The forum, University of South Florida


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of Phi Sigma Iota
International Foreign Language Honor Society
Spring 2003 - Year 25. No.1
University of South Florida

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The forum, University of South Florida

  1. 1. TheForum of Phi Sigma Iota International Foreign Language Honor SocietySpring 2003 Year 25. No.1 The Forum, Spring 2003 • 1
  2. 2. The President’s Page By the time you read this, the U.S. may be at war with Iraq. Public debate on questions surrounding the possibility of war has increased dramatically in the last few weeks. Citizens in a free society are obliged to engage in such debates. It is all the more important that young people enrolled in our colleges and universities, ostensibly to learn to think and to analyze the myriad of information around them, should be so engaged. How great it would be if this current generation of young men and women could begin to reverse the trend into mindlessness that has tightened its grip on mainstream American culture over the past couple of decades. When you hear our leaders talk of preemptive strikes, the possible use of nuclear weapons, the moral imperatives for war, what goes Dr. C. Eugene Scruggs, 2002 through your mind? Do you accept the notion that there is such a thing as a just war? Can there be a just war which is begun preemptively? If a war can be considered “just”, what are the principles that make it just? Over the years, moralists and ethicists have laid out many such “principles.” Here are a few: • A just war can only be waged as a last resort. • All non-violent options must be exhausted before the use of force can be justified. • A just war can only be fought to redress wrongs suffered. • The violence used in a war must be proportional to the injury suffered. • A war can be just only if it is fought with a reasonable chance of success. Deaths and injuries incurred in a hopeless cause are not morally justifiable. • The ultimate goal of a just war is to re-establish peace. • The weapons used in war must discriminate between combatants and non-combatants (i.e., citizens). This list can be used to stimulate thought. Can you think of other principles? How can we make sure that our nation’s leaders fully consider the principles of just war while their rhetoric seems only to be concerned with national security? We need to make sure that we know and understand the meaning of “national security” and how this notion can be related and supported by “world security.” Heavy thoughts, but ones which must not be ignored while we prepare for jobs and monetary security! Front Cover: Conversation by Üzeyir Lokman ÇAYCI For an interview with the poet, architect, and artist: See a sample of his free verse on p. 21.2 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  3. 3. THE FORUM Spring, 2003FEATURES PHI SIGMA IOTALes dimensions du regard chez J.-J. Rousseau : National and Regional Officersde la passion au voyeurisme. PRESIDENT AND EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Dr. C. Eugene Scruggs By Lucia Flórido……….…. 6 World Language Education, CPR 107 University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620The Humor in Language: A Linguistics Lecture (813) 974-8286 By C. Eugene Scruggs….... 10 VICE-PRESIDENT Dr. Christine ProbesParody in the Género Chico by Patricia Bentivegna World Language Education, CPR 107 University of South Florida Book review by Christopher Webber..…. 14 Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974-2743 probes@phisigmaiota.orgThe Enduring Value of Literature The Forum EDITOR By Gaëtan Brulotte.……18 Dr. Lizz Caplan-Carbin Modern Foreign Languages, HU427 University of Tennessee-MartinWhat is Written in the Darkness by War Martin, Tennessee 38238 (731) 588-0193 By Üzeyir Lokman ÇAYCI.……21 IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT Dr. Marie-France Hilgar University of Nevada. Las VegasDEPARTMENTS Las Vegas. Nevada 89154The President’s Page 2 Regional Vice-PresidentsNational and Regional Officers 3 SOUTHWEST Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, New Mexico, Nevada Prof. Salvatore FedericoAddresses 4 Thunderbird American School of Grad. Management Glendale, AZ 80530Dues 5 (602) 978-7291 SOUTH CENTRAL Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, MissouriPSI Scholarships 16 Oklahoma. Texas Prof. Nancy AntrimScholarship Nomination Form 17 Sul Ross State University Alpine, TX 79832Scholarship Recipients 2003 19 (915) 837-8152 SOUTHEAST Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, SouthEditor’s Corner 20 Carolina, Puerto Rico, Tennessee, Virginia Prof. Thérese OConnellChapter News 22 Jacksonville University Jacksonville, Florida 32211Chapter Roster 25 (904) 744-3950Chapter Websites 30 NORTHWEST Alaska. Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming Prof. Claudine Fisher Portland State University Portland. Oregon 97207 (503) 725-3522 NORTH CENTRAL. Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin Prof. Levilson Reis Otterbein College Westerville, OH 43081 (614) 823-1112 NORTHEAST Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West VirginiaCopyright  2003 by The Forum of Phi Sigma Iota; the International Prof. Susan Rosenstreich Dowling CollegeForeign Language Honor Society (ISSN 0883-5640). Requests for Oakdale. NY 11769permission to reprint should be made in writing to the Editor. The Forum, Spring 2003 • 3
  4. 4. Contacts: Who to contact for what at Toll-free by Telephone Phi Sigma Iota (800) 673-5599 by Email Contact for: Establishment of New Chapters, Scholarship Nominations, Liaison with ACHS C. Eugene Scruggs, Ph.D. Phi Philotes was the personification of affection and friendship. She was a companion of Peitho University of South Florida, WLE-CPR 107 (Persuasion). Tampa, Florida, 33620 philos, philotes - friendship, used particularly to (813) 974-8286 FAX: (813) 974-6944 indicate family, friendship and ties with those of the same group, involving affection and usually implying explicit or implicit expectations of Contact for: reciprocity. Installation and Initiation Ceremonies and Philotes, Thou whose arms surround the world, Liaison with Chapter Advisors and Regional embracing all together, joined as one, Vice Presidents we contemplate Thee, who cannot be seen, Christine Probes, Ph.D. and feel Thee dwelling in our mortal limbs. University of South Florida, WLE-CPR 107 We call Thee Friend, for Harmonys Thy gift, Tampa, Florida, 33620 and Joy Thourt named, and Aphrodite too. (813) 974-2743 FAX: (813) 974-1718 When people gather, You arrive unseen; in lofty clouds You circle like a dove, and draw us close in bonds of common Love. Contact for: Hail, fair Goddess! Khaire! Membership, Payment of Dues, Orders for Empedocles. Greek philosopher of the fifth century BC. Certificates, Insignia, Stoles, and Cords, Biblioteca Arcana [Online] Available: Change of Address or Email, Rosters Amy Morrow University of South Florida, WLE-CPR 107 Sigma Spoude [pronounced SPOO-DAY] 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Earnestness and diligence Tampa, Florida, 33620 a.earnestness in accomplishing, promoting, or (813) 974-2746 striving for anything give all diligence, interest ones self most (800) 673-5599 earnestly It also means “haste” and “hurry” which explains its similarity to the word “speed.” Contact for: News and Literary Aspects of The Forum Submission of Articles, Photos, Graphics, Iota Idioma Articles, News Items and Advertising for Zeal for language and personal expression. Distinct The Forum and Website style, especially in music or art. A peculiar expression particular to an individual or group of Lizz Caplan-Carbin, Ph.D. people. University of Tennessee-Martin, HU 427 Martin, Tennessee, 38238 (731) 587-7423 (731) 588-0193 Phi Sigma Iota International Website http://phisigmaiota.org4 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  5. 5. The Privileges of Your Life Dues Reminder Membership Initiate fees are valid for the first three years of membership.If you are not yet a Life Member After that, members are expected to pay annual dues, in order to receiveand you prize your THE FORUM, and to be considered an active member. Your annual dues support Phi Sigma Iota in its endeavor to promote Language and Literaturemembership in PHI SIGMA scholarship.IOTA, why not inscribe yourname where it will stand as a Annual Dues for 2003/2004 ………………………………. $20memorial to you and to your Optional Payment for three years …. ………………….….. $55enduring loyalty to our Society?PHI SIGMA IOTA provides for Best Deal – Lifetime MembershipLife Membership at $130 This once-in-your-lifetime-payment covers all futurepayable in one sum. A Life National Dues, supports the Society and its aims, andMembership entitles you to: (1) Insures your active status and privileges for life.…….… $130Be exempted from all futurenational dues; (2) Receive for The Societys Insignia, Key or Pin (please specify)...…………. $15life The Forum and other officialpublications which promote The Societys T-shirt, circle size S M L XL …………… $20information and creative The Society’s Polo shirt, circle size S M L XL XXL……. $25writings in the field of foreignlanguages, literatures, and PSI Graduation Stole or Sash (please specify)…..….…….…… $50cultures; (3) Be eligible to PSI Graduation Tassels……………………………….……. .. $7participate in programsorganized or sponsored by the PSI Graduation Cords (set of 1 purple & 1 gold)……….… $15Society such as scholarships,grants, fellowships, trips PSI Window Decals (set of 3) …………………….……….. .. $5abroad, books, insurance, etc.; Lifetime subscription to The Forum (for non-members) .... $75(4) Have the satisfaction ofknowing that you are One-year subscription to The Forum (for non-members)… $5contributing to PHI SIGMA Contribution to PSI Scholarship Fund ……………………. $10IOTA, dedicated to fosteringforeign language studies and (Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent allowed by law)understanding among people. Total Contribution Make check payable to PSI International Please fill out form completely* Be a Life Subscriber Name __________________________________________PHI SIGMA IOTA offers non-members Life Subscription Name when initiated (if different from above)privileges. For $75 payable in onesum, you are entitled to: (1) ____________________________________________________Receive for life The Forum aswell as other publications that our Address ________________________ Phone ______________Society may release from time totime; (2) Participate in special City ______________________ State _______ Zip __________programs organized by the Society Email _______________________________________________such as trips abroad, insurance, etc,(3) The satisfaction of knowing Institution where elected ____________________ Year _____that your Life Subscription is usedmainly to support our Scholarship Return to: Amy MorrowPrograms to help students and Phi Sigma Iota / World Language Educationfaculty in their pursuit of University of South Florida, CPR 107excellence in the foreign language 4202 E. Fowler Ave.field. Tampa, Florida 33620-5550 *Applications, order forms, and color photos of merchandise also available at http:// The Forum, Spring 2003 • 5
  6. 6. Les dimensions du regard chez J.-J. Rousseau : de la passion au voyeurisme. Lucia Flórido, Ph.D. University of Tennessee at Martin Dans le premier chapitre de LŒil vivant, consacré à létude de la vision dans le théâtre racinien, Jean Starobinski analyse les différentes significations attribuées au verbe voir, qui "veut dire tantôt: savoir, connaître... mais que dautres fois... désigne un élan affectif incontrôlé, [gardant ainsi] ce battement sémantique entre... le savoir et légarement."i Comme on analysera ensuite, ce passage pourrait aussi bien sappliquer au rôle joué par la vision et le regard dans La Nouvelle Héloïse et les Confessions de Jean-Jacques Rousseau.ii Saint-Preux, dans La Nouvelle Héloïse, et excès dune imagination débordante et, au Rousseau narrateur des Confessions y moment de cette fusion de lobjet et du sujet, il établissent des relations presque ne nous est plus possible de distinguer lœil exclusivement visuelles avec le monde qui regarde de lêtre qui désire ou de lobjet extérieur : c’est à dire la vue nest pas désiré. De voyeur, lœil finit par sabîmer en uniquement un des cinq sens, mais y soi-même et devient son propre spectateur. demeure la source dune sensualité déviée qui Avant de passer à létude de quelques commence et finit passages choisis, par les yeux. Dans il faut expliquer les textes en brièvement question, les lacception des facultés attribuées termes voyeur et à lœil se trouvent voyeurisme ou, tellement dans la multipliées que nomenclature celui-ci cesse alors freudienne, dêtre un simple scopophilie. Un instrument épisode de dappréhension de voyeurisme la réalité tangible. présuppose le Par conséquent, remplacement du laction de plaisir provenant regarder--ou dêtre de lacte sexuel regardé par par le plaisir quelquun--y provenant de la dépasse le champ vision. Les yeux conventionnel de loptique Fragonard (1732-1806) The Swing prennent alors la place pour se caractériser surtout en auparavant attribuée aux tant quactivité intellectuelle ou plutôt, au organes génitaux. Du point de vue niveau métaphorique, en tant quactivité psychanalytique, cette permutation ne sexuelle. On verra que les yeux peuvent constitue un dérèglement quau moment où donc, en plus de voir, espionner et goûter, "instead of being preparatory to the normal toucher et pénétrer jusquaux pensées les plus sexual aim, it supplants it." iii Comme on le intimes pour enfanter tout un monde à partir verra par la suite, Saint-Preux et Rousseau de ce contact visuel/virtuel. La cible du narrateur semblent fixés sur une phase regard se mêle aux images créées par les essentiellement visuelle qui devrait constituer6 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  7. 7. en effet un moment transitoire de leurs demande: "Faut-il quincessamment mes yeuxexpériences érotiques. Mais, si on considère dévorent des charmes dont jamais ma boucheen revanche le point de vue développé par nose approcher?" (VIII, 22).Merleau-Ponty dans son texte intitulé "Le Conscient des barrières qui lescorps comme être sexué," il apparaît séparent, le jeune homme essaie de vivre enindubitablement que lérotisme dépasse rêves le contact physique alors impossible.laspect génital chez le voyeur, voyeur dont Cela dit, pour que cette transposition ait lieu,lintelligence provient de la sensation limagination doit opérer comme médiateursubjective des choses plutôt que de leur entre lœil et le désir: il lui faut donccompréhension à un niveau plus intellectuel transformer le regard aveuglé par leset objectif. iv Ainsi, deux lectures distinctes se vêtements qui couvrent le corps de la femmesuperposent et, dans une certaine mesure, en une main qui le touche et qui puisse ainsi lefinissent même par être complémentaires. dévoiler. De cette sorte, malgré desDans le cas de Saint-Preux et du narrateur des contrariétés réelles, il se procure quand mêmeConfessions, le voyeurisme demeure, selon la tout un univers de délices imaginairespsychanalyse, une activité réductrice qui produits par "lœil avide et téméraire [qui]empêche le sujet de franchir un échelon de sa sinsinue impunément sous les fleurs dunvie sexuelle. Ce voyeurisme, en revanche, ne bouquet, erre sous la chenille et la gaze, etcesse pas cependant dêtre en même temps [qui] fait sentir à la main la résistancehyperbolique, car il produit aussi la élastique quelle noserait éprouver" (XXIII,multiplication du plaisir grâce au 48).déplacement virtuel des zones érogènes, Le rôle des rêveries dans lamplificationauparavant limitées au pénis. Jouir par la vue des pouvoirs de la vue saffirme plus encorepeut avoir alors ses avantages et devenir une quand Saint-Preux, dune esplanade lointaine,expérience enrichissante pour le voyeur, essaie despionner Julie chez elle. Il sefforcecomme on va lexaminer ci-après. dabord de tout voir à lœil nu. Mais, se Dans La Nouvelle Héloïse, par exemple, rendant bientôt compte que "[son]Saint-Preux jouit par le regard des plaisirs imagination donnait le change à [ses] yeuxinaccessibles au toucher. En effet, quoiquil fatigués" (XXVI, 54), il part à la recherche dunait "la vue trop courte pour le service télescope. Cest précisément quand les formes[militaire]" (XXXIV, 68), il a en contrepartie concrètes du monde extérieur se trouventles yeux puissants et pénétrants du voyeur. perfectionnées à laide de cet instrumentComme sil sagissait de compenser un doptique, que Saint-Preux les remplace peu àhandicap naturel--et dabolir du même coup peu par les images factices de ses rêves. v Sansla distance imposée au couple par les jamais arriver à apercevoir Julie (il passecontraintes sociales--le jeune homme décuple "[d]es jours entiers... à contempler" les mursles pouvoirs virtuels de la vision. Alors, de sa maison) (XXVI, 54), Saint-Preux, "forcéséparé de Julie, Saint-Preux va convertir lœil de rentrer en [lui]-même" (XXVI, 55) se met àen bouche et en main, ramenant les parcourir un trajet imaginaire à lintérieur deimpressions produites auparavant par le goût chez elle. Ainsi, quoique dirigé vers leet le toucher uniquement aux impressions dehors--la maison de Julie--le télescope finitvisuelles, dans la mesure où "un sens peut au contraire par rapprocher le jeune hommequelquefois instruire un autre" (XXIII, 48). Un de ses souvenirs et par éveiller ses fantasmes,peu plus loin, Saint-Preux soutient encore favorisant donc un regard qui se déplace verscette hypothèse en écrivant que "la vue opère le dedans. Saint-Preux devient tout dun coupleffet du toucher" (XXIII, 48). Dans une des omniscient/omnivoyant: il voit Julie sepremières lettres à Julie, il attribue déjà au réveiller, la voit consulter le pasteur, la voitregard des pouvoirs carnivores lorsquil lire des lettres. En somme, la femme, The Forum, Spring 2003 • 7
  8. 8. physiquement éloignée, se transforme en une objet" (III, 101). Ce passage réitère la valeur image chimérique créée "par une âme agitée octroyée à la puissance des facultés qui ségare dans ses désirs" (XXVI, 55). imaginaires sur les impressions du monde La transformation de Julie en image extérieur, impressions fournies saccompagne dun changement de pronoms. principalement par la vision. Ainsi, il nest Si auparavant Saint-Preux lui parlait à la pas surprenant que le narrateur des deuxième personne, maintenant il parle delle Confessions donne souvent priorité au rêve au à la troisième personne. Julie, écartée par une détriment des affaires réelles. La distance réelle, est--par un essai de prépondérance des rêveries sur la réalité compensation--assimilée au discours du jeune tangible y est telle que, lorsque, au moment de homme, qui la fait sienne au moment où il lécriture, il repense la façon dont il a parfois sapproprie sa voix et ses actions. Absorbé vécu sa vie, il en arrive à sétonner "quon par les yeux qui le regardent, lobjet (Julie) est puisse fonder sur une fiole vide la subsistance ainsi confondu avec le sujet (Saint-Preux), du reste de ses jours" (III, 101). dans une forme de possession indirecte de ce Lexemple tiré des Confessions qui qui reste interdit à ce dernier. Lorsque illustre le mieux comment le regard indirect lassimilation verbale de Julie par Saint-Preux réussit à devenir source première de plaisir et réussit à éliminer la distance qui linstant forme efficace dautoprotection apparaît davant les séparait, le verbe voir (qui pourtant dans le Livre II. Il est question alors présuppose un écart entre le sujet et lobjet des amours cachées du jeune Jean-Jacques regardé) devient, dans le passage du pour Mme Basile et de leur éventuelle mise à télescope, synonyme dimaginer, ce qui nu. Le jeune Rousseau, victime dune timidité suggère le rapprochement intellectuel des maladive et persécuté par une culpabilité amants. Le verbe voir acquiert encore "originelle," préfère contempler lobjet de son dautres nuances subtiles au fur et à mesure désir en cachette, éprouvant par le biais du que Saint-Preux décrit sa bizarre expérience fantasme les joies dune liaison qui fuit toutes de voyeur. Voir correspond dabord à les frustrations, sauf peut-être la frustration de apercevoir, devient ensuite synonyme de la chair. Cependant, au contraire de ce qui a représenter, et quelques lignes plus tard, Saint- lieu dans La Nouvelle Héloïse, les problèmes Preux semble attribuer à la vision les dordre psychiques remplacent ici les pouvoirs de laudition: "je vois que cest de lui contraintes sociales. Le narrateur se voit donc que tu parles à ta cousine avec une si tendre immobilisé plutôt par des obstacles subjectifs émotion" (XVI, 55). De cette façon, cest grâce que par des barrières extérieures palpables, aux pouvoirs dune imagination surexcitée comme la famille ou la fortune. que Saint-Preux arrive à beaucoup enrichir les Quoique Jean-Jacques nose jamais attributs de la vision dans ses lettres. Le sapprocher de Mme Basile à loccasion de voyeurisme du jeune homme, qui voulait leurs tête-à-tête journaliers, il "dévorai[t rétablir par le regard un contact alors quand même] dun œil avide tout ce qu[il] impossible, se manifeste toutefois dune façon pouvai[t] regarder sans être aperçu" (II, 74). très particulière: muni de son télescope, prêt à Source de "délices," mais aussi dangoisse, envahir lintimité de Julie, Saint-Preux cette relation qui sétablit uniquement dans le narrive à être, sans sy attendre, quun champ visuel semble en revanche lui suffire spectateur de soi-même. pleinement. En plus, à la différence de Saint- Dans les Confessions, Rousseau Preux dans le passage du télescope, Jean- narrateur écrit à son tour qu"il faudrait Jacques na pas besoin de reproduire une connaître... avec quelle force [son cœur] se image mentale de Mme Basile pour pouvoir plonge dans limagination de lobjet qui arriver par les yeux à une sorte de jouissance lattire, quelque vain que soit quelquefois cet sexuelle. Toujours auprès delle, il peut8 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  9. 9. profiter librement de sa compagnie. La présence chambre de Mme Basile. Dans un jeu dimageseffective de Mme Basile nexclut pourtant pas le reflétées et de regards qui par hasard se croisent,besoin toujours éprouvé par Jean-Jacques de se Saint-Preux est surpris en flagrant délit decréer des fantasmes à partir de lobjet quil concupiscence.contemple. Comme ce que les yeux voient ne On a voulu dépeindre, par cette analyse,suffit pas à satisfaire pleinement le désir du sujet comment la vision et limagination produisent etqui regarde, il faut ajouter le rêve de possession à soutiennent les univers subjectifs de Saint-Preuxlimage qui échappe, transformant le réel en idée dans La Nouvelle Héloïse et de Jean-Jacques dans leset lidée en idéal. Cest ainsi que le jeune homme, Confessions. La vision, en même temps illuminéetout en épiant celle qui se trouve à portée de sa et aveuglée par le fantasme, y dépasse les limitesmain, réussit en jouir sans la toucher, comme étroites de la vue pour se convertir en un senssemble le suggérer cette description assez dont lamplitude garantit une extraordinaireambiguë: sensibilité à celui qui voit. Il faut ici réitérer et A force de regarder ce que je pouvais et saccorder avec Starobinski pour dire que: même au-delà, mes yeux se troublaient, limagination est beaucoup plus quune ma poitrine soppressait, ma respiration faculté dévoquer des images qui dinstant en instant plus embarrassée me doubleraient le monde de nos perceptions donnait beaucoup de peine à gouverner, directes: cest un pouvoir décart grâce et tout ce que je pouvais faire était de filer auquel nous nous représentons les choses sans bruit des soupirs fort incommodes distantes et nous nous distançons des dans le silence où nous étions assez réalités présentes. vi souvent. (II, 74) Saint-Preux et Jean-Jacques arrivent ainsi à Bien que la conduite de Jean-Jacques dans transposer la réalité tangible pour ensuite sece morceau cité plus haut nous fasse dabord retrouver (et ségarer) dans leur univers de rêves,croire quil a accompli un acte de voyeurisme, il fruit dune réclusion volontaire, mais aussi dufaut pourtant considérer le contexte dans lequel le bannissement qui leur est imposé. Transforméspassage sinsère avant den tirer des conclusions. par leur sensibilité extraordinaire, les yeuxPeut-on dire en effet que le jeune homme se deviennent corps, et cest avec ce corps immatérielcomporte ici en voyeur quand Mme Basile sait que le voyeur entre en contact, touche etquil est là et quelle semble même deviner quil la finalement pénètre lobjet de son désir.regarde? Comme le texte le communiquedailleurs de façon très subtile, Mme Basileignorait-elle vraiment les perturbations de Jean-Jacques? Le narrateur lui-même paraît en douter,car, comme il écrit, "heureusement Mme Basile sen apercevait pas à ce quil me semblait.Cependant je voyais quelquefois... son fichu se The Meeting (detail)renfler" (II, 74), ou encore "il paraissait que ces i Jean Starobinski, LŒil Vivant (Paris: Gallimard, 1961) 76.petits tête-à-tête ne lui déplaisaient pas... soin bien ii Toutes les notes proviennent des éditions ci-après: Jean-Jacquesgratuit assurément de sa part pour lusage quelle Rousseau, Julie ou La Nouvelle Héloïse (Paris: Garnier-Flammarion,en faisait, et quelle men laissait faire" (II, 75). Ce 1967) et "Confessions," Oeuvres Complètes de Jean-Jacques Rousseaurapport platonique, volontairement laissé dans vol. 1 (Paris: Gallimard, 1959). iii Sigmund Freud, "Three Essays in Sexuality," Complete Psychologicalléquivoque, ne représente donc pas exactement Works of Sigmund Freud vol.7 (London: Hogarth P, 1956) 157.un acte de voyeurisme, du fait quil nimplique iv M.Merleau-Ponty, Phénoménologie de la Perception (Paris: Gallimard,pas une relation où le sujet regarde un objet qui 1945) se sait point regardé. La liaison visuelle entre v Dans le contexte du voyeurisme, le télescope peut être luMme Basile et Jean-Jacques satisfait plutôt aux métaphoriquement comme lorgane sexuel masculin, car les deux serventbesoins du jeune homme timide et à ceux de la à pénétrer lintimité de quelquun. Le contacte sexuel dévié à la vue, toutefois, transforme le regard du voyeur en viol (surtout parce que lefemme mariée. La mise à nu de leur désir, télescope confère une super-puissance aux yeux). La personnejusqualors vécu au niveau du fantasme, a lieu espionnée (ici Julie), ignorante des yeux qui lobservent en cachette, estquand Jean-Jacques est enfin trahi par une glace ainsi victime de privautés non-autorisées. vi Jean Starobinski, La Relation critique, (Paris: Gallimard, 1970) 174.stratégiquement placée à la cheminée de la The Forum, Spring 2003 • 9
  10. 10. THE HUMOR IN LANGUAGE: A LINGUISTICS LECTURE By Eugene C. Scruggs, Ph.D. “Owed” to Linguistics A descriptive linguist is my teacher; I shall not want! He makes me lie down in strange syntax; He restores my stress; He lead me among the paths of phonology Til my brains ache! Yea, though I walk through the valley of morphemics I shall fear no intonation, For my teacher is with me. His allomorphs and his allophones They comfort me. He prepares an exam before me In the presence of my fellows. He fills my head with graphemics Til my class notes run over. Surely lapses in semantics shall follow me all the days of my life, And I shall dwell in linguistic bliss forever.Linguists do indeed use some Another way to express the same of languages or of a particularrather “big” words to describe notion is “multi-syllable words of language.actions we know and do 1 and ½ feet long.”intuitively. Words such as We are all naïve experts in ourphonetics, morphemics, This reminds me of another native languages. By the time wesynchronic, diachronic, semiotics, rather eloquent caution about entered 1st grade, we had a goodetc. (lots of icks!) using “big” words to express a command of the phonemic, simple concept. It goes like morphemic and syntacticHowever, using special or jargon something like this: patterns of our language. But, ofwords is a characteristic of most • Beware of platitudinous course we didn’t know we did,professions: take the theology ponderosity. nor did we know about thoseprofession for instance: • Let your communications terms. We could do what is“heuristic” is used in lieu of “to possess coalescent called “deep” grammar, which isdiscover” or “learn”—“exegete” consistency and concatenated not to say that we “knew” thein lieu of “explain”— cogency. grammar being taught (or rather“eschatological” in lieu of “end • Eschew all flatulent garrulity attempted to be taught) in school,times”—“homiletics” in lieu of and asinine affectations. which is prescriptive or surface“the art of sermon writing,” etc. • Avoid bombastic pomposity grammar. and shrill rhodomontade.The excessive use of long words It takes diligence and many years In other words: Use simple termsis characterized by a word which to learn all the prescriptions of to express your thoughts!itself is purported to be the surface grammar. Some of uslongest in the English language: The sum total of human existence never quite master it all. A highhyperpolysyllabicsesquipedalianism. is reflected in language and school student once wrote: “AnA whopping 33 letters!! linguistics is the scientific study active verb shows action and a10 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  11. 11. passive verb shows passion.” As mistress; Portuguese with his Or take the Latin capitalis >an example she wrote: “I have chamber maids; French with his capitale > captal > cattel > chattelbeen loved.” ministers; German with his (now this one word has yielded soldiers; English with his dogs; three forms in modern English:Language can be looked at from Swedish with his doves; capital, cattle, and chattel (theseveral facets: descriptive (i.e., an Hungarian with his horses; and latter rare but used in the legalexamination of a single given Czech with the devil. term “chattel” mortgage).language at a specific point intime), comparative (i.e., looking On an historical level we can look Or consider the Latin word:at two or more languages in a at a given language at various hospitalum > hospitale > hostel >given time frame), historical (i.e., times in its existence. When a hotel > hospital (giving us threelooking at a given language as it language evolves, one word may modern English words withevolves over time, or looking split into several words with considerably different meanings).back at a given stage in that drastically different meanings or Or the Latin word for a naglanguage’s development). the words may be pronounced horse: caballus > caballo > caval > and spelled very differently over cheval which gives modernAs a description of languages in several centuries. Anyone who English cavalry/chevalry andlayman’s terms we often hear the has tried to read Beowulf will cavalier.following: Spanish is a know what I mean (there’s no“phonetic” language. German is Or take the evolution of the way to make it out withouta “guttural” language. French is simple Latin word: caput (pl. studying Old English)—several“such a pretty” language. None capita) meaning head which of the written letters are quiteof these descriptors are very gives > capo > cap > chief > chef different from Modern English—helpful, seeing as how all (also yields captain) By the way, or the Canterbury Tales. At leastlanguages are phonetic (use the modern term “caput” comes with Chaucer we can make outsounds) and all are guttural (are from “caput mortuum”, an old most of what he is saying. Andmade at least in part in the chemistry term meaning a useless probably many of you had tothroat). And why is French said residue. Well, here we have six memorize at some time theto sound pretty? What does that words in modern English from opening lines to the Prologue ofreally mean? No one can say for one Latin word. Because we have the Canterbury Tales: “When thatsure. But if you isolate individual borrowed at various points in the Aprille with his shoures sote /phonemes and place them in a word’s evolution. the droghte of Marche hathspecial order, French can sound pierced to the rote, / and bathed Thus comes the richness of thepretty silly, rather than just every veyne in swich licour, / of English language!!pretty. Take for example a which vertue engendered is thecouple of the nasal vowels in flour.” Staying with the historical facetisolation: /in/ and /en/ which for a moment: Why do the Frenchare found in “inclination” and in Looking at the history of the use different numbers for 70, 80“Angleterre.” Say those two French language, we learn that it and 90 than do the Belgium andphonemes together a couple of came from Latin--as though it one Swiss speakers of French? Thetimes and you get something like: day popped forth fully formed. French say the equivalent of 20,“hee haw hee haw!!” Indeed, it is impossible to tell 30, 40, 50 and 60, but then switch when Latin stopped being Latin to 60 and 10 for 70 (soixante dix);A 17th century French comic and became French, or when four twenties for 80 (quatreplaywright by the pen name of English stopped being Ango- vingt), and four twenties and 10Molière got a lot of mileage out of Saxon, or when the citizens of for 90 (quatre vingt dix). Thisthis sound play in a comedy he Rome stopped using Latin or the difference is due to the fact thattitled: The Bourgeois Gentleman. Roman tongue and started using the Gallic tribes living in GaulSome have always related Italian (a Romance tongue!). before the Roman conquest usedlanguages to a particular Let me give a few illustrations of a base-20 counting system,function: King Carlos V of Spain historical evolution: Take Latin whereas the Romans introducedonce said that he spoke Spanish castellum > castelo > castel > a base-10 system. French nowwith God; Italian with his castle > chateau mixes the two systems. The Forum, Spring 2003 • 11
  12. 12. In a way it is like the English mix speaking settlers, the words As a language evolves, if someof days for the week and months sounded closest to what they speakers are fairly isolated fromof the year. We use all pagan interpreted as “Bob Ruly.” They others, the evolution will taketerms for our days of the week— being discriminately deaf—in place differently and bring aboutNorse gods and goddesses or other words, listening through a what we call dialects. ThisRoman celestial bodies. For the phonetic grid that had spaces occured dramatically betweenmonths, we mix numbers (Seven, only for sounds of English. England and the United States ineight, nine and ten--Sept, Oct. the 19th century. The evolution in Well, now Smackover seemed aNov. Dec.—from a time when England went its merry way rather weird word. What couldthere were only ten months.) with while most of the States retained be the origin? Again old mapsnames of Roman emperors 16th and 17th century English showed that early French settlers(Julius, Augustus—July and pronunciation and vocabulary. in the area had built a coveredAugust); a Roman family name When the Brits snootily talk of bridge—which they called a(junius = June) and a planet the corruption of the Queen’s “chemin couvert.” Now how(Mars = March) Roman gods English in America, they are does that go through an English(January from Janus—god of totally incorrect. The speaker’s phonetic grid? --asbeginnings and ending and May-- pronunciation of American smack over! (Editor’s note: you have toMaia, goddess of increase and repeat it several times very fast.) English is much closer to thegrowth) Roman festivals English of the 1700’s than is(februa—festival of purification), Well, now you can probably today’s Queen’s English. It isand finally from a season of the guess that Picketwire comes from British English that has made thegrowing cycle (aprilis from the a close sounding French word. It greatest changes. (using the backLatin word for the sprouting happens to be “Purgatoire” instead of front /a/ for have orseason) meaning Purgatory. aunt or bath or banana for example. The dropping of finalA look at comparative linguistics Sociolinguistics can offer /r/ for another.)yields some very interesting interesting insights intofeatures. Words in one language humorous situations. It can An awful lot of what is nowmay evolve through simple illustrate the importance of social considered very poor speech wasmispronunciation or context in expressing meaning: once very acceptable English atmisinterpretation of the words in Two nuns enter a restaurant to the time of the settling of theanother language. Take three have breakfast. The waiter comes colonies: Words such as heerd,U.S. geographical terms for over to the table and inquires of holped, strop, afeared, innards,instance: A town in Wisconsin one of them. “What’s your order, traipse, Edard (dropping thecalled “Bob Ruly,” town in sister?” To which she replied: /w/, sword (pronouncing theArkansas called “Smackover,” “Benedictine.” To which the /w/), and hain’t giving modernand a river in Iowa called startled waiter could only aint. (which is the only logical“Picketwire.” exclaim: “Sister, so early in the way to contract “am not I” and morning!” (The nun and the makes more sense that the properThese at first were mysterious waiter are working from two “aren’t I” since I and are don’t gonames to geographers. No one entirely separate contexts.) together.)named Bob Ruly had ever beenheard of in that area of Another example of the English used to pronounce theWisconsin. It wasn’t til someone importance of context is this: An /ed/ ending on adjectives. Nowthought to look at an old map American was on a German about all we have is an occasionalcreated by French trappers that cruise ship when he went up to blessed and beloved—and thosethe mystery was solved. It seems the bar and ordered: “Dry only in special social settings or ifthat the trappers hit upon the martini.” The German bartender, required for poetic because they had found quite naturally, brought the American three martinis. Because Consider the way the Amish andburned wood at the site. Now of his frame of reference, instead Mennonites talk. Thy/thine/burned wood in French is “Bois of “dry” he heard “drei” which thou/hast etc. These were allBrulé.” To the ear of newly means three. used at the time of the foundingarrived mono-lingual English- of the American colonies.12 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  13. 13. Another phenomenon of speech, • Or the commercial for “Wonder by a combination of intonationon occasion, is anticipation of Bread for the breast in bed.” and pitch: What’s for supper,consonants or vowels yet to come And the one I like to use just to Mother?in a sentence. This produces a aggravate my children by calling What’s for supper—mother?lapse or a switching of sounds. It one of the early grocery chains, Take the simple phrase: “aoccurs because of anticipation of • the A and Poo Feed Store. woman without her man iselements yet to come. Our minds nothing.” Now, sometimes lapses involvedtravel faster than our tongues. With pauses in strategic places entire morphemes or entireWe inadvertently produce a and changes in pitch we can words:metathesis (or change in position) make drastic changes in meaning: • Like the guest speaker who said:of single phonemes or A woman, without her MAN, is “Mr Priviledge, this is indeed amorphemes (syllables) and Power.” nothing, but: A woman: withoutsometimes even whole words. • Or the host who introduced HER, man is nothing.This is the kind of thing that Julia Childs to the audience as Take these curious signs spotted inhappened to an emotional radio the “homely friend maker.” England:announcer in the 1940’s in • Or the socialite who announced In a laundry mat.England who was recorded as that at last evening’s gala ball, “Automatic washing machine.saying the following: “Ladies and all the ladies were wearing Please remove all your clothes “gownless evening straps.” when the light goes out.”gentlemen, I am pleased topresent to you the Duck and Although we all do these In a staff lounge:Douchess of Windsor.” switches occasionally, there was After tea break, staff should once a chap (the Rev. Spooner) empty the teapot and standThis phenomenon often happens upside down on the draining who made such lapses sowhen we are in a hurry, or board. frequently that we have coinedexcited. Take the time my young Outside a second-hand shop: the term “spoonerisms.” Andaughter at about age five, came “We exchange anything. example was heard by a BBC-TVrunning into the house from Bicycles, washing machines, etc. commentator as the Royal Horsebeing outside playing in the Why not bring your wife along Artillery passed by: “In front ofsnow. In her excitement she and get a wonderful bargain?” the guards we can see the Royalexclaimed: “Mommy, Mommy, Outside a parish cemetery: Arse Hortillery.” The chaps are lipped.” She would “We must ask anyone with Spooner sometimes admonishedalso frequently switch the t and relatives buried in the graveyard the students at Oxford by saying:the p sounds in catsup so that it to do their best to keep them in “you’ve tasted two worms!”came out capitch. order.” Language is more than just a In a safari park:When the lapse is a switch of a string of words. Communication Elephants please stay in your car.single phoneme you get such of meaning (semantics) occurs At a dry cleaners:things as: also through structure (how the “Anyone leaving their garments• “And now, ladies and words are strung together); here for more than 30 days will gentlemen, I present the Vice stress; intonation; pitch level; be disposed of.” President of the United States, periods of silence or pauses. Also And the following which was Mr. Houbert Heever.” of course in such things as facial sent to the Phi Sigma Iota• Or the case of the Methodist expressions, hand movements, National Office by Gail Guenther: minister, in a bit of a hurry, volume level, tone of voice; body She read the following in a local who announced the sermon language, etc. Change in meaning Shopping Guide. “Wanted: topic for the following week: is driven by stress and pitch. Person to take care of cow that “Cast thy broad upon the Compare the following: does not smoke or drink.” waters.”• Or the tired radio announcer The cómic book manufacturer And finally, a notice outside a who signed off with the The comic bóok manufacturer. farm field: “The farmer allows words: “this is the National Think for a moment about the walkers to cross the field for free, Breadcasting Company.” effects that can be brought about but the bull charges.”  The Forum, Spring 2003 • 13
  14. 14. Book Review By Christopher Webber PARODY IN THE GÉNERO CHICO Patricia Bentivegna, Ph.D. Does Parody in the Género Chico José Echegaray, brother of parodies, with copious textual sound too narrowly specialised a zarzuelero Miguel. illustration - and in the case of the title to appeal to any but the El golfémio (an interesting José is indeed a lost luminary of diehard zarzuela* scholar? If so, parody of Puccinis La Boheme by his time, and its little wonder let me say straight away that this Salvador María Granés and the that his features adorn the front is the most informed, informative composer Luis Arnedo Muñoz), a cover. This is a clue to the real and enjoyable book touching discussion of the parodistic value of the book, which slyly zarzuela Ive had the pleasure of musical content as well. Although uses parody as a comedic side- reading, whether in Spanish or she does not provide English entry into the broad history of English. translations of the Spanish texts, 19th and early 20th century Bentivegna does comment in Every great theatre movement Spanish theatre. We make the detail on the puns, vernacular produces its parodists. The acquaintance not only of the idioms and word-plays which English stage has been fabled Echegaray, but make for good parody, all of particularly fortunate in them, playwrights of the quality of which makes life a lot easier for numbering expert wits of the Guttiérrez, author of the El those of us whose Spanish is ... calibre of Henry Fielding and trovador famously set by Verdi; well, less advanced than we W. S. Gilbert amongst its Zorilla, whose great verse drama, might wish. practitioners. In Spain, the 19th Don Juan Tenorio, produced a century produced a rich and raft of parodies, not to mention a Echegaray emerges as a Grand varied theatre worthy of three-act zarzuela to his own Hero. The plots of his outrageous, comparison with any in Europe. libretto set to music by Nicolás moralistic, tragic melodramas Serious political and Manent; Adelardo López de such as En el puño de la espada philosophical drama vied in Ayala, Benito Pérez Galdós and and El gran Galeoto might seem popularity with zarzuela grande Jacinto Benevente. Nor did almost beyond parody, and and the one-act género chico, foreign operas escape parody, certainly critical opinion was not both in its musical and straight and some of these - notably El universally positive about him formats, to say nothing of the dúo de la africana and La corte de even in his heyday. He was a gift revista and other lighter musical la Faraón - have classic zarzuela to género chico comedy, and forms deriving from French and status. hardly less so to Professor other operettas. Little wonder Bentivegna, who sets about him El dúo, remarkably, led to a that all this provided rich tillage with a sunny, infectious relish parody of a parody, in Los for the parodists. which is highly diverting. africanistas. Zarzuela grande and Patricia Bentivegna covers the even the género chico classics Yet the book stimulates a real field with thoroughness, wit, and themselves did not escape, and desire to read many of the other a catching enthusiasm for what Bentivegna throws some dramas discussed, such as José may seem at first to be something interesting light on works as Dicentas grim social tragedy, of a by-way for most of us diverse as Chapís La tempestad Juan José, inspiration for zarzuela aficionados. She points and El puñao de rosas, Vives Sorozábals still unperformed acutely to the diverse techniques Bohemios and Marqués El anillo operatic magnum opus; and and tricks by which parodists de hierro, through examination of Beneventes commedia-inspired, down the ages have taken their the comic send-ups and topical Los intereses creados, which in scalpels to pretentious and political parodies which sprang turn provided source material for popular successes alike. Nothing up in the shadow of their Penellas, Don Gil de Alcalá. and no one was sacred, not even - successes. or rather least of all - the solemn, We get helpful summaries of *Zarzuela is a form of Spanish opera that Nobel Prize-winning playwright original plots as well as their mixes spoken dialogue with music.14 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  15. 15. The sections of this well-ordered showing precisely how such naughty in Spanish?!?) andbook dealing with opera, operetta famous lines were used. doesn’t reveal its basis in a pre-and zarzuela parodies are of existent French skit, Madameobvious interest. Did you know Salvador María Granés crops up Putifar.that Torregrosa wrote music for a throughout the book as a leading practitioner of the tongue-in- In truth, though, these are veryparody of El puñao de rosas cheek art, and more information minor quibbles. The depth andentitled El cuñao de Rosa? Or that on him and some of the other breadth of her scholarship, thePenellas La perra chica was a parodists would have been wit of her writing, and above allcheeky parody of Chapís La welcome. Im surprised to find no her zest in conveying the feeling,patria chica? Indeed, zarzuela mention of Miguel Echegarays not only of parody and thewas rarely far from the parodists and Amadeo Vives Juegos género chico, but also of thepens: familiar phrases such as malabares (1910) along with other whole, remarkable spectrum of"No me mires, no me mates; parodies of Beneventes Spanish theatre of the time, makedéjame vivir en paz" (La canción fashionable circus-drama, La Bentivegnas book a delight fromde la Lola), "No cantes más La fuerza bruta (1908); and cover to cover, and a real treasureAfricana" (El dúo de la Africana) Bentivegna doesnt refer to trove for anyone interested inand "¿Dónde vas con mantón de Ricardo de la Vegas sharp putting the classic zarzuelas ofManila?" (La verbena de la political parody of La bruja in El the Golden Age in context.Paloma) could always be turnedto humorous advantage, and año pasada por agua. She takes an unexpectedly bashful line on For more information on zarzuela:Bentivegnas book evokes a vivid Perrin and Palacios coarse http://www.zarzuela.netpicture of the whole género chicothrough a host of examples double-entendres in La corte de Faraón (please, why is Putifar so Parody, the festive imitation of a literary work, genre or style, originated in ancient times and continues to the present day. A particularly delightful form flourished in Spain during the later years of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth. This was the parody of the género chico or "small genre," a one-act theatrical work with or without music. Compositions with spoken dialogue as well as music afforded two dimensions to the art of the parodist, since both elements could be distorted in a comical way. Inspiration was drawn from Spanish and foreign plays, operas, operettas and zarzuelas. Parody in the Género chico describes the way in which this imitation was done; the text is in English with many illustrative quotations in Spanish and a few other languages. Parody in the Género Chico. Bentivegna, P. (2002). University of the South Press. (1-889431-68-0) .Patricia Bentivegna is Professor Emerita of Spanish in the Department of Foreign Languages at St. Francis College,Loretto, Pennsylvania. She was named to the Penn. State Beta Chapter of Phi Sigma Iota in 1950. In 1977, Dr.Bentivegna founded the Saint Francis College Chapter, Iota Iota, where she served as their faculty advisor for the next20 years. Her service to Phi Sigma Iota included terms as Regional Vice-President and Treasurer. Support Our Scholarship and Sponsored Programs!PHI SIGMA IOTA encourages and recognizes outstanding ability and attainments in the studyingand teaching of foreign languages, stimulates advanced pursuits and individual research in thisdiscipline, and promotes cultural enrichment and a sentiment of international amity derived fromthe knowledge and use of foreign languages. The Forum, Spring 2003 • 15
  16. 16. PSI Scholarships Announcing – The “Year 2004 PSI Scholarships” ELIGIBILITY: Only active members of Phi Sigma Iota, both undergraduate and graduate students, are eligible for an award. HOW TO SUBMIT A NOMINATION: A PSI official form must be used, with the signed endorsement of the Faculty Advisor. Each chapter is entitled to submit only one nomination. The nomination shall include: • A personal statement, written by the candidate in both English and the nominees major Foreign Language, outlining qualifications and the purpose for which the award will be used. • A statement from the Faculty Advisor outlining the candidates service to the local Chapter, dedication to the study of foreign languages and specific commitment to pursue such dedication, as well as any other relevant information. • A recommendation from another reference, to be sent directly to the Faculty Advisor. • An official transcript addressed directly to the Faculty Advisor. • A wallet-size photo AWARDS: In the Spring of 2004, Phi Sigma Iota will grant several Scholarship Awards based on availability of funding. Scholarships ranging from $300 -1000 will be awarded. The following grand awards are made each year: The Founder’s scholarship in the name of Dr. Henry Church; The PSI Annual scholarship; The Cleon W. Capsas scholarship for study in Spain or Portugal; The Santiago Vilas scholarship; and The Marie-France Hilgar scholarship. In addition, PSI offers awards in the names of our National Officers, and thanks to member participation in the Visa Program (see p. 31), we are able to offer a grand VISA scholarship, as well. DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSION OF NOMINATIONS: Postmarked no later than February 15, 2004. The deadline will be strictly observed. Incomplete submissions will not be considered. Faculty Advisors: Please send nominations, supporting documents and all other correspondence to: Dr. C. Eugene Scruggs Phi Sigma Iota World Language Education, CPR 107 University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, Florida 3362016 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  17. 17. PSI Scholarship Nomination Form1. GENERAL INFORMATION ON NOMINEEName in full ______________________________Student Birth Date _______________________Chapter and Institution ___________________________________________________________Date of Initiation into Phi Sigma Iota: ________________________________________________Permanent Address _____________________________________________________________Social Security Number ___________________ Phone _______________ E-mail ____________Present Local Address ___________________________________________________________2. EDUCATION RECORD OF NOMINEEHigh School (Name and Location) _______________________________________________Graduation Date ____________ Class Rank __________________________________________Undergraduate University (Location, Dates, Degree and Date of Degree) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Graduate University (Location, Dates, Degree and Date of Degree) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Fields of Concentration at College/University __________________________________________Grade Average: Cumulative _______________ Foreign Languages _______________________Scholarships, Honors Received ___________________________________________________ 3. PERSONAL STATEMENT: (in English and foreign language), 500-1500 words each 4. WALLET -SIZE PHOTO: Attach to nomination form 5. STATEMENT by FACULTY ADVISOR: Attach 6. OTHER REFERENCE (Recommendation to be sent to Faculty Advisor before deadline) Name and Address _____________________________________________________________ 7. FACULTY ADVISOR SPONSORING THIS NOMINATION Name and Address _____________________________________Title __________________ The Forum, Spring 2003 • 17
  18. 18. The Enduring Value of Literature by Gaëtan Brulotte, Ph.D. University of South FloridaSome may think, especially in America, that Literature is an outdated mode of communication. Bothas a scholar and a creative writer, I believe it is, on the contrary, an outstanding tool for internationalunderstanding. Why Literature today? Why do we need it? What is its role or justification in ourtime? How can a writer still spend most of his life writing books? Is it worth it? Those are thequestions that are frequently asked. It happens that I am among those who are very concerned thatLiterature, as an art form, especially national literatures, may one day disappear. Consequently I feelthat we have to defend it all the more strongly.I am not thinking of Literature as mere entertainment, of course. I perceive Literature, along with theArts, as one of the finest instruments of civilization that we have. It provides us with lucidity andconsciousness. To let it go would risk returning to barbaric times. Literature allows the creation ofdurable bridges between human beings and cultures.Literature is an international communicator. Through a book, individuals from different horizons canbecome more deeply interested in each other, instead of misunderstanding each other, despising eachother, repudiating or killing each other.Literature helps mutual understanding and brings into new light the human condition in its past andcurrent reality. It provides the means to reconcile cultures and unify our desire to clarify the worldwe live in. It confers meaning where there does not seem to be any. It shows the spiritual and culturaldiversity of human kind, while lifting the frontiers within. It is the cement that holds this diversitytogether. Literature musters, glues us to each other because it provides us with clarification andcompassion. It also makes us more intelligent in our relationship with the world and with each otherbecause it educates our emotions.Literature has a profound metaphorical vocation, i.e. it permanently creates relations and linksthrough time. Thanks to it, we can analyze more deeply our commonalities and measure ourdifferences. Beyond the numerous gaps existing between cultures, levels of education, sensitivities,political views or genders, we are comparable at an essential level, i.e. in what preoccupies us all ashuman beings: alienation, loss, tediousness, uncertainty, limitations, and finitude. Literature, evenwhen it seems to describe the modest life of a neighbor or co-worker, is one of the best ways to showthis general insight on the human side in each one of us. It is a handshake above the nothingness; alight, although fragile, that twinkles over the pauper’s grave of History.We were always taught that science is more real than fiction. In fact today’s cosmology teaches us thereverse: that reality is not as sure as fiction. Being in continued expansion, the universe is constantlychanging so that a 1000 years from now it won’t be the same space that some future generation willhave the opportunity to see. Over the same period of time we may hope that a work such as TheRemembrance of Past Things will stay what it is today and what it was at the beginning of the 20thcentury, even if it may be read differently. Literature proposes a more stable vision of the world. Forinstance, what a third person narrator says not be questioned: when we read in a novel that John isclimbing the stairs, it never comes to mind to doubt what is said. On the other hand, historical orscientific views are constantly subject to revision and are much less stable than Literature. Literatureprovides us with a sense of permanency in a world that is changing constantly. Continued on page 2418 • The Forum, Spring 2003
  19. 19. Introducing The 2003 Phi Sigma Iota Scholarship RecipientsThe PSI Founder: Dr. Henry W. Church The Editors Scholarship Scholarship Christy M. Frembes (Beta Marilyn S. Feke (Phi Omega) Epsilon) SUNY Oneonta Boston University Majoring in Majoring in French Education Hispanic Linguistics. (graduation May 2003) The Secretary’s ScholarshipThe Dr. Cleon W. Capsas Memorial Sarah Beth Goodwill (Beta Pi) Scholarship Edinboro University of Maria T. Cabo (Sigma Sigma) Pennsylvania Majoring in Rutgers University majoring in Spanish and Journalism Spanish Literature The Annual Phi Sigma Iota Scholarships Pascale Lahur-Hobaugh (EtaThe Dr. Santiago Vilas Scholarship Eta) Mercer University La Sonia Clay (Sigma Omicron) Majoring in French Weslyan College Majoring in (graduation May 2003) Spanish and Psychology Julie Anne Winnick (Beta Epsilon) SUNY OneontaThe Dr. Marie-France Hilgar Scholarship Majoring in Spanish Michael Wayne Paalz (Eta Eta) Mercer University majoring in French and Spanish Lamont George Hambrick (graduation May 2003) (Beta Zeta) University of South Florida Majoring in Spanish and FrenchThe VISA Scholarship Education Karene Miriam Tropen (Beta Omega) Binghamton University Phi Sigma Iota is proud to announce that we have Majoring in French and English increased the number and size of our scholarship awards. Thanks to our active chapters, membership Language and Literature recruitment has helped to provide more scholarship (gratuation May 2003) opportunities for our outstanding members. Alumni members have also helped to provide scholarshipThe President’s Scholarship awards through their contributions as life-time Elizabeth Lynn Macholan members. A significant contribution to our awards funding is made through your membership in the (Kappa Lambda) Butler VISA Platinum program. Help us to continue University Majoring in Spanish providing these valuable opportunities to our and Business Studies. members. See page 31 for details on the VISA (graduation May 2003) scholarship contribution plan. See the Phi Sigma Iota website or the next issue of THE FORUM for more details on our talented scholarship winners. The Forum, Spring 2002 • 19
  20. 20. Hungry for Proverbs If you are planning for a year, sow rice; if you are planning for a decade, plant trees; if you are planning for a lifetime, educate people. Chinese Proverb A smiling face is half the meal. Latvian Proverb Conversation is the food of the ears. Trinidadian Proverb Fine words do not produce food. Nigerian Proverb Flattery is sweet food for those who can swallow it. Danish Proverb The poor man looks for food and the rich man for appetite. Indian Proverb Puzzle: Match the proverbs on the left with their English equivalents on the right. Solution p. 30 a) Ikikizela lihlum’ esiqwini. 1. Do not eat your fingers (do not take Zulu advantage of your relatives). b) Isisu somhambi asiqedi luto. 2. Eat at pleasure, drink by measure. Zulu c) Elämä on epävarmaa, syö jälkiruoka ensin. 3. He who excuses himself, accuses himself. Finnish d) Kun namla wa takul sukr. 4. If you attend to what is roasting, it will not Yemeni be burnt. e) Kanen mu ava u kakamay mu. 5. It is not good to eat in the bath or your Ivatan stomach will grow that size. f) Nya b’a’n tu’n twa’n toj chuj, ku’n b’e’x cy-elil chuj 6. Life is uncertain so eat your desert first. tc’u’ja. Mayan g) Cine se scuzã, se acuzã. 7. One piece of food while hungry equals a big Romanian box of food while full. h) La mâncare sã ai cumpãtare si la bãuturã sã fii cu 8. The bite to the hungry traveller will never mãsurã. Romanian be missed. i) Mot mieng khi doi bang mot goi khi no. 9. The old corn is sprouting again. Vietnamese j) Ohun ti atejumo ki ijona. 10. Work like an ant and you’ll eat sugar. Ashanti The comics of the Swiss cartoonist, Johannes Borer appear throughout this issue with the permission of the artist. See more of his comics, cartoons, and puzzles at his website:• The Forum, Spring 2003
  21. 21. Free verse by Üzeyir Lokman ÇAYCI Ce Qui S’Ecrit Par La Guerre Dans Le Noir What Is Written in the Dark by WarTu ne pourras plus te réchauffer, tes mains froidies You can no longer warm your cold handsne pourront plus se tendre vers l’amitié ! Tu as le or offer them in friendship. You have timetemps de regarder en arrière ne fût-ce qu’une to look back only once to view the life offois…Revois encore une fois la durée de ton amitié your friendship with flowers, the pleasureavec les fleurs…le plaisir que tu prends à aimer…la you take in love, the light that beautylumière que tu répands par la beauté de ton for ignites in your heart of hearts!intérieur! It is most unfortunate, but there areC’est malheureux Mais ce sont eux qui décideront de those who decide on your tomorrows.tes lendemains. Peut-être que le mois de mars ne Perhaps the month of March will notreviendra plus. Tes pieds d’enfant ne pourront plus return, and the feet of a child will nots’enfoncer dans la neige. Les traces de guerre ne break the snow. The marks left by warseront plus effacées dans les écoles après toi. Les will no longer retire with you, followinglivres parleront de toi. Jette-toi pour une dernière fois you from school. Books will speak of you.dans les bras de ta mère avant de voir les traces de Throw yourself once more into the armssang, de ressentir les souffrances. Dis adieu aux of your mother, before the bloody marksfleurs à souffle coupé. Le temps se rétrécit au fur et à show, before the agonies. Bid adieu to themesure que les souffrances piétinent tes sentiments. flowers, their breathing cut off. Time narrows as suffering tramples thoughts.Tu ne seras jamais oublié pendant que tes souvenirsse plantent dans les cœurs des vivants. Au lieu de You will never forget while memories sinklaisser les colères là où elles sont pourquoi veulent-ils into living hearts. Who are those whofaire la guerre ? As-tu jamais pensé à ce qu’ils want to make war instead of dicardingveulent de toi ? C’est leur ennemi interne qui les fears and resentments? Have you evermobilise ! Je sais que tu te trouves face à la folie de wondered what they want from you? It isceux qui ne peuvent même pas s’entendre avec eux- their internal enemy that mobilizes them!mêmes. Je n’y peux rien ! Je ne peux empêcher les I know you find yourself facing the folly ofanimosités qui font de toi une cible par des guerres those who cannot hear themselves. I candont l’essence est de tuer et de provoquer des larmes. do nothing! I cannot prevent your being aTu es tout petit…Je t’aime très fort ! Demain les faux target of suffering and death. You are asentiments contenus dans les recettes de ceux qui tiny tot - I love you dearly! Tomorrow thecherchent une ombre pour la peur et un matériau poison in the recipes of those whoaux complaintes seront étalés les uns après les camouflage their fears willautres… Les passions feront trembler les mains de weaken...meanwhile, passion will surelycertains pendant qu’ils dessinent les tâches de sang cause the hands to tremble that designavec leur encre. Tu peux en être sûr, mon enfant ! using blood for ink. You can be sure of it!Si à table ta mère affamée tombe sur toi en larmes If your starving mother falls on her tearsavant de manger une seule bouchée de pain, n’oublie at the table before she can eat a morsel ofpas de lui faire un sourire, mon enfant ! A présent, tu bread, do not forget to give her a smile,vis sous les menaces de guerre qui sentent le pétrole. my child! Behind the present menacingsL’Irak vibre devant tes fenêtres. Les lignes vieilles se of war, you can smell the oil. Iraq and oldmettent à te suivre également ! Je sais que les fleurs lives vibrate before your windows. I knowne vivent pas aux bouts des canons…La guerre porte flowers do not live in the mouths ofdes chagrins et non des joies dans les foyers ! Jette- canons...war holds grief, not joy, in itstoi pour une dernière fois dans les bras de ta mère foyers! Throw yourself once more into theavant de voir les traces de sang, de ressentir les arms of your mother before blood andsouffrances. Dis adieu aux fleurs à souffle coupé. Le sorrows flow. Say goodbye to the flowers,temps se rétrécit au fur et à mesure que les their breathing cut off. Time narrows assouffrances piétinent tes sentiments. suffering tramples your thoughts.Translated from original Turkish by Yakup Yurt French free verse translated into English free verse by Joneve McCormick The Forum, Spring 2002 • 21