. Al7hough minor par7ies may some 7ime be allowed, 7hey are legally required 7o accep7 7he leadership of 7he domina7 par7y.. Communis7 s7a7e such as china are some of 7he examples; o7hers can be found in fascis7 s7a7es such as nazi germany was be7ween 1933 and 1945. 7he single par7y sys7em is 7hus usually equa7ed wi7h dic7a7orship and 7yranny.
Two Party System• Pros – Main viewpoints are represented and one candidate usually receives a majority of votes• Cons – Less popular viewpoints are not represented in elections• EXAMPLES – U.S., England, Canada
Two Party System• 7wo dominan7 par7y sys7ems are s7a7es such as 7he US and jamaica in wi7ch 7here are 7wo poli7ical par7ies domina7e 7o such an ex7en7 7ha7 elec7oral success under 7he banner of any o7her par7y is ex7reamly difficul7. One righ7 wing coali7ion par7y and one lef7 wing coila7ion par7y is mos7 common ideological brackdown in such a sys7em bu7 in 7wo par7y s7a7es poli7ical par7ies are 7radi7ionally ca7ch all par7ies wich are ideologically broad and inclusive.• Us (Curren7ly 7he labour par7y and 7he conserva7ive par7y )
•Multi-Party System• Pros – All viewpoints are represented in elections• Cons – No candidate receives a majority of the votes, only a plurality• EXAMPLES: – France, Italy, Germany
Mul7iple par7ies• Mul7i-par7y sys7em are sys7em in which more 7han 7wo par7ies are serious con7enders 7o par7icipa7e in ruling. Canada, Pakis7an, India, 7he republican of Ireland, Germany, Norway, and UK are examples where 7here are 7wo s7rong par7ies, wi7h 7he 7hird par7y 7ha7 is elec7orally successful. Some coun7ries i7 is called 7wo and half because usually 7wo par7ies are dominan7.. No one par7y is likely 7o gain power alone, and par7es work wi7h each o7her 7o form coali7ion governmen7s .
CHARACTERISTICS of Political Parties• ( I ) An organized group of persons• ( II ) Similar views on political and economic problems of the country• ( III ) Aim to control the government by constitutional and peace means• ( IV ) Their aim is to promote national interest and not any sectional interest
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES1. They educate the masses, through their meetings and propaganda , about the various problems facing the country at a particular time. They helps in the formation of public opinion.2. They fight elections and try to get the maximum number of their candidates elected.3. The party which gets an absolute majority in the legislature, forms the government and runs the administration of the country.4. Other parties form the opposition. They criticise the wrong policies of the government and check it form becoming despotic.5. Political parties give political education to the people.6. They serve as a link between the government and the people.7.They serve as a link between the Legislature and Executive organs of Government.
Parties: Party Structure• National Level – Pres. controls – National Convention – Party Chairperson – National Committee• State level – Governor controls – State Conventions – State party chairperson – Party Boss• Local Level (Grassroots) – County Committee – County Chairperson – District Leaders – Precinct or ward captains – Party Workers
Special Interest Groups or pressure group• An in7eres7 group (also advocacy group, lobby group, pressure group, or special in7eres7 group) is an organiza7ion 7ha7 seeks 7o influence poli7ical decesions. I7 is priva7e organisa7ion 7ha7 7ries 7o persuade public officials 7o ac7 or vo7e 7o group members in7eres7s.i7 can encourage or prevent changes in public policy (laws)
Operations:• Lobbying- communicate with politicians to sway decision making – Tools to catch their attention • Money • Gifts• Mass Propaganda
7ypes of pressure groups• Sec7ionalSec7ional groups represen7s in7eres7s of 7heir members, 7hey include business group, such as 7he confedra7ion of bri7ish indus7ry. Professional bodies, such as 7he bri7ish medical associa7ion and 7rade unions.
7ypes of pressure groups• Promo7ional or single-issue groupsPromo7ional or single-issue groups (cause or a77i7ude groups) seeks 7u influence policy in a par7icular area, such as 7he environmen7 (greenpeace), gun laws (na7ional rifile associa7ion), 7he pro7ec7ion of birds (royal socie7y for 7he pro7ec7ion of birds).
7ypes of pressure groups• Fire BrigadeFire brigade’ groups lobby on specific issues such as War on 7error, Iraq War, Or 7he poll 7ax.. 7hey usually disband as soon as 7he issue has been resulved .