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Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
Israel and Its Role
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Israel and Its Role

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  • Here is the Balfour Declaration with explanation and citation. From: http://psi.mcgraw-hill.com/current/psi.php November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild, I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, Arthur James Balfour The Balfour Declaration was issued by the British government in 1917. Its central concern was to lend support to the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." Many Palestinians believed that this was a British betrayal of the Hussein-McMahan Correspondence of 1915 and 1916, which proposed support for Arab independence. The Balfour Declaration made no mention of the creation of a nation state, and its wording emphasized that the homeland would be in Palestine, suggesting that it would not supplant Palestine itself. Regardless of the phrasing, Jewish immigration to Palestine increased significantly during the interwar period, causing tensions to escalate between the Palestinian population and the newly arrived immigrants. CITATION: Balfour, Arthur. "The Balfour Declaration." Courtesy of the Avalon Project at Yale Law School. DIGITAL ID: 3544
  • Arabs Oppose Balfour This photograph shows a group of Arabs protesting the Balfour Declaration, which was issued by the British government in 1917. The central concern of the Balfour Declaration was to lend support to the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." Many Palestinians believed that this was a British betrayal of the Hussein-McMahan Correspondence of 1915 and 1916, which proposed support for Arab independence. The Balfour Declaration made no mention of the creation of a nation state, and its wording emphasized that the homeland would be in Palestine, suggesting that it would not supplant Palestine itself. Regardless of the phrasing, Jewish immigration to Palestine increased significantly during the interwar period, causing tensions to escalate between the Palestinian population and the newly arrived immigrants. CITATION: "Arabs Oppose the Balfour Declaration" (WCO067). Courtesy of Instructional Resources Corporation. "Images Copyright (c) 2002 Instructional Resources Corporation (IRC). IRC images are provided pursuant to a license agreement authorizing their display in one classroom. Any other use, including copying, reproduction, internet display or multiple site display, is strictly prohibited. Federal and international law provides severe civil and criminal penalties for the unauthorized reproduction, distribution or exhibition of copyrighted material."
  • Arab Demonstration This image was taken in Palestine on March 8, 1920. The scene taking place occurred in response to the proposal that a Jewish homeland be created in Palestine. In the wake of World War I and the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Jewish activists in Britain pressed for an official state to be created in what they considered their homeland. The Arabs of the region strongly opposed this idea, and this heightened already strained tensions between the two ethnic groups. The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement of 1919 finalized the arrangement, causing a massive uproar among Arabs in the Palestine region, who did not want a Jewish state established there (or, possibly, anywhere). This photograph shows one of the many demonstrations that took place in late 1919 and early 1920. In April 1920, an Arab mob attacked the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem, looting buildings and assaulting residents. As a result, the Jewish people were evacuated and legal Jewish immigration to the area was halted. CITATION: American Colony Photo Dept., "Arab demonstration." 1 negative : glass, dry plate ; 4 x 5 in. or smaller. 1920 Mar. 8. G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, ID: LC-DIG-matpc-07459.
  • Telegram of 1929 Riots This document is a telegram to the British High Commissioner from the Arab council in Palestine regarding the Arab riots of 1929. In 1922, after World War I and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, control of Palestine was granted to Britain by the League of Nations. Britain began to actively aid a Jewish movement known as Zionism, which sought the return of the Jewish population to their homeland of Israel. This heightened tensions between Jewish settlers and Palestinian Arabs, who considered Palestine to be their homeland. Hostility grew throughout the years, with violent but small disputes occurring between the two factions. In August 1929, Haj Amin al-Husseini, the mufti of Jerusalem, claimed that the Jewish residents were defiling Muslim holy sites. This caused a massive wave of violence, primarily centered around Hebron, Jerusalem, and Zefat, where many Jewish neighborhoods were attacked. As described in this letter, many Arabs heard rumors that Jews had begun the violence by murdering Arabs. By the end of the riots, over 250 people were dead, and 570 were wounded. This event contributed to the tension between the two ethnic groups and was a precursor to the Arab rebellion of the 1930s. CITATION: American Colony. "The 1929 riots. August 23 to 31. Telegram sent to H.E. [i.e., His Excellency] the High Commissioner by the Arab Executive. A photographic copy." 1 negative : glass, dry plate ; 5 x 7 in. 1929 Aug. G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, ID: LC-DIG-matpc-03045. Original image number: matpc 03045. DIGITAL ID: 8535
  • Telegram of 1929 Riots This document is a telegram to the British High Commissioner from the Arab council in Palestine regarding the Arab riots of 1929. In 1922, after World War I and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, control of Palestine was granted to Britain by the League of Nations. Britain began to actively aid a Jewish movement known as Zionism, which sought the return of the Jewish population to their homeland of Israel. This heightened tensions between Jewish settlers and Palestinian Arabs, who considered Palestine to be their homeland. Hostility grew throughout the years, with violent but small disputes occurring between the two factions. In August 1929, Haj Amin al-Husseini, the mufti of Jerusalem, claimed that the Jewish residents were defiling Muslim holy sites. This caused a massive wave of violence, primarily centered around Hebron, Jerusalem, and Zefat, where many Jewish neighborhoods were attacked. As described in this letter, many Arabs heard rumors that Jews had begun the violence by murdering Arabs. By the end of the riots, over 250 people were dead, and 570 were wounded. This event contributed to the tension between the two ethnic groups and was a precursor to the Arab rebellion of the 1930s. CITATION: American Colony. "The 1929 riots. August 23 to 31. Telegram sent to H.E. [i.e., His Excellency] the High Commissioner by the Arab Executive. A photographic copy." 1 negative : glass, dry plate ; 5 x 7 in. 1929 Aug. G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, ID: LC-DIG-matpc-03045. Original image number: matpc 03045.
  • Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty Taken in March 1979 by a journalist for U.S. News and World Report, this photograph depicts one of the most famous moments of the 1970s. Present are three powerful figures in world politics: U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. The men stand locked together by this six-handed shake at Camp David after having signed the historic Camp David Accords, designed to bring peace to the Middle East after decades of conflict. In 1948, the state of Israel -- located in an area of considerable significance to Palestinian Arabs -- declared itself a nation and was formally recognized by the United States. Thus began a long, bloody conflict between Israel and the Arab states of the Middle East. In 1956, Israel defeated Egypt in the Suez-Sinai War, and Egyptian President Gamal Abdel used the resulting hostility of Arabs throughout the Middle East to create an alliance rooted in Palestinian nationalism. In the Six Day War of 1967, Arab armies were driven out of the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula in a brutal exchange of violence, and control of the city of Jerusalem went to Israel. This was followed by the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, in which Sadat launched an attack against Israel, ultimately breaking through Israeli forces and taking the Suez canal. While Israel quickly recaptured the territory, it could not subdue further bloody skirmishes. Following this conflict, Sadat shifted gears, traveling to Jerusalem and offering to formally recognize Israel, providing that Israel agreed to certain conditions. This bold initiative caught the attention of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, who had watched these conflicts with increasing trepidation, since the U.S. was committed to supporting Israel. Carter invited Sadat and Begin to his presidential retreat at Camp David and personally offered to facilitate negotiations between them. As a result of these negotiations, Begin agreed to gradually withdraw Israeli troops from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for recognition from Sadat. Unfortunately, in October 1981, Sadat was assassinated for his role in the negotiations by extremists within his own army in Cairo, Egypt. CITATION: Warren K. Leffler, "Egypt Israel peace treaty," March 26, 1979. 1 negative: film. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection, ID: LC-U9-37435-13 (b&w film neg.); LC-DIG-ppmsca-03424 (digital file from original). Original image Number: 03424.
  • Transcript

    • 1. World History By: Neal Nathan Thesis Question:Consider the role of Israel in the Arabworld. How has Israel survived for thepast half century? What steps have beenmade toward peace? Is Israel the mainstabilizing or destabilizing agent insouthwest Asia?
    • 2. Introduction Israel, from the point of its establishment to today, has been the root of controversy and animosity in the Arab world, especially in southwest Asia. With this in mind, it is evident that Israel is a destabilizing agent in the region. When Israel was formed on Palestine soil by the actions and support of the U.N. Great Britain, and the U.S. there was a consensus in the Arab world of a anti-Semitism sentiment. Amidst the growing hostility towards Jews, the state of Israel has been able to form the powerful nation it is today, and form alliances with nations such as the U.S. which help keep Israel intact for the past half century. In addition to these allies, Israel has been able to strive towards peace with Palestine. This is apparent in the peace treaties signed between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization. This accord between prime minister Rabin, and PLO leader Yasser Arafat, represents the steps made for peace between the two states, which have helped, but have not quelled the fire from the friction between the two nations. ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 3. Evidence #1 The survival of Israel in tense southwestern Asia can be mainly attributed to the actions by England, the U.N. the U.S. and even the Soviet Union. This is because Great Britain in the Balfour Declaration gave the Zionist Federation England’s support in establishing “a national home for the Jewish people… in Palestine.” (1) Then, the U.N. stepped in by the urging of the U.S. and the Soviet Union. This allowed Israel to confidently establish itself from Palestinian rule, and form its separate state, which was granted to them by the U.N. The aftermath of this proposal transpired into the Arab-Israeli wars. With reinforcements from “Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq,” (2) the Arabs were victorious in battle. That is until Israel’s military became smarter and gained more land that what was to be given to them by the U.N. However, with the assistance and determination of the U.N. an armistice was reached and Palestine was partitioned. This led to the sovereignty of Israel. ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 4. Evidence #2As a result of this wide supportof the creation of Israel as asovereign and independentnation led to an increase in anti-Semitism. This is depicted in thepicture wherein demonstratorsare protesting the BalfourDeclaration. This sentiment wasprevalent in the region in Arabstates due to the taking ofPalestine’s land in order to forma separate state. This showsIsrael as a destabilizing force insouthwestern Asia. As a sourceof tension in the region, it is notsurprising to see Israel involvedin many discussions about theregion. This animosity towardsIsrael has led to “Arab nations’determination to rid their regionof the hated presence of Israel.” ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 5. Evidence #3The establishment of Israel within theborders of Palestine, thus taking itsland, was viewed with greatdiscontent, and uproar throughoutthe Arab nations of southwesternAsia. Within Palestine, the populardisagreement and anger towards thiscreation of a Jewish state led tomany protests and demonstrations.Here, in Palestine the protestors areperturbed about “The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement of 1919[which] finalized the arrangement,causing a massive uproar amongArabs in the Palestine region, whodid not want a Jewish state [to be]established.” This along with theBalfour Declaration contributed to theignition of the civil war and Arab-Israeli war in latter years of the mid1900s. The occurrence of theseprotests and wars that ensued, are aresult of the anti-Semitism, andcreation of Israel. Yet, this sentimentis still apparent today. ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 6. Evidence #3 Continued In addition to the pictures of the protests regarding the support by the superpower, England. These riots and demonstrations led to deep concern for Arab leaders. This anxiety over the violent riots was definitely called for as these uproars led to deaths. As a result of the violence, “over 250 people were dead, and 570 were wounded.” As these numbers include both Arabs and Jews, it is clear that a settlement had to be made, or at least some sort of treaty signed in order to put an end to these deadly riots. Riots, which again show that Israel is a source of strife in southwestern Asia. ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 7. Evidence #3 Continued Here is the picture of the Telegraph of 1929 Riots sent to Britain by Palestine. ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 8. Evidence #4 Despite being a major destabilizing force in the region, Israel has made attempts and successes in achieving peace with neighbors. This is evident in the peace treaty signed between Palestine and Israel, which led to the assassination of prime minister Rabin of Israel, Israel wanted to form a truce between them and Egypt. They were successful in doing so because as depicted here, the U.S. Israel and Egypt signed the Camp David Accords. This agreement was supposed to instill peace and recognition between Israel and Egypt. However, when Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was assassinated, the extremists who committed the crime, opposed this settlement. In addition, the peace treaty signed between the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) and Israel demonstrates the quest for peace in the region. When PLO leader Yasser Arafat, and Israeli prime minister Rabin met in 1993 and 1995, they signed peace treaties. These accords “advanced the notion of limited Palestinian self-rule in Israeli-occupied territories.” This shows the two representative governments’ strides towards reconciliation and the suspension of hostility in southwestern Asia.President Anwar Sadatof Egypt (Left)U.S. President Carter(Center)Israeli Prime MinisterBegin (Right) ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]
    • 9. Conclusion From its birth to present day, Israel has been a crucial facet in Middle Eastern diplomacy and conflict. With its controversial creation and establishment, Israel has sparked antagonism towards them in south western Asia. The Arab states, which oppose the nation of Israel waged war against the Israeli people. With the support of England and the U.S. Israel has been able to thrive under pressure of these aggressive Arab nations. However, the tension still remains, unquenched by the several treaties signed between Israel and Palestine, and neighboring Arab countries. As a destabilizing force in the region, Israel has led to many tense and violent events such as the attacks by Hezbollah and the animosity between the Jewish state and Iran, and the strife over Gaza. With all of these conflicts originating from the creation of and actions of Israel, it is clear that this nation formed of survivors and refugees, is still in the middle of disagreement today. ©2011 Creative Curriculum for Children [CCC]

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