•                 Universe &    1Solar system:                                                               Oort Cloud (o...
Exercises 1. Make a list of the planets in the correct order                           Projects, tasks & Experiments •    ...
Glossary U11.   star                   1.   atmosphere–    dwarf planet           •    hydrosphere–    meteorite          ...
••    Circles in the sky                                    Extra Resources    For thousands of years most people believed...
Experiments and• graphs   1Experiments always have the following parts:     o    Title     o    Aim / hypothesis: what we ...
Exercises 1. Draw a lab with 6 things that are wrong, and label them explaning what      is wrong.                        ...
Glossary U21.   experiment                      1.   Common sense–    scientific method               •    harmful–    res...
•    •         Planning                                                                Extra Resources         In the aim ...
Matter, states, •     1Properties of matter (space & mass):         o   General (all matter has them): mass, volume       ...
Different physical shapes of carbon                                                                      Temporary subatom...
Exercises 1. What are the general properties of matter? •    You can’t see air. Explain why air is matter.                ...
Glossary U31.   property                1.   compound–    texture                 •    to dissolve–    measurement        ...
•   The story of Robert Brown 1•                                                           Extra Resources    Robert Brown...
Living Things•    1Smallest uni of life: the Cell (bacterias, plant, and animal).•    Live beings are made of Inorganic (s...
Exercises 1. What is a cell? •    Order in complexity: brain, squirrel, neuron, nerve tissue, nervous        Projects, tas...
Glossary U41.   cell                  1.   eucariotic–    inorganic             •    procariotic–    fat                  ...
Extra Resources1Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Use the words in thebox. Each word can be used more than...
•  Photosynthesis: CO2+H2O >    Kingdoms I                        glucose                                  •   Respiration...
Exercises 1. What are the differences between antibiotic and vaccine? •    What kind of substance would you use to clean a...
Glossary U51.   virus                   1.   angiosperm–    illness                 •    stem–    vaccine                 ...
Extra ResourcesPlant fertilisationName _____________________________ Class ____________                                   ...
Kingdoms II•    1Animal kingdom: eucariotic pluricellular, heterotrophic     cells, mobile.      o     Invertebrates: with...
Exercises 1. Make a dichotomous classification key for vertebrates. •    Which animals are oviparous?                     ...
Glossary U61.   invertebrate             1.   arachnid–    backbone                 •    crustacean–    sponge            ...
Fill in the crossword using the clues below.                                                     Extra ResourcesAcross2 Th...
Atmosphere and•   hydrosphere (N2, O2, CO2, H2O, etc). Oxygen has been     1Atmosphere: gases     created by plants.      ...
Exercises 1. Why is it important that the atmosphere contains oxygen? Pure oxygen      is toxic. Why is the atmosphere not...
Glossary U71.   atmosphere             1.   anemometer–    layer                  •    wind vane–    troposphere          ...
Extra ResourcesThe Dead SeaRainwater is not salty. Rain is formed when water evaporates from seas,rivers and lakes, and th...
Geospher•   e 1Minerals: natural, inorganic, solid, reasonably pure substance (small      amount of impurities). With a ch...
Exercises 1. Explain which are minerals and which are not: petrol, wood, gold,      water, sand, quartz, granite, silica. ...
Glossary U81.   mineral              1.   underground–    impurity             •    foliated–    crystal              •   ...
Extra Resources                           Diamonds are forever   The rock cycle 1                                         ...
1ESOproject light
1ESOproject light
1ESOproject light
1ESOproject light
1ESOproject light
1ESOproject light
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  1. 1. • Universe & 1Solar system: Oort Cloud (outside) Dwarf planet! (source of ice comets) Last planet o Earth Star: made of incandescent gas. Eg: Sun, Rotates horizontally! ProximaCentauri (4light-years), 1997ff(10.000mill l-y) Big rings! o Inner planets: rocky, small, hot, little gas (CO2, O2) Kuiper Belt o Outer planets: liquid/gas(H,He), big, cold, with rings (source of asteroids) o Dwarf planets (pluto, ceres, eris), Biggest, most satellites o Meteorite: rock from /in space  Comets (ice, long orbit; close to the sun = with a CO2, red, little atmosphere tail of evaporating ice) Life!  Asteroids (no ice, irregular) o Shooting star (asteroid burning as it enters our Rotates in opposite direction! atmosphere)• 2Outer space: o Stars & Black holes (what’s left after a star exploding) Smallest, closest to sun o Galaxies (many stars, Eg Milky Way) & Nebulas (gigantic clouds of dust & gas). Constellation: a drawing people imagine in the sky using stars. o Clusters (many galaxies) o Universe (all)• 3Movements: o Rotation: round an axis (eg Earth round itself). This causes the day & night. o Nutation: wobbling of the axis o Precession: change of direction of the axis because of revolution. This causes the seasons. o Revolution: an orbit in ellipses (eg Earth round sun). The far planets have the longest revolutions. Ecliptic: the plane of the orbit.• 4Measurements: o Astronomical unit (AU): distance Earth-Sun (150mill km) o Light-year: distance light travels in 1 year (9.500000000000km).• Layers of Earth: o Atmosphere, hydrosphere (fresh & sea water), biosphere o Geosphere: inner core (hot, solid,Fe+Ni), outer core (liquid), mantle (semisolid), crust (oceanic Basalt, continental Granite).• Theories of the solar system:
  2. 2. Exercises 1. Make a list of the planets in the correct order Projects, tasks & Experiments • Write your complete galatic address 1. Summer: Make a project on the solar system • Think what planet can have the longest orbit in the solar system. (1page per planet; • If Mercury is 0.4AU from the sun, express this in km. How many AU is image+size+conditions+proximity). the Earth from the sun? • Make a constellation on a black piece of paper, • Calculate how many km is a light day. then shine it on the roof • Explain why in Venus a day is longer than a year • Make a model of the Earth & Moon using • What is an orbit? polyestirene balls. Paint continents, oceans and a • Why do we use light years for measuring in astronomy? triangle with the layers. Explain layers, day/night, • What do you cal lthe plane where planets orbit the sun? moon phases and seasons in front of the class. • Which planet has a) Big rings b)Big size c)Life d)Opposite rotation • Make a model of the solar system to scale in the e)Horizontal rotation patio using peanuts, a ball, pins, peppercorns, and • On Earth, where does the sun rise, East or West? And in Venus? Why? chesnut. • Explain the difference between the geocentric and heliocentric theories. • Investigate what the words mean and draw a • What 2 movements do ALL planets have? continent+ocean with plains, mountain ranges, • Why does a comet have a tail? When it travels far away from the sun, continental shelves, ridges, trenches, abyssal will it still have a tail? plains, and volcanic archipielagos. • Which is our natural satellite? And our galaxy? And our cluster? • Make a model of Earth’s layers: shake and let • Draw a diagram of Earth and 1 person standing on each pole. settle a mixture of sand, water, and oil • Many planets have atmospheres with acids. Could humans live there? • Investigate and describe a satellite made by What would we need to do to survive? human beings. • Explain the difference between a new and a full moon. • Investigate and explain if life would be possible on • If the moon shines on the left when you look from the vNorth Pole, what Mars. side shines when you are on the South Pole? • Investigate and copy Jupiter’s conditions. Then • Earth has 2 main energy sources: sunlight and gravity. Which makes invent and draw an alien that lives in Jupiter. the nucleus hot? Explain what characeteristics it has for surviving in • List the different places of the Earth where we find water. Jupiter’s conditions. • What are they made of: a)inner nucleus b)continental crust c)oceanic • Investigate what is your horoscope, and copy what crust is the symbol and it’s constellation (stars). • Define solstice and equinox. Why are there two of each? • Why is the sun more perpendicular at noon (12:00) in summer than winter? • Why do we never see the dark side of the moon? TRANSVERSAL: Probabilities of aliens? If aliens are very different, will we recognise them as live beings? Black holes. Ethic to build spaceships if hunger in Kenia? What was before/ after universe? Parallel universe theories. Timetravel paradoxes (nothing moves faster than light). Could we survive if Sun disappears? Artificial satellites are watching us all the time. Scientific approach to horoscope meanings: psychology and self-suggestion.
  3. 3. Glossary U11. star 1. atmosphere– dwarf planet • hydrosphere– meteorite • geosphere– comet • biosphere– asteroid • core– shooting star • mantle– black hole • crust– galaxy • geocentric– cluster • heliocentric– rotation • scientific theory– nutation • wobble– precession • axis– revolution • new moon– season • equinox– nebula • solstice– orbit • artificial satellite– ellipse • full moon– ecliptic • ring– AU • belt– light year • quarter
  4. 4. •• Circles in the sky Extra Resources For thousands of years most people believed that the Earth was at the centre of the Universe, and that the Sun and the planets moved around the • All the statements on this page are true. The ones at the bottom Earth. of the page EXPLAIN the ones in the table. Copy the• Ptolemy was an astronomer who lived in Egypt around 130 ad. He drew a explanations in the correct places in the table. map showing the Solar System, and this ‘model’ lasted for 1500 years.• In 1543 a Polish astronomer called Nicolas Copernicus published a book that said that it was the Sun and not the Earth that was the centre of the Solar System. Copernicus had written the book years before, but he did not have it printed until the year of his death, because he was afraid of what might happen to him.• The Roman Catholic Church believed that the Earth was the most important place in the Universe, and so it must be at the centre of the Universe. People who argued against the Church were called heretics, and were often tortured or put to death if they would not change their minds.• Other astronomers observed the sky, and believed that Copernicus was right. Others were not convinced until an Italian astronomer called Galileo Galilei started observing the sky through a telescope in 1609. The following year, Galileo discovered four of the moons of Jupiter, and decided that they were orbiting Jupiter just like the Moon orbits the Earth. This was important, because it showed that the Earth was not the only planet with moons. This observation helped to persuade most astronomers that the Sun, not the Earth, was at the centre of the Solar System. Galileo was arrested when he wrote about his theory, and his book could only be published abroad.• 1How many other planets did Ptolemy know about when he drew his map of the Solar System?• 2Write a list of the planets and Sun in Ptolemy’s system in order of their distance from the Earth, starting with the Moon.• 3Why didn’t Copernicus publish his book as soon as he had written it?• 4What invention helped Galileo to prove that Copernicus was correct?• 5What did Galileo discover that helped him to prove Copernicus’ theory?• 6Why do you think that Galileo was arrested when he published his book?• Ptolemy’s Solar System: • aThe northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun in the summer. • fThe stars are a very long way apart. • bThe Sun’s rays are more concentrated in summer. • gThe Moon reflects light from the Sun. • cThe Earth spins on its axis once every 24 hours. • hIt is closer to the Sun. • dThe Sun’s gravity pulls on all the planets. • iThe Earth’s axis is tilted. • eThe Sun is much closer to the Earth than the other stars.
  5. 5. Experiments and• graphs 1Experiments always have the following parts: o Title o Aim / hypothesis: what we want to find out doing this experiment o Apparatus: list of apparatus and substances used o Method: instructions to do the exam o Diagram: pictures in SYMBOLS (4) o Results: a table, graph or explanation showing what happened. o Conclusion: what we learned doing this experiment, and problems, suggestions and improvements.• 2Graphs: Always with a title. The scales begin separated from the corner of the axis, and go from the minimum to the maximum value of each data. The divisions must always be equal in number and in distance; not too many to read, and not too few to find the data. o Pie chart : when we have %.; 100% equals 360º. o Bar graph: when one set of data is NOT numerical (this set goes on the horizontal line). Pictographs are a kind of bar graph. o Linegraph: when boht sets of data are numerical. The set that we decided before measuring goes on the horizontal line, the one we find out by measuring on the vertical axis. Always use smooth lines, not cornered zigzags.• 3Safety: use your common sense and listen to the teacher! Also remember to: o Tie hair, sleeves and separate paper/flammables from fire o Clear tables, bags on the side wall, apparatus in the center of the table o Never leave fire or dangerous liquids alone. Never eat/ drink/ run in the lab. o If glass breaks tell teacher, if corrosive splashes on skin wash quickly, if something goes on fire leave it on the floor and dont touch it.
  6. 6. Exercises 1. Draw a lab with 6 things that are wrong, and label them explaning what is wrong. Projects, tasks & Experiments • Imagine you do the following experiment: You want to know if chocolate 1. Safety: Burning a secret milk/lemon message on melts faster than ice cream in the sun, so you leave a piece of paper. chocolate in a beaker and a piece of ice cream in another beaker • You want to discover how long it takes for 1 beside the window for 1 hour. The ice cream melts but the chocolate spatula of salt to dissolve while stirring. What doesn’t. Now write the experiment report with all the parts. apparatus will you need? Write down a method for • Make the graph for the following tables of data: this experiment. Ask the teacher if it is correct, and when the teacher says you can try to do the experiment. Do it three times to compare. Afterwards make a correct kind of graph with the results. • Make a leaflet with the most important 6 rules in the lab, and pictures to show each rule. 1. Make the drawing for the symbol of oxidising. • Exp: how many peas fall on either side of labelled • The symbol of harmful has a “h” underneath. What can the symbol for (cellotape) petri dish when shaking 10, 12, 14, 16, irritant be? (very similar) Temperature 20 peas. Linegraph. Student Height (cm) • Timedo you think this is (seconds) (Cº) % Some symbols are yellow and others orange. Why Gases in air • Exp: survey in the lab people’s height, sex, eyes, so? Mark 120 hair, waist circumpherence (measuring tape). Eys Nitrogen 0 70 20 • Blue circular symbols are recommendations. Invent the symbol convert to %, then to º. Hair make bargaph. Height Jack 130 “recommended to use goggles”. Oxygen 5 20 25 vs waist make linegraph. • Sarah 115 If a glass apparatus falls and breaks on the floor, what do you have to 5 27 10 Water Vapour do? Rachel 140 15 33 • Make the diagram for a beaker containing a thermometer, on top of a 5 Carbon dioxide gauze on top of a tripod, all over a bunsen burner (arrow). 20 24 • Make a list of the apparatus in this diagram:TRANSVERSAL: Difference between science(objective proof)& faith(personal belief) & disciplines(arbitrary pragmatic rules,eg law/ethics). Necessity of cooperation for daily life. Universalpictograms (eg pictograms on gold disc on Voyager). Cases offalsifying data in science (eg nicotine% with filter holes),manipulating data results (eg A-flu predictions), patents &economy (1st world medicines, crop strains, weapons for 3rdworld). The political option: science (education) vs inculture(+manipulation)(lower content, poorer skills, etc).
  7. 7. Glossary U21. experiment 1. Common sense– scientific method • harmful– results • irritant– data • explosive– smooth • toxic– scientific diagram • oxidising– graph • hazard– scale • beaker– intervals or divisions • test tube– pie chart • tongs– bar graph • measuring cylinder– line graph • bung– pictograph • mortar– dependant variable • pestle– continuous variable • pipette– independant variable • clamp stand– discontinuous variable • bunsen burner– flammable • gauze– safety rules • safety goggles– corrosive • conical flask
  8. 8. • • Planning Extra Resources In the aim or hypothesis you write down______________________. • In the method write down what you will do, what you will measure and • You will usually find a set of ‘Lab Rules’ in a science what _________ you will use. Your investigation should be a fair test. lab. They are there for your safety! This means that you should only change one thing at a time and keep • The drawing below shows a lab where there are no all the other things _________. The things that you can change are safety rules. called variables. Write down what you will change and what you will • 1Write down a list of all the things going wrong in this keep the same. Write down anything that you will do to make sure you lab. can do your investigation___________ and not hurt yourself. • 2For each of your answers, write a safety rule. • Recording your results • 3Design a poster for your lab, showing one safety rule • Make sure you use all the equipment _________. Write down all your and the reason for having it. results______. Do not forget to write down the _______that you are measuring in. Write down any other observations carefully. • Make sure you use scientific _______ when you write down what you have found out.Write down any __________ you can find in your results. Simple patterns between things are called relationships. • Evaluation • Write down how you could make your investigation _________ and why this would make it better.• 1What is a variable?• 2What is a fair test?• 3What variable has the pupil changed?• 4Which variables has the pupil kept the same?• 5What equipment did the pupil use to measure the mass?• 6What units was the mass measured in?• 7What is the relationship the pupil found?• 8Now write down the plan for the experiment the pupil performed.
  9. 9. Matter, states, • 1Properties of matter (space & mass): o General (all matter has them): mass, volume elements o Specific (not all): colour, texture, etc and mixtures • 2Measurements (International System): Base Unit = main one. The rest = Derived. o Length(m): Measured with ruler, decimal system (k/h/D/m/d/c/mm x/:10) o Surface: in m2, calculated using lengths, square decimal system to convert (km, hm, Dm, m, dm, cm, mm x/:100). Square: S=lxl Circle: S=πr2 Triangle: S=(basexh)/2 o Volume (capacity): in m3, measured by Displacement in a Measuring Cylinder (change of Volume; with s/l/g). Also in L (1L=1dm3). Cubic decimal system (km, hm, Dm, m, dm, cm, mm x/:1000). Meniscus on top! o Mass: in g, measured with scales (electronic / with weights). Decimal system to convert (kg, hg, Dg, g, dg, cg, mg x/:10) o Density: calculated with the formula D=m/V, units of m/V. o Temperqature: in K, measured with a thermometer; 0ºC is 273K. To convert use the formulas K=C+273 or C=K-273. o Time: measures cronometer/watch. s, min, h, day, week, month, year, etc • 3Composition: o Atoms: the smallest stable particles. Each kind of atom is an Element. Many elements in nature are in groups (eg Oxygen = O2). The Periodic Table is a list of elements in order of their number of protons (atomic number, Z). o Mollecules: groups of atoms joined together. Eg water is made of groups formed by two H and one O. It’s chemical formula (H2O) shows the number and kind of atoms it contains. o Pure substances: made of only one kind of mollecule.  Elements: substances made of mollecules with only one kind of atom.  Compounds: mollecules that contain 2/more kinds of atom. o Mixtures: made of 2/more kinds of mollecules (groups).  Homogeneous: looks the same. Eg milk. Solution=solvent(l)+solute(s)  Heterogeneous: different substances can be seen. Eg granite • 4Changes: o Physical: particles change position, but not the atoms they are made of.  Eg mixing / dissolving / separating (filtering, decanting, distilling/evaporating, chromatography); changing shape; or changing of States of Matter (they depend on the temperature and on each substance):Solid: fixed shape (doesn’t flow), fixed volume, dense, particles are touching and joined inan organised network. Gel: mixture of s-l. Foam: mixture of g-l. Smoke: mixture of g-sLiquid: flows, fixed volume, not so dense, particles are touching but not joined
  10. 10. Different physical shapes of carbon Temporary subatomicThe universe visible from Earth is a sphere with a radius of 46 particlesbillions of billions of light years (460,,,,,000.000,,,,000.000,,,000.000,,000.000,000.000km), our Milky Way Galaxy is 100,000light years in diameter, and our nearest galaxy, the Andromeda, is2.5 million light years away. There are probably more than 100billion galaxies, each with between ten million to one trillion stars,so around 300 sextillion (36zeros) stars in the observableuniverse, possibly each of them with 10 planets. Alien life onlyneeds 1chance out of 3000sextillions to exist, but it will probablybe so far away we will never meet!
  11. 11. Exercises 1. What are the general properties of matter? • You can’t see air. Explain why air is matter. Projects, tasks & Experiments • How long is your sheet of paper? And how wide? Transform this into 1. Make/cut models of atoms, and join them to make the base unit of the International System. elements, compounds, or mixtures. Show H2O, • Measure the diameter of a cello tape. The radius is half the diameter. CO2, O2, C, H2, and CH4. Now calculate the surface. • Investigate one element: properties, where it is • A triangle measures 6cm high and 4cm wide. What is it’s surface? found, and what we use it for. • Make the outline of your hand on a paper. Divide the area into regular • Play bingo: each student one column, the teacher shapes (rectangles, triangles, circles), calculate their areas and add the says random elements. First complete column total. wins! • Make the drawing of the apparatus being used to measure the gas • Experiments of separating: decanting produced in a conical flask. You will need a measuring cylinder, (sand/oil+water), filtering (filter paper, gauze; stopper, tube, dish, the conical flask and water. compare sand water vs inked water solution), • What is the capacity in litres of a container with 3.4cm2 volume? chromatography (felt pen), evaporation (salt), • How many bottles of 250ml are needed to fill a tank of 10L? distillation (ink). • On a traditional balance there are 3kg on the left, and 2kg on the right. • Recording experiments: volume (liquid, then solid, Which side goes up and which side goes down? then gas), temperature (chronometer, then make • Calculate the density of a ball of lead that has a volume of 6cm3 and a the graph, in K). mass of 3g? Show your working and the units of the answer. • Changes experiment: ice-water, plasticine shape, • A drop of water with 5000 mollecules (mass) increases in volume when elastic heated, cutting paper; burning paper, it freezes. Which is denser, water or ice? vinegar-sodium bicarbonate, Mg-acid heating. • A wet sponge contains 5000mollecules of water. When it dries only 500 mollecules are left. When is the sponge denser? • Convert 280K into Celsius. Convert -20Cº into Kelvin. • How many seconds are in a day? • Convert 3000m2 into dm2. Convert 3000dm3 into m3. • Water is 1g/cm3, and oil is 0.9g/cm3. Which floats? • What states of matter a)has particles joined b)can be compressed c)flows • What particles vibrate more, the ones in a ags, liquid or solid? TRANSVERSAL: The high compression states of matter (when atoms disintegrate). Antimatter. Special properties: perfect • 50g of water evaporate. How much will the vapour weigh? Why? conductors, hard liquids (corn flour/maizena), new materials • Classify into mixtures (homo/heterogeneous) or pure (hard plastics, not flammable clothes, light metals; patents), (element/compound): a)Mayonnaise b)Honey c)Chicken soup d)Granite nature’s solutions (velcro from seeds, permadry from lotus leaf, e)Iron f)Water etc). What happens to liquids loose in space, infinite density (black holes,?), the impossible 0K (movement=heat). Aristotle’s surface-measuring method (cut-out shape in wood, divide by 1cm2 weight). The mysteries of atoms (impossible to predict complex mollecules, the tunnel e- effect, etc).
  12. 12. Glossary U31. property 1. compound– texture • to dissolve– measurement • solution– base unit • solvent– decimal system • solute– surface • expand– length • contract– volume • flow– meniscus • fizz– mass • network– weight • chromatography– density • state of matter– cronometer • to filter– thermometer • to decant– cubic meter • to distil– atom • fixed shape– element • bond– mollecule • foam– periodic table • sublimation– mixture • condensation
  13. 13. • The story of Robert Brown 1• Extra Resources Robert Brown was a Scottish scientist who studied botany – the science of plants.• One day in 1827, he was using his microscope to look at some pollen • Who scraped the gatepost? grains that were floating in water. To his surprise, he noticed that the • Police were called to 10 Manor Road because there had been a pollen grains were moving in a strange, zigzag way. He checked his burglary. There were some bits of red paint on the gatepost, and the observations carefully and found that they were correct. police suspect that the robbers’ car or van scraped against the• He knew that pollen came from living plants. He thought at first that gatepost when they were making their getaway. the pollen itself might be alive, and capable of moving on its own. He • A forensic science laboratory was asked to find out what make of car tried the experiment again, but instead of pollen he used something the burglars had used. Different car manufacturers use different that he knew definitely couldn’t be alive. The zigzag motion was still mixtures of colours in their paint. The scientists used chromatography there! This really baffled Brown, who reported his results, but could to find out the make of the getaway vehicle. not explain why the pollen moved in this way. The experiment was • These are the results of the tests: then forgotten as no-one could come up with a convincing explanation.• Nearly eighty years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein came up with a theory to explain Brown’s observations. He suggested that the pollen grains were being bombarded on all sides by water particles. The water particles were too small to be seen. The effect of lots of the water particles added together was just enough to push the pollen grains around.• In 1908, Jean-Baptiste Perrin used Einstein’s theory to calculate the size of a water particles. This estimate suggested that water particles were less than 0.000 000 001 metres (10–9 m) in size.• 1 What nationality was Robert Brown?.• 2Which part of the story involves scientists:• a making predictions• b planning experiments• c making observations• ddrawing conclusions and thinking of theories?• 3Which scientist first made the observations of the moving pollen grains? • 1The scientists did not use water as a solvent when they carried out• 4Who successfully explained the observations? their tests. Why not?• 5How many years were there between the observations and the • 2Which manufacturer (or manufacturers) used one pure colour in their conclusion? red paint?• 6What was Robert Brown’s first explanation for the movement of the • 3Which manufacturer (or manufacturers) used a mixture of only two pollen grains? colours?• 7Suggest something that was non-living and in very small grains that • 4Which manufacturer (or manufacturers) used a mixture of three Brown might have used to check his ideas. colours?• 8Scientists knew that bacteria could be found in water. How could you • 5Which manufacturer uses the same paint as the paint from the plan an experiment to show whether bacteria were responsible for gatepost? moving the pollen grains around? • The chromatography test does not prove that the getaway vehicle was made by the manufacturer in your answer to question 5. Post Office vans are red, so the marks could have been made when a parcel was delivered. • 6How could you show that the paint did not come from a Post Office
  14. 14. Living Things• 1Smallest uni of life: the Cell (bacterias, plant, and animal).• Live beings are made of Inorganic (salt, water, etc) and Organic Substances (contain carbon, not common in rocks; fats, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates). Biodiversity: different kinds of live beings.• 2Complex live beings are made of cells with the same function grouped in tissues (eg muscle), in organs (eg stomach), in systems (eg digestive), and into an organism.• A species is a kind of live being. Different species normally can’t mix to make a new fertile (mules are sterile!) hybrid species. Dimorphism: when the male looks different than the female.• 3Live beings do MRS GREN: o Move. o Reproduce: asexual (1parent makes an exact copy) or sexual (2parents eg sperm gamete +ovule gamete join to make a new individual o Sensitive: detect and react (in animals a Response, in plants a Tropism) o Grow (in size and number of cells) o Respire: chemical reaction done in the mitochondrions that burns food stored in the vacuoles to make energy. o Excrete: get rid of waste from INSIDE the body (eg urine, sweat). o Nutrition: autotrophs take energy from the sun, heterotrophs from external food.• 4Biodiversity (the different kinds of living beings) is slowly made by nature as new species appear. Destroying habitats make species disappear. Scientists classify biodiversity into 5 kingdoms: o Monera (bacterias): cells without a nucelus. o Fungi (yeast, mushrooms): eucariotic (cells with a nucleus) with a cell wall of Chitin. o Plant: eucariotic pluricellular that do photosynthesis o Animal: eucariotic pluricellular that don’t do photosynthesis o Protoctist: eucariotic unicellular without chitin (=the rest!).• 5Observing live beings: microscopic with a microscope, whole forests with “samples” (describing pieces of it). Dichotomous Classification: separating two at a time. Binomial system: scientific names have 2 parts.
  15. 15. MRS GREN
  16. 16. Exercises 1. What is a cell? • Order in complexity: brain, squirrel, neuron, nerve tissue, nervous Projects, tasks & Experiments system. 1. Investigate what is the size of a virus. Are they • The jungle has more sunlight than the North Pole. Which has more alive? biodiversity? Why? Does a city have more or less than the jungle? • Use a microscope (algae, moss, cheek, blood, Why? onion). • When a sperm joins an ovule, is it asexual or sexual reproduction? • Make a dichotomous classification for pencilcase Why? contents, then exchange and test with partner. • Explain the difference between a rock and an organic substance. • Using the following words say the differences between animal, plant and bacteria cells: chloroplast, wall, big vacuole, size, mitochondrion, nucleus. • Draw and label an animal cell. • Describe the characteristic that each cell needs for it’s function: sperm, neuron, root hair, red blood cell, muscle. • A zebroid is a hybrid of horse and zebra. Is it fertile? Why? • How do we call the fact that lions have a mane and lionesses don’t? • Imagine you build Frankenstein. What characteristics must it have to be alive? • Make a dichotomous classification for the bacteri, animal and plant cell. • Make a dichotomous classification key for the 5 kingdoms. • Where does the slide go in a microscope? What is the coverslip for? • Where do we look when using a microscope? What do we have to change to make the image bigger? • What is a sample? • What is the main difference between a plant and a fungi? And what are the similarities? TRANSVERSAL: the incredible biodiversity (2mill sps described; 6mill estimated!), making cells or even organisms “a la charte” in the future, sex: a necessary instinct for gene survival, dimorphic specialisation (strength vs babies; nowadays “civilized” life smoothens differences), asexual reproduction in humans (clones; lack of recombination of characteristics), chemistry as limitant of hybrid formation, electron microscopes (even atoms), difference resolution – magnification, “carnivorous” plants, Levels of organistaion include biosphere?(“alive”?), a robot could ever be alive?, what is “you” the conscious if you are made of individual cells?
  17. 17. Glossary U41. cell 1. eucariotic– inorganic • procariotic– fat • unicellular– protein • chitin– DNA • microscope– carbohydrate • dichotomous– biodiversity • sample– tissue • objective lens– organ • focusing wheel– system • diaphragm– dimorphism • membrane– hybrid • cytoplasm– asexual • mitochondria– sensitive • chloroplast– tropism • vacuole– autotroph • cell wall– excretion • neuron– kingdom • root hair cell– monera • palisade cell– fungi • sperm cell
  18. 18. Extra Resources1Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Use the words in thebox. Each word can be used more than once. • Make a drawing of a microscope. Now use the bold black wordsadapted move muscle tissue from the text underneath to label the parts of the microscope.aSome cells have special jobs to do. They often have special shapesto help them do their job. We say that these cells are_________________ to do their jobs.bA group of the same type of cells, all working together, is called a_________________ .cA group of muscle cells all grouped together is called_________________ . Muscle cells help us to _________________ .2Here is a drawing of a nerve cell.aWrite in the words cell surface membrane, cytoplasm and nucleuson the correct lines.bHow is its shape adapted to carry messages around the body?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3Here is a drawing of a ciliated epithelial cell.How is it adapted to remove dirt from people’s lungs?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  19. 19. • Photosynthesis: CO2+H2O > Kingdoms I glucose • Respiration: glucose >• 1Semi-living beings: Viruses do not do respiration, move, grow, CO2+H2O sense, excrete or nutrition, so scientists don’t classify them as “alive”. They are microscopic organic robots that use cells to reproduce. Many illnesses are caused by viruses (eg flu, AIDS). o Vaccines: false microorganisms that the bpdy uses to practice fighting. o Antiviral: substance that stops virus reproducing o Antibiotic: substance that kills bacterias (NOT virus!) o Disinfectant: washing substance that destroys microorganisms o Antiseptic: washing substance that stops microorganisms reproducing• 2Monera (bacteria): unicelular cells without a nucleus, with a cell wall. They are very varied: autotroph, heterotroph parasite(+,-), symbiont(+,+), saprophyte(+,0). They ONLY do asexual reproduction.• 3Fungi: they do NOT do photosynthesis. o The cells are eucariotic, have a cell wall of chitin, and are parasites (+,0) or saprophytes (eat dead tissues; +,0). o They grow in Hyphae (filaments) and reproduce by spores (special cells). o They are unicellular (Yeasts & Moulds) or pluricellular (Mushrooms).• 4Plant: pluricellular, eucariotic, have a cell wall of Cellulose, and have Chloroplasts to do photosynthesis (chemical reaction that uses sunlight to make food to store). They live fixed to the ground, They are: o Mosses: they have no vessels to carry water/food. o Ferns: have vessels but no flowers. Big leaves, short stems. o Gymnosperms: they have flowers but produce pine cones (not real fruits). Eg Pine tree. o Angiosperms: they produce real fruits (cover+seed). Eg roses, oak trees, green algae…• 5Protoctists: this kingdom is where live beings that do not fit any other kingdom go. Unicellular and eucariotic, they are very varied (cell walls, hetero/autotroph, mobile/not, etc). Eg red algae, diatoms…
  20. 20. Exercises 1. What are the differences between antibiotic and vaccine? • What kind of substance would you use to clean a doctor’s knife and kill Projects, tasks & Experiments microbes? And to stop them from reproducing? 1. Investigate the following illneses: AIDS, • In what kingdoms can we find heterotroph organisms? And autotroph? pneumonia, cholera, athelete’s foot. Find out what • Make a dichotomous classification key for plants. kind of organism causes it, how it is transmitted, • What is the difference between gymnosperm and angiosperm? and the symptoms. • Find four plants in your home, and classify them. Explain the reasons. • Microscope: yeast, paramecium, algae, pre-pared • Draw a plant and label: root, stem, leaf, flower. bacterium, plant parts. • Find four plants in your home, and draw the outline of their leaves. • Dissection of a flower. • What parts of the flowervare male and what parts are female? • Let bread go mouldy. Observe the fungus in the • Make a diagram to show how insect pollination happens. magnifying glass. • The plant makes food in the leaves. Food is used in the stem and roots. • Investigate how bread and cheese are made. Make a drawing of a plant and put an arrow showing the direction of • Investigate the flora of your local area. food. • What gases go in and out of leaves when they do photosynthesis? And when they do respiration? • Make a table with four rows: plant, fungi, monera and protoctist. Put columns: cell, cell wall, auto/heterotroph, uni/pluricellular. Complete. TRANSVERSAL: The origin of oxygen on Earth • What are hyphae? What organism has them? (Photosynthesis), the origin of chloroplasts & mitochondria, • Explain the difference between saprophyte and simbiont. artificial “cells” (organic bags), saline channels as “nervous” • Draw a bacteria and label: cell wall, cytoplasm, cell membrane. system in plants for movements, the biggest n smallest flowers, timestanding of seeds, illnesses (ebola, pandemias, how little • If a cell has a cell wall of chitin and is autotroph, what is it’s kingdom? we can do, resistances to antibiotics), the camouflage of VIH • What do red algae have in common with plant algae? And differences? outside cells, the perfect symbiont: lichens, the weird & strange • Which vital functions do virus not have? (MRS GREN) moneras (citopharynx, citostomach, citoocellus…), killer • Can antibiotics cure flu (a cold)? Why? moulds (worm-trapping rings in plants).
  21. 21. Glossary U51. virus 1. angiosperm– illness • stem– vaccine • fruit– antiviral • pine cone– antibiotic • cover– disinfectant • seed– antispetic • to fit– parasite • varied– symbiotic • mobile– saprophyte • algae– hyphae • pollen tube– spore • filament– yeast • petal– mould • style– mushroom • stigma– cellulose • ovary– photosynthesis • sepal– moss • pedicel– fern • anther– gymnosperm • cross pollination
  22. 22. Extra ResourcesPlant fertilisationName _____________________________ Class ____________ Little parasites1 The drawing below shows a pollen tube starting to grow. Some organisms live in very special habitats, they live in or on other organisms. They are called parasites. The organisms that parasites live in or on are called hosts. There are many parasites of humans. Headlice are insects that attach themselves to hair and feed on blood from the head. Many humans have worms, such as tapeworms, living in their intestines. This is common in developing countries. The tapeworm can absorb digested food through its skin. People can get infected with tapeworms by eating uncooked pork. The larvae of the worm live in the muscles of pigs. If these larvae are eaten, they get into the human intestine and grow into adults. The eggs of the adults leave the human’s body in the faeces. If pigs are allowed into areas where there is human waste containing the eggs, the eggs may well be eaten by the pigs and the cycle starts again.a Complete the drawing to show where the pollen tube will end up.bLabel the parts of the diagram. Use the words in the box. Not all human parasites are animals. Bacteria are microscopic organisms that can cause disease. Tuberculosis, a disease of the lungs, is caused by bacteria.egg cell ovary ovule pollen grain pollen tube stigma style Viruses are even smaller than bacteria. Colds and flu are caused by viruses. Athlete’s foot is caused by a fungus which grows and feeds on the skin2Fill in the missing words in the following sentences. between your toes.Use the words in the box. Each word may be used more than once. 1Explain what a parasite is and what it uses its host for.egg embryo fertilisation nucleus ovule pollen seed stigma style tube 2Name one disease that is caused by a virus. 3Fungi need damp places in which to grow. How might athlete’s foot beWhen a _______________ grain lands on a _______________ , a pollen prevented?_______________ starts to grow. This grows down the _______________ 4Suggest why many religions might class pork as an ‘unclean’ meat.and into the ovary. It then grows towards an _______________. Here it finds 5Explain these adaptations of adult tapeworms:an _______________ cell. The nucleus from the pollen _______________ aflattened bodies with a large surface areathen joins with the _______________ in the _______________ cell. This is ba head with many hooks and suckers.called _______________. An _______________ now grows inside the 6Draw a diagram showing the life cycle of a tapeworm.ovule. 7Why do you think tapeworms infect many more people in developing countriesThe ovule turns into a _______________. than in the UK? 8aWhat is the microhabitat of a tapeworm larvae? bDescribe the environment of an adult tapeworm.
  23. 23. Kingdoms II• 1Animal kingdom: eucariotic pluricellular, heterotrophic cells, mobile. o Invertebrates: without a backbone (vertebrates).  Sponges, jellyfish: radial symmetry (round an axis).  Starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber: radial, ambulacral feet, plaques.  Worms (soft, bilateral symmetry), molluscs & snails (shell & sticky skin),  Arthropods (with exoskeleton of chitin, oviparous, metamorphosis by moulting):  Insects (6legs) eg flies, ants  Arachnids (8legs) eg scorpions  Crustaceans (10legs) eg crabs  Myriapods (many legs) eg scolopendra o 2Vertebrates: with a backbone (inner skeleton).  Fish: wet scales, oviparous (eggs), fins, gills to breathe, poikilotherm (cold blooded)  Amphibians: wet skin, no scales, lungs & skin breathing, jelly eggs, metamorphosis, poikilotherm.  Reptiles: dry scales, poikilotherm, with lungs, soft dry eggs  Birds: feathers, homeotherm (constant blood temperature) hollow bones, beak  Mammals: hair, mammary glands, teeth, viviparous (no eggs), homeotherm. 4• 3Taking samples: o Pooter (for insects) o Quadrat (for counting plants) o Tullgren funnel (for earth insects) o Butterfly net & pond net (for flying & acuatic insects)
  24. 24. Exercises 1. Make a dichotomous classification key for vertebrates. • Which animals are oviparous? Projects, tasks & Experiments • The platypus is acuatic, has a mouth in the shape of a beak, and has 1. Investigate: what insects can be eaten in an hair and mammary glands. What kind of vertebrate is it? Indonesian restaurant? • What characteristic can you use to differentiate an arthropod from • Card game of animals another? • Impermeable for water tension acuatic spiders: • What apparatus can you use for taking samples? model with/without wax on feet. • What does “bilateral symmetry” mean? • Find out what crustaceans you can buy in your • Molluscs have a shell. Where is the shell of a squid (Calamar)? local fish shop. • Which kinds of animals can do metamorphosis? • Microscope: scales of fish vs reptile/bird. Feathers. • Draw a penguin. Now make a line dividing it into the two equal sides. Test if they are impermeable. Do the same with a starfish. What kind of symmetry do each have? • Dissection of fish. Dissection of mussel. Dissection • What kind of animal is a whale? What characteristics must it have? of egg/bird. • What characteristics help a bird to fly? • Investigate the fauna of your local area. • When we eat we use forks, knifes, spoons… Birds use beaks. Make • Observe, describe (color, shape, limbs/feet, head) three drawings of different beaks (eagle, duck, stark) and explain what and classify the lab zoo. they use them for. • What is the shell of a tortoise for? Do you think it’s made of chitin or of bone? • Make a list of the poikilotherm vertebrates. • Why do whales have to go to the surface regularly? What vertebrates dont need to do this? Why? • Make a table: Rows= mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish; Columns= blood temperature, breathing system, reproduction, skin. TRANSVERSAL: semivertebrates (lamprea, etc), imperfect bilateral symmetry (eg stomach, heart), fossil miracles (dinosaurs, megasharks, armour-plated fish, origin of birds…), the weird cambric fauna explosion, why insects can’t be big (O2 diffusion, circulatory is slow, & L=m vs V=m3=weight so muscle-exoskeleton need strength-resistance/thickness to the 3), prehistoric & NewZealand megainsects ~1m(+O2, less speed competition, some in water), coldblood adv(save energy by deactivation; freezable frogs) vs disadv(deact till warm), our body makes the way we think (10fingers we count every 10, vocal chords we use sound language, sexual reproduction so we have love, etc)
  25. 25. Glossary U61. invertebrate 1. arachnid– backbone • crustacean– sponge • myriapod– jellyfish • scales– starfish • gills– sea urchin • poikilotherm– sea cucumber • amphibian– ambulacral feet • pooter– plaques • quadrat– symmetry • tullgren funnel– bilateral • butterfly net– worm • fin– mollusc • opercle– snail • crest– shell • crown– exoskeleton • tail– oviparous • beak– metamorphosis • jelly– moulting • viviparous– arthropod • skin breathing
  26. 26. Fill in the crossword using the clues below. Extra ResourcesAcross2 The body of a fish is covered in these.4 Mammals feed their young on this.7 An animal with a backbone10 Fish breathe using these. Make a table to11 All animals are in a group called the animal ________. record some of the features of theDown animals that you1 These animals move using fins. observe. Include the2 The backbone is part of this. following columns:3 A frog is one.5 These animals have hair • Name of animal6 A lizard is one. • What is the8 Many animals lay these. outer9 An animal with feathers. covering of its body like? (e.g. feathers) 1Write the word ‘True’ or the word ‘False’ • Does it have next to each of these sentences. any markings aBlackbirds feed their young on milk on its body? bAll fish live in water (e.g. stripes) cFrogs have moist skin • How many dHumans are reptiles legs does it eParrots lay eggs have? fFish can breathe under water using gills • Is its body gLizards have dry scales on their skin divided into hToads lay eggs with hard shells segments? iDogs have hair • Does it have jFish have backbones antennae? • Anything else you notice?
  27. 27. Atmosphere and• hydrosphere (N2, O2, CO2, H2O, etc). Oxygen has been 1Atmosphere: gases created by plants. o Layers:  Troposphere: clouds, pollution, It gets colder with altitude (to -70ºC)  Stratosphere: strong winds, contains a layer of ozone (O3, protects from UV radiation), it gets a bit hotter with altitude (to 0ºC).  Mesosphere: contains ice & dust, constant temperature  Ionosphere: gets hotter (to 1000ºC). Layers of pure gases. o 2Weather conditions: humidity, clouds (stratus=low, cumulus=middle, cirrus=high), precipitation (rain, snow, hail), temperature, wind, pressure (in mbar). Other factors: latitude (N/S), altitude, distance to sea (closer to the sea, temperature is less extreme), ocean currents (tropical currents warm the area).  Cyclon: area of LOW pressure, warm air goes up, producing rain as it cools. In the North hemisphere surface winds rotate anticlockwise.  Anticyclon: + pressure, dry, cold air descends, surface wind clockwise. o 3Metereology: studies the weather. Instruments: thermometer, barometer, pluviometer, hygrometer, anemometer, wind vane. Problems in the atmosphere:  Greenhouse effect: CO2 traps the infrared (heat) produced when sunlight bounces on Earth’s surface.  Hole in the ozone layer: CFC and other pollutants destroy ozone (O3), so UV radiation (cancerigenous) can pass.  Acid rain: acid from car smoke comes down with rain. It corrodes slowly fixed things (plants, buildings…)  Smog: irritant pollutants float on the surface hurting people’s lungs.• 4Hydrosphere: most is sea water. Most fresh water is frozen and underground. Water is a thermorregulator (keeps heat), a universal solvent, has cohesion (sticks together) and adhesion (is attracted to other substances). o Movements: oceanic (waves by the wind, currents by temperature&salts, tides by the moon); continental (rivers, swamps, glaciers, lakes).
  28. 28. Exercises 1. Why is it important that the atmosphere contains oxygen? Pure oxygen is toxic. Why is the atmosphere not toxic? Is CO2 important for life? Projects, tasks & Experiments • Why does the atmosphere create pressure? Why does the atmosphere 1. Investigate what is ozone and why it can be good not float away from Earth? Is the pressure at the top of a mountain the and bad. same as at sea level? Why? • Investigate and show in a table the differences • Make a list of weather conditions. Now list the factors that affect between the atmosphere of primitive Earth, climate. nowadays Earth, and of Venus. • What are the factors that affect climate like in your local area? • Collect the weather maps of a newspaper for a • When clouds are high they get cold and very often it rains. What week. Where there is rain put a cyclon, where it’s climate will you probably have if you see a cirrus? And a stratus? dry an anticyclon, and separate them with • What instruments were used for this report: Windspeed of 95km/h, concentric circles. Describe the weather at your 200L/m2 of rain, and a 2% humidity. home that day. • What is measured by an anemometer, a weather vane, and a • Measuring weather: make an anemometer-weather thermometer? vane, try it out. (cups, plastic dish, pencil). • When the pressure of air is low, what phenomenon happens? In what • Exp: condensation after 5min at 20, 40, 60, 80Cº; direction does air go? Is it dry or rainy weather? measure by counting drops (big=2small). Control • Explain the difference between rain, snow and hail. T! • What pollutants do we find in the atmosphere? • Imagine you are the energy of a ray of sun coming to Earth with the greenhouse effect. Explain your journey when you are trapped in Earth. • How can we avoid making the ozone hole bigger? Why is this hole bad? • Acid rain corrodes plants and buildings but not animals. Why? • In what layer of the atmosphere can we find the smoke that forms smog? • Why do climbers carry oxygen tanks when they climb the Everest? • Name the 4 main gases of the atmosphere and why each is important. • Draw a greenhouse. Show how heat is kept inside. TRANSVERSAL: the climatic change (proofs that it is • Represent in a pie chart: 97% sea water, 2% ice, 1% liquid fresh water. happening? Long term effects?), who wants to(the principle of • What is the difference between adhesion and cohesion? cooperative progress vs egoistic anarchy)/can afford to(3rd world necessities) earn less and be more ecological, the • Where is there more oxygen dissolved: in surface or in deep waters? importance of NGOs & voter’s pressure, buying an ecological Why? pose (publicity, “green certificates”), the weather forecast • Salt dissolves better in hot water. Which part of the world will be exactitude limits (butterfly effect), controlling the climate in the saltier? future & today (Mg2+ rain-prompting, altering vegetation cover, • When you breath your hot air onto a window, condensation appears. urban heat), understanding tornados (space, miniballoons, tornadohunters), smog & health, the drinkable-water-based Why? wars, the energy market highways (France, Russia, OPEP) • Where does sea’s salt come from? Why do we wet the floor if we are hot? • List water movements. Now use them to label a drawing of the water
  29. 29. Glossary U71. atmosphere 1. anemometer– layer • wind vane– troposphere • greenhouse effect– stratosphere • infrared light– mesosphere • to bounce– ionosphere • CFC gases– altitude • pollutant– ozone • UV radiation– dust • cancerigenous– hail • fertiliser– precipitation • swamp– latitude • salty water– ocean current • fresh water– cyclon • cohesion– anticyclon • adhesion– hemisphere • tide– anticlockwise • runoff– barometer • infiltration– pluviometer • oil slick– hygrometer • sewage
  30. 30. Extra ResourcesThe Dead SeaRainwater is not salty. Rain is formed when water evaporates from seas,rivers and lakes, and then condenses again. When the water flows through Global warming 1cracks in rocks it dissolves some chemicals from the rocks. These salts 1Complete the following sentences, using words from the box.get carried to the sea – this is why sea water is salty.The Dead Sea is not really a sea at all. It is a lake on the borders of Israel Mean world _____________ have increased by about ______and Jordan. Water flows into the lake from the River Jordan and the _____ in the last 100 years and scientists have predicted asurrounding land. The lake is lower than the Mediterranean Sea, which is _____________ rise of between 2 and 5 °C during the nextthe nearest sea, and there is no river taking water from the Dead Sea into century. This rise in temperature has been called _____________the Mediterranean Sea. The weather is very hot, with summer _____________ and if it happens it would have a great affect on alltemperatures often greater than 40 ºC. A lot of water evaporates from thelake, leaving the salt behind. The Dead Sea is seven times saltier than _____________ on Earth.normal sea water.The Dead Sea got its name because people thought that nothing could live life 0.6 °C greater global warming temperaturesin such salty water. However, there are a few species of micro-organismsthat can live in these conditions. A mean temperature for the period 1961–1990 has been1Where does the water come from that falls as rain? calculated. This is shown by 0 on the graph. The line on the graph2Why isn’t rainwater salty? shows how each year’s mean temperature compares with the 30-3How does salt get into the water? year mean.4Lakes in the UK are not salty. Why do you think this is?5Why is the Dead Sea so salty? (Hint: There are two reasons.) 2Label the graph to indicate where the following statements apply:6The Dead Sea is an interesting place to go swimming. Find out what athe mean temperature this yearwould be different about swimming in the Dead Sea, and why this bmean temperatures start to rise.happens. (Hint: It would taste saltier, but that is not the answer needed 3What has been the general trendhere!) in mean world temperatures over the last 100 years? 4What does the graph predict will happen to mean temperatures over the next 100 years? 5Using only the information on the graph, do you think that this prediction is correct?
  31. 31. Geospher• e 1Minerals: natural, inorganic, solid, reasonably pure substance (small amount of impurities). With a chemical formula, so properties are constant; eg pyrite=FeS. Often make crystals (regular shapes). Mineraloids: substances that are NEARLY a mineral (eg Hg). o Elements (metals, S…), Carbonates (with C). o Silicates: O + Si (silicon, NOT silicona). Eg quartz. Most common. o Halides (with Cl/F), Sulphides (with S), oxides (with O)• 2Mineral Properties: Colour, shape, colour of streak on porcelain, lustre (metallic shine, glassy shine, waxy, dull), cleavage (breaks into sheets, cubes, etc), hardness (Moh’s scale measures from soft to hard 1 to 10).• Rocks: natural mixtures of minerals. Classifications:• 3The rock cycle: rocks are created, transformed and destroyed. A stratum of rocks is a layer. o Igneous: formed by cooled magma from inside the Earth. They are “weathered”: broken, dissolved or used by live beings. Eg Basalt, granite.  Plutonic/Intrusive: cooled slowly underground. Big crystals  Volcanic/extrusive: cooled quickly overground. Small crystals o Sedimentary: formed by sedimen ts (rock pieces) accumulated, compacted and cemented with salts. Weathering= breaking rocks. Erosion=transproting rocks.  Organic: from live beings (coal, oil)  Chemical: crystals formed in oceans (limestone, rock salt)  Detritical: pieces of other rocks stuck together (clay, sandstone, conglomerate) o 4Metamorphic: formed by rocks transformed with pressure (underground) & heat (close to magma).  Foliated: in sheets (eg Slate)  Non-foliated (eg Marble).• Fossils: dead bodies leave a skeleton. Stone hardens round it, then the bone dissolves leaving a hole, then salts fill the hole and harden into a new stone in the shape of the fossil!
  32. 32. Exercises 1. Explain which are minerals and which are not: petrol, wood, gold, water, sand, quartz, granite, silica. Projects, tasks & Experiments • Classify minerals depending on if they contain or not oxygen. 1. Primary Project: of the mineral/rock you had, find • What number of Moh does the softest mineral have? And the hardest? out information: classification (see theory), • Alabaster is hardness 2-3. Is ot hard or soft? description, uses, where in the world it is extracted. • Your fingernail can’t scratch quartz. Can quartz scratch your fingernail? • Describe properties of minerals (hardness with • Say which are rocks & why: sand, cement, marble, quartz, petrol, fingernail-copper coin-steel nail-glass; shine, honey. colour..) • Crystals grow slowly. What kind of igneous rock will have bigger • Quartz is transparent, but impurities give it a crystals? colour. Investigate what colour are each kind of • Make three pictures showing the three steps necessary to make quartz: smoky quartz, agate, milky quartz, sediments into a sedimentary rock. amethyst, jasper, citrine, creolite, rose quartz, rock • Explain why slate is a foliated rock. crystal. • Make a comic strip showing the formation of a fossil. • Investigate what minerals are used to make: • Can you extract DNA from a fossil? Why? cement, glass, tabel salt, plaster, toothpaste. • Diamonds are made 100% of carbon. What kind of mineral is it? • Describe rocks, classify them Then make a • Write the definition of the three main kinds of rock. dichotomous classification. • What is the difference between rock and mineral? • Investigate how stalactites and stalagmites are • What is the difference between erosion and weathering? Which formed happens when a stone is carried down a river? Could the other also • Investigate what stone represents your horoscope, happen? it’s properties and also copy your horoscope for • Make a drawing of a cliff made of stratum of different colours. this year. • Lava is magma on the surface of the earth. What kind of igneous rock • Investigate the uses of oil. can lava produce? • Observe crystals of salt/sand in the microscope, • Can igneous rocks contain fossils? Why? draw. • Make a drawing of a sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rock • Collect 5rocks and describe, drae and classify showing the particles/crystals it is made of. them. • Draw the rock cycle. Label with an example of each stage. • Exp: weathering of marble with acid, erosion & • Compare the origin of metamorphic and of igneous rocks. sedimentation (decanting) with pebbles & sand. • • Artificial diamonds can be made. Diamond is metamorphic. How do we TRANSVERSAL: the impossible slowness hot, check day after Grow crystals on a clip in salty & homogeneous pressure for artificial diamonds, rare metals means high- make them? priced(demand), mountain levelling means prehistoric villages are covered by new cities, will we ever be someone’s fossil?, we are made with matter from old stars, 100m-crystals found in Australia, the weathering force of constant drops of water (the “drop” torture), fluorescent and phosphorescent minerals,
  33. 33. Glossary U81. mineral 1. underground– impurity • foliated– crystal • magma– mineraloid • lava– silicate • fossil– halide • to dissolve– streak • Moh’s scale– lustre • steel– waxy • coin– cleavage • fingernail– hardness • to cool– stratum • to weather– igneous • to erode– sedimentary • to melt– metamorphic • the rock cycle– detritical • soft– plutonic • quartz– extrusive • talc– to compact • basalt– to cement • granite
  34. 34. Extra Resources Diamonds are forever The rock cycle 1 Diamond is a particularly hard form of one Match the pairs, and copy them complete and in the correct element, carbon. Diamond is made of the same order to describe the rock cycle. Stick them into your book. element as soot and graphite. Diamonds are very rare and are only found in a few places in Small fragments of rock get transported away … If the rock is heated enough,world. They are the hardest mineral known. the it melts … They are also very beautiful when they have … are deposited at the bottom of the river. The layers of sediment gradually get squashed … – the surfaces reflect been cut and polished light, forming rainbow spectrum effects. They … through cracks and volcanoes. … igneous rocks.formed when pure carbon crystallises deep are within the Earth, where pressures are extreme … metamorphic rock. … squashed under the surface temperatures are very high. Recently, a and of the Earth. … and are changed into metamorphic rock. Some magma rises to the surface of the Earth designed which enables process has been … chemists to make ‘industrial’ diamonds – When the river slows down, the bits of rock … Over many years, these diamonds formed from pure carbon in the bits of rock … laboratory. These have the same properties as Some igneous rocks get buried and squashed … Rocks get weathered by chemical … but are much cheaper. These natural diamonds industrial diamonds can be used for any job … and eventually form sedimentary rock. Some sedimentary rocks get heated andmaterial that is very hard and which needs a … that will last for a long time. One example is as When the magma cools, it forms … … and forms magma. the cutting surface on a drilling machine. The drilling machine that cut the Channel Tunnel … build up to form layers. … and physical weathering. used diamond drill bits. This changes the rock into … … from rock faces by rain, streams and rivers. 1What element are diamonds made from?1Write the answers to these clues in the grid. a 2How are diamonds formed in the Earth?aAn igneous rock with large crystals. 3If diamonds are only made of the elementbLiquid rock. b carbon, are they a rock or a mineral?cThe layer of hot rock under the crust of the Earth. 4Diamonds have very special properties. List as cdIf a rock gets hot enough it will _______________ . many properties of diamonds as you can.eThis is where magma escapes through the crust of the d 5Why do you think chemists needed to makeEarth. ‘industrial diamonds’?fThe solid part of the Earth, on which we live. egAn igneous rock with small crystals.hSize of crystals made by slow cooling. fiLava on the surface of the Earth _______________ gdown quickly.jThese are different sizes of these in different igneous hrocks. i2Write out the letters in the shaded boxes, and add thelast missing letter. j3Now write a clue for the last shaded word.
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