Pronoun ar ending er/ir ending Yo aba ía Tú abas ías Él/Ella/Usted aba ía Nosotros abamos íamos Vosotros abais íais Ellos/Ellas/ aban ían UstedesUses: ongoing action (was/were) repeated action no definite beginning or end time/date/age/feelings/descriptionsInterrupted activity (cuando)
Preterite is a perfected action in the past. It is a “snapshot”. Ar Verbs Er/Ir Verbs Pronoun Ending Pronoun Ending Yo -é Yo -í Tú -aste Tú -iste Él/Ella/Usted -ó Él/Ella/Usted -ió Nosotros -amos Nosotros -imos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes -aron Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes -ieron
-car, -gar, -zar Yo New Conjugation -car Yo -qué -gar Yo -gué -zar Yo -cé
Conjugate and pair modal verbs with an infinitive to get a new meaning Ir + a + infinitive (going to do something) Poder + infinitive (are able to do something) Querer + infinitive (want to do something) Deber + infinitive (should do something) Tener + que + infinitive (to have to do something) Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to) Necisitar + infinitive (to need to so something)
Most Spanish adverbs mimic the following model Feminine form of an adjectiv e + -mente Claro Clara + -mente = Claramente Those that cannot be put in the feminine form usually just add –mente Difícil + -mente = Difícilmente When two or more adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one uses the -mente ending. Juan trabaja lenta y cuidadosamente.
Mucho a lot Muy very Mal bad Bastante quite/enough Nunca never Peor worse Bien good/well Ya already Tan so Demasiado too Poco little Siempre always
The present progressive is formed by combining the verb "to be" with the present participle. (The present participle is merely the "-ing" form of a verb.) Conjugated Estar + (infinitive – ar + ando or iendo) Estoy hablando. I am talking.
It’s a lot like present preogressive, only you use the imperfect form of estar. Estaba caminando. I was walking.
caber (to fit) cabr- decir (to say) dir- +é hacer (to do, make) har- ás poder (to be able to) podr- poner (to put, get/make1) pondr- á querer (to want) querr- emos saber (to know) sabr- án salir (to leave, go out) saldr- tener (to have, have to) tendr- valer (to be worth) valdr- venir (to come) vendr- haber (to have -en/-ed) habr-
Conditional is used to express probability or possibility, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably. Infinitive + ía ías ía íamos íais ían El alumno dijo que estudiaría una hora más. The student said that he would study one more hour. ¿Qué hora sería? What time could it have been? Estaría en su casa. He must have been at home. Estaríamos ocupados cuando llamaste. We were probably busy when you called.
article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de María es la chica más delgada de la clase. Mary is the thinnest girl in the class. María es la más delgada de la clase. Mary is the thinnest in the class.
Positive and negative Usted commands follow the same model. Start by putting the verb in the “yo” form. Then change to the opposite vowel. If it is negative, add “No” in front of it. Eat Comer Como Coma. Don’t eat Comer Como No coma.
Izquierda- left Derecha- right Delante -in front of Detrás- behind Cerca y lejos- near and far Abajo- down Arriba- up Enfrente- across from Encima- on top of
Masculine/ Aquí Allí AlláFeminine THIS THAT THAT OVER THERE M Este Ese Aquel F Esta Esa Aquella THESE THOSE THOSE OVER THERE M Estos Esos Aquellos F Estas Esas Aquellas