BMP #2 Psychology, Development & Motivation: Maslows HierarchyNo part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in any retrieval system of any naturewithout the prior written permission of Life’s Too Good, except for permitted fair dealing under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act1988. Application for permission for other use of this material should be made to Life’s Too Good (viahttp://lifestoogood.net/contact-us/).
Executive Summary This page shows a snapshot of what this model is for and how it rates in terms of Efficiency (is it quick and easy to implement?), Effectiveness (does it get the desired results?) and Difficulty (how easy the model is to understand?) Subject Area: Psychology, Development & Motivation Efficiency: Effectiveness: Difficulty: Abstract: A simple and elegant model for understanding many aspects of human motivation, applicable to many areas of life, and certainly to business. This model should be used conceptually rather than being seen as a practical tool (as there are exceptions).Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –2– 12/04/12
Contents This slide pack contains a high level overview of Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development Model along with brief notes on application and observations 1 Introduction 2 Maslows Hierarchy 3 Meta-Motivation & Being-Needs 4 The 5 Levels of Needs 5 Application of the Model 6 Questions & ActionsLife’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –3– 12/04/12
Introduction • First proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 • Fully expressed in his book “Motivation and Personality” in 1954 • The Hierarchy of Needs concerns levels of human growth we move through • The most fundamental and basic 4 layers Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. • Apart from physiological (level 1) needs, if "deficiency needs" are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. • Maslows theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –4– 12/04/12
Maslows HierarchyLife’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –5– 12/04/12
Meta-Motivation & Being-Needs • Metamotivated people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs, level 5), instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs, levels 1-4). • The human mind and brain are complex and have parallel processes running at the same time, so many different motivations from different levels of Maslows pyramid usually occur at the same time. • Maslow was clear about speaking of these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as "relative" and "general" and "primarily", and says that the human organism is "dominated" by a certain need, rather than saying that the individual is "only" focused on a certain need at any given time. • Maslow acknowledges that many different levels of motivation are likely to be going on in a human all at once. • The hierarchy is intended to identify the basic types of motivations, and the order that they generally progress as lower needs are reasonably well met.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –6– 12/04/12
The 5 Levels: Level 1 - Physiological • These at the most basic level are requirements for human survival. • If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function. • Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. • Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –7– 12/04/12
The 5 Levels: Level 2 – Safety • With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individuals safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. • In the absence of physical safety – due to war, natural disaster, violence, abuse, etc. – people experience stress. • In the absence of economic safety – due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities – people look for job security, grievance procedures, savings accounts, insurance policies... • Safety and Security needs include: Personal security, Financial security, Health and well-being, Safety net against accidents/illnessLife’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –8– 12/04/12
The 5 Levels: Level 3 – Love/Belonging • After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are interpersonal and involve feelings of belongingness. • The need is especially strong in childhood and can over-ride the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. • Deficiencies can impact individuals ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general. • Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group or small social connections. • They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. • In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. • This need can overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the circumstances; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. –9– 12/04/12
The 5 Levels: Level 4 - Esteem • Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. • People need to gain recognition and have an activity that provides a sense of contribution, to feel self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. • Imbalances can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. • People with low self-esteem need respect from others. • They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. • Note: many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. • Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels. • Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. – 10 – 12/04/12
The 5 Levels: Level 4 – Esteem (continued) • Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. ● The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. ● The higher one is the need for self-respect, the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. • The latter one ranks higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness. • Maslow also states that even though these are examples of how the quest for knowledge is separate from basic needs he warns that these “two hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated”. • This means that this level of need, as well as the next and highest level, are not strict, separate levels but closely related to others.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. – 11 – 12/04/12
The 5 Levels: Level 5 - Self-Actualization • This level of need pertains to what a persons full potential is and realizing that potential. • Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. • This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization, but when applied to individuals the need is specific. • For example one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in another it may be expressed in painting, pictures, or inventions.Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. – 12 – 12/04/12
Application of The Model More ComplexProgress Needs More Basic NeedsLife’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. – 13 – 12/04/12
Application of the Model – Further Practical Tips • Case Studies: ● The Apple Store ● Facebook / Social Media ● The Media ● Marketing Experts • Some Practical Examples: ● You cant expect someone to want to take a new challenge outside their comfort zone (level 5) if they dont feel good about themselves (level 4). ● You cant motivate someone to achieve their sales target (level 4) when theyre having problems with their marriage (level 3). ● You cant expect someone to work as a team member (level 3) when theyre having their house re-possessed (level 2). ● You cant expect someone to turn up for work (level 2) if theyve got no clothes (level 1).Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. – 14 – 12/04/12
Questions & Actions • Are there situations youve been in where your basic needs (levels 1-3) have gotten in the way of your more complex needs (levels 4-5)? • Are there situations where you have had a particular problem which via this model you can actually see was rooted in a more fundamental problem (e.g. finding it difficult to concentrate at work because you were moving house, feeling de-motivated about something when actually you were really hungry...) • Do you agree with the model? • How can this knowledge (or this discussion) be of benefit to you?Life’s Too Good, 2012. All rights reserved. – 15 – 12/04/12
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