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  • 1.  
  • 2. Defense mechanisms
    • Regression
    • An individual retreats to an earlier, more infantile psychosexual stage of development because of anxiety.
    • 3. EX: A child sucks her thumb on the first day of school
    • Reaction formation
    • Ego makes unconscious switch from one’s true feeling to an opposite feeling.
    • 4. -EX: Timidity or shyness becomes daring.
  • 5. Defense Mechanism
    • Projection
    • Hiding one’s own threatening impulses by pointing towards others.
    • 6. EX: “The thief thinks everyone else is thief.”
    • Rationalization
    • Self-justifying explanations to one’s self to hide the real reasons for one’s actions.
    • 7. EX: I don’t study because I have a life.
  • 8. Defense Mechanism
    • Displacement
    • Redirects one’s sexual or hostile feelings toward another, safer, subject.
    • 9. EX: A child is mad at his parents, but kicks the family pet instead.
    • Sublimation
    • A psychoanalytic theory states that people alter their unacceptable impulses into a more socially valued and accepted activity.
    • 10. EX: Da Vinci paints Madonna paintings because his mom left him at an early age.
  • 11. Tests
    • Projective test
    • Personality test that provides unclear stimuli that reveals one’s inner dynamics
    • 12. EX: Rorschach or TAT
    • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • People view ambiguous pictures then make up stories about those pictures.
  • 13. Tests
    • Rorschach inkblot test
    • Widely used; 10 dots that people analyze people’s thoughts and feelings.
  • 14.
    • Collective unconscious
    • Carl Jung’s idea of inherited experiences.
    • 15. EX: Mother is a symbol of nurture.
    • Trait
    • Characteristic or behavior.
  • 16. Tests
    • Personality inventory
    • Survey that covers many different feelings used to assess selected personality traits.
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests, used to identify emotional disorders
  • 17. Test
    • Empirically derived test
    • Tests a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
    • 18. EX: the MMPI