Leisure Centres
Heat Pumps, Dehumidifiers,
Heat Recovery & Indoor Pools
Agenda
 Company Profile
 What is a heat pump?
 How do they work?
 Leisure Centres - Setting the Scene
 Air Source Hea...
Heat Pump
Dehumidifiers AW Heat Pumps
• UK manufacturer and market leader
in heat pump technology
• Established for over 35 years
• Supplied more Heat pumps in
...
Calorex
Heat Pumps
Indoor
Swimming Pools
Environmental Climate
Control Systems.
Heat Recovery
&
Dehumidification
Outdoor
S...
Services
• Calorex are a UK manufacturer
• Free project appraisals - including site visits
• Free sizing advice and produc...
Subject Matter
• Public pools & leisure centres
• Large Indoor pools
• High energy use
• High running costs
• High carbon ...
South Moorlands
Leisure Centre
Setting the Scene
• Large number of Leisure Centres 20-30 yr old
• Existing AHUs often use full fresh air
• Energy use in ...
Benchmarks - Dry v Wet
Annual Energy
Use (kWh/m2)
Dry Sports Centre Leisure Pool Centre
Typical Good
Practice
Typical Good...
Benchmarks
Leisure Centre with Pools
• Total Area = 2500m2 (pool hall 1090m2)
• Pool Area = 540m2
Leisure Centre
with Pool...
Energy Use
Leisure Centre with Pool
Energy Use
Leisure Centre with Pool
2 main uses of energy
• Air Heating 42%
– Ventilation and building losses
• Water heat...
Air to Water (Air Source)
Heat Pumps
Heat Pumps can be utilised to provide:-
• Space heating
• Hot water for domestic usag...
What is a heat pump?
• A heat pump is a thermodynamic device capable of
recovering energy from one medium, enhancing it
an...
What is a Heat Pump?
Air Source
Electricity in Heat out
2 kW
8 kW
6 kW
Solar energy from the
air/earth
COP = Energy Out
Energy In
e.g. 8 kW Heat out
2 kW ...
COP = Coefficient of
Performance
COP = Total Heat Output
Energy Consumed
Space Heating
• Range of commercial heat pumps available
• Heat outputs up to 70kW
• Replace or supplement boilers
• Simpl...
Hot Water Production
• Heat Pumps can produce
water at up to 70oC
• Hot water can be used
directly or to pre-heat
incoming...
Outdoor Pool
• Pool water heated directly
• Titanium heat exchangers
• Ideal for summer time use
Also applicable to pool w...
Running Cost Savings
Source:- EON
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
FuelCost(£pa)
Average Annual Fuel Cost C...
Carbon Emissions Savings
Source:- EON
Comparison of Average Annual CO2 Emissions - 100m2 New Build (underfloor heating) - ...
Space Cooling
Applications
– Cellar cooling
– Kitchen cooling
– Walk in fridge
• Primary goal to cool space
• Either for c...
Waste Heat Recovery
• Primary use to recover waste heat
from an overheated area
• Waste energy is transformed into
useful ...
Benefits of Heat Pumps
• Running cost saving
– Dependant on replaced energy
• Payback less than 3 years
– Cooling and wast...
Public Swimming Pools
Municipal Pools and Leisure Centres
• Large surface area
• High usage
• Long hours
• Additional wate...
Fundamental Requirements
for Pool Complexes
• WATER HEATING
Replenish pool water heat losses
• AIR HEATING
Replenish/maint...
Dehumidification
Affects of Uncontrolled Humidity
• Condensation
• Damage to building
• Structural damage
• Damage to fabr...
What do indoor
swimming pools require?
1. A pool temperature of between 28ºC and 30ºC
to make swimming pools suitable for ...
Fresh Air Requirements
• Number of guides state ventilation rates based on air
change rates in the pool hall
• Traditional...
Heat Losses from a Pool
There are three major sources of heat loss
• Evaporation from pool – 65%
• Radiation – 20%
• Condu...
Typical Swimming Pool
Losses
• At 28ºC a pool loses an average of 20 litres/hour
per 100 square metres of pool area
• For ...
Dehumidification Systems
There are several types of dehumidification systems
available:-
• 100% Fresh air
• Fresh air and ...
100% Full Fresh Air
100% Full Fresh Air
• Simple supply and extract AHU
• No heat recovery
• Large air heater battery to maintain pool hall
te...
100% Full Fresh Air
Recuperator
• 100% fresh air, no recirculation
• Heat recovery with plate heat exchanger
• 50-60% efficiency
• At what con...
Run-around Coils
Rotary Wheel
ss ss
ss
ssss
ss
ssss
Recuperator &
Recirculation
Recuperator &
Recirculation
• Recirculation to give fixed air flow volume
• Fresh air volume modulated to suit DH duty
• M...
Recuperator & Heat Pump
Recuperator & Heat Pump
• Heat pump added after recuperator
• Additional heat recovery
• Some latent heat recovery
• Only ...
Desiccant
Fresh Air
Inlet
Heater
Heater
Pool Hall
Wet Air
Exhaust
Exhaust
Air
Desiccant
• Uses desiccant dehumidifier to do some DH duty
• Fresh air modulated to suit extra duty required
• Fresh air c...
Calorex Systems
• Based on heat pump dehumidifiers
• Recovery of Latent heat
• Recovered heat returned to air or water
• A...
Calorex HRD System
What is a Heat Pump?
• A heat pump is a thermodynamic device capable of
recovering energy from one medium, enhancing it an...
A Heat Pump is a
fridge in reverse
Types of Heat Pump
• Usually described on
basis of mediums
between which heat is
transferred
• Air to air
• Air to water
•...
Heat Pump Cycle
COP = Coefficient of
Performance
COP = Total Heat Output
Energy Consumed
Why use a Heat Pump?
• Recovered energy
• Energy efficient
• Environmentally friendly
• Lower running costs
• Swimming poo...
Heat Pump Dehumidifier
Calorex Variheat System
Calorex HRD
Calorex HRD
Calorex HRD
Benefits of HRD
• HRD controls air temp, water temp, humidity and fresh air introduction
• Pool hall air re-circulated
• F...
Benefits of HRD
• Compact size
• Fully packaged unit including controls
• Controls can be stand alone or utilise local BMS...
HRD Kimbolton School
Advantages of Calorex
• Wide product range
• Comprehensive range of options
• Specifically designed for swimming pools
• E...
Case Study
Typical Local Authority Leisure Centre
• Main Pool; 25m x 13m
• Learner pool; 13m x 8.5M
• Deck level type
• Wa...
Willowburn Sports and LC
Sizing of Heat Pump
Dehumidifier
Dehumidifiers are sized to cope with the average evaporation
from a pool over a 24 hour p...
PoolCalc
Equipment Selection:-
Calorex
HRD30
Evaporation
Calorex HRD 30 Data
• Airflow = 9.7m3/s (35,000m3/h)
• Power consumption = 44kW
• Heat recovery = 131kW
(mode A; 117kW to ...
Energy Analysis
Energy Usage - kWh
Comparative Energy Use per Annum
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
3000000
35000...
Energy Analysis
Running Costs
Running Cost per Annum
Full Fresh Air
£94,746
Desiccant
AHU
£69,334
Recuperator
AHU
£50,407
...
Energy Analysis
CO2 Emissions
CO2 Emissions per Annum
Full Fresh Air
1048
Desiccant
AHU
723
Recuperator
AHU
510
Heat Pump
...
Leisure Centres
• In Britain there are 1,650 public sites with a total of
2,541 pools (source; Leisure Database Company)
•...
Health Clubs &
School Pools
• There are a further 1,362 private sites with a total of
1,508 pools (source; Leisure Databas...
Reference Projects - UK
• Cally Pool, Islington – HRD30
• St Helens Pool, Huntingdon – HRD15
• Camberwell Baths – HRD25
• ...
Cally Pool, Islington
Running Costs
£64,469
£42,333
£-
£10,000
£20,000
£30,000
£40,000
£50,000
£60,000
£70,000
Energy Cost
Total 08-09
Total 09-...
CO2 Reduction
513
tonne
335
tonne
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
Total CO2 Emission kg
Total 08-09
Total 09-1...
• GSHP providing LPHW at 50-55oC in place of
conventional boiler
• Output of LPHW coils reduced, usually flow temperature
...
Ground Source Heat Pump
with a Delta pool AHU
GSHP & Variheat
ASHP & Variheat
GSHP for Indoor Pool
Water Heating
• Operational heat losses of pool made up from recovered energy
if using heat pump heat...
GSHP for Outdoor Pool
• Summer Season; March - October
• Use Air Source Heat Pump; e.g. Calorex PPT range
• COP of GSHP fi...
Funding
• Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs)
– ETL categories for heat pump dehumidifiers – DT14/16
• Carbon Trust & Sieme...
Time for a break
Any Questions?
Leisure centres   heat pumps, indoor pools & heat recovery
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Leisure centres heat pumps, indoor pools & heat recovery

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Sophisticated yet simple. THE one stop shop for every leisure centre and municipal pool operator. Saving energy, saving money, saving the planet.

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Leisure centres heat pumps, indoor pools & heat recovery

  1. 1. Leisure Centres Heat Pumps, Dehumidifiers, Heat Recovery & Indoor Pools
  2. 2. Agenda  Company Profile  What is a heat pump?  How do they work?  Leisure Centres - Setting the Scene  Air Source Heat Pumps • Space heating and hot water • Outdoor Pools • Space cooling and waste heat recovery  Heat Pump Dehumidifiers • Indoor Pools & Heat Recovery
  3. 3. Heat Pump Dehumidifiers AW Heat Pumps
  4. 4. • UK manufacturer and market leader in heat pump technology • Established for over 35 years • Supplied more Heat pumps in UK than any other manufacturer • Manufactured over 250,000 heat pumps to date • Based at 80,000 sq ft facility in Maldon Essex • Currently producing circa 10,000 units pa • Export circa 65% of finished goods Calorex Profile
  5. 5. Calorex Heat Pumps Indoor Swimming Pools Environmental Climate Control Systems. Heat Recovery & Dehumidification Outdoor Swimming Pools Air source heat pumps Portable Equipment Building Dryers Air Conditioners Air Movement Domestic Heating Ground & Air source Heat pumps Dehumidification Dehumidifiers Humidifiers Heat Recovery Calorex Product Applications
  6. 6. Services • Calorex are a UK manufacturer • Free project appraisals - including site visits • Free sizing advice and product selection • Commissioning • Maintenance contracts • Extended warranty • Nationwide service network. • Over 30 service agents covering UK & Ireland
  7. 7. Subject Matter • Public pools & leisure centres • Large Indoor pools • High energy use • High running costs • High carbon emissions • Dehumidification & ventilation • Heat recovery • Boiler substitution – replacement or bi-valent • Case studies
  8. 8. South Moorlands Leisure Centre
  9. 9. Setting the Scene • Large number of Leisure Centres 20-30 yr old • Existing AHUs often use full fresh air • Energy use in Leisure Centre with pools is high • Energy costs rising • Need to find ways of reducing running cost • Associated CO2 emissions • Environmental impact • Carbon footprint • Best practice
  10. 10. Benchmarks - Dry v Wet Annual Energy Use (kWh/m2) Dry Sports Centre Leisure Pool Centre Typical Good Practice Typical Good Practice Electricity 105 64 258 164 Heating Fuel 343 158 1321 573 Ref: ECG078
  11. 11. Benchmarks Leisure Centre with Pools • Total Area = 2500m2 (pool hall 1090m2) • Pool Area = 540m2 Leisure Centre with Pools Annual Energy Use (kWh/m2) Typical Good Practice Electricity 258 164 Heating Fuel 1321 573 Costs £119,250 £59,800 CO2 905 tonne 448 tonne
  12. 12. Energy Use Leisure Centre with Pool
  13. 13. Energy Use Leisure Centre with Pool 2 main uses of energy • Air Heating 42% – Ventilation and building losses • Water heating 17% – evaporation, back wash & dilution • Potential for 50% reduction in air heating and pool water energy use • Potential to reduce energy use of centre by 29.5% • Reduction in running costs • Reduction in associated CO2 emissions
  14. 14. Air to Water (Air Source) Heat Pumps Heat Pumps can be utilised to provide:- • Space heating • Hot water for domestic usage, e.g. bathing, dish washing etc • Pool water heating – outdoor & indoor • Space cooling • Heat recovery
  15. 15. What is a heat pump? • A heat pump is a thermodynamic device capable of recovering energy from one medium, enhancing it and transferring it to another • Heat pumps are usually based on a refrigeration cycle • They are often viewed as a ‘fridge in reverse’ • Unlike refrigerators the primary aim of a heat pump is to provide heating
  16. 16. What is a Heat Pump?
  17. 17. Air Source
  18. 18. Electricity in Heat out 2 kW 8 kW 6 kW Solar energy from the air/earth COP = Energy Out Energy In e.g. 8 kW Heat out 2 kW Electricity In COP = 4 or Efficiency = 400% Coefficient of Performance
  19. 19. COP = Coefficient of Performance COP = Total Heat Output Energy Consumed
  20. 20. Space Heating • Range of commercial heat pumps available • Heat outputs up to 70kW • Replace or supplement boilers • Simple controls, reliable operation
  21. 21. Hot Water Production • Heat Pumps can produce water at up to 70oC • Hot water can be used directly or to pre-heat incoming mains water • Energy can be taken form ambient air • Energy can be taken from an internal space to recover waste heat • Can be used in conjunction with, or to replace boiler • Can be used in conjunction with solar energy
  22. 22. Outdoor Pool • Pool water heated directly • Titanium heat exchangers • Ideal for summer time use Also applicable to pool water heating for indoor pool
  23. 23. Running Cost Savings Source:- EON 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 FuelCost(£pa) Average Annual Fuel Cost Comparison - Domestic 100m2 New Build (underfloor heating) - (Mar. 2010) Maintenance Space Htg HWS Cooking Ltg.+Pwr Possible Savings v Gas - 20% v Oil - 35% v LPG - 50% v Solid - 60% v Elec - 70%
  24. 24. Carbon Emissions Savings Source:- EON Comparison of Average Annual CO2 Emissions - 100m2 New Build (underfloor heating) - (Mar. 2010) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 11000 11500 12000 G SHP G SHP(E7) ASHP ASHP (E7) Electric Elec.(E7) G as(Cond) G as O il LPG Solid AnnualCO2Emissions(kg) Space Htg HWS Cooking Ltg.+Pwr Possible Savings v Gas - 25% v Oil - 40% v LPG - 40% v Elec - 60% v Solid - 70%
  25. 25. Space Cooling Applications – Cellar cooling – Kitchen cooling – Walk in fridge • Primary goal to cool space • Either for comfort cooling or to maintain a storage temperature • Waste heat is dissipated to hot water circuit • No external refrigeration condenser required • Sized and controlled on cooling demand • Ideal for high latent energy cooling loads
  26. 26. Waste Heat Recovery • Primary use to recover waste heat from an overheated area • Waste energy is transformed into useful heat • Hot water is produced • Pre-heats buffer tank prior to calorifiers • Cooling stops when water up to temperature • Sized and controlled on hot water usage
  27. 27. Benefits of Heat Pumps • Running cost saving – Dependant on replaced energy • Payback less than 3 years – Cooling and waste heat recovery applications • Significant Carbon savings – Up to 50% reductions possible – Helps to achieve carbon reduction targets • Reduced maintenance costs – No boiler servicing • Grants, loans and subsidies available
  28. 28. Public Swimming Pools Municipal Pools and Leisure Centres • Large surface area • High usage • Long hours • Additional water features • Large number of occupants • Spectators
  29. 29. Fundamental Requirements for Pool Complexes • WATER HEATING Replenish pool water heat losses • AIR HEATING Replenish/maintain pool air above pool temperature • DEHUMIDIFICATION Remove moisture from pool hall air • FRESH AIR Ventilate at minimum acceptable rates • HEAT RECOVERY Use available latent heat
  30. 30. Dehumidification Affects of Uncontrolled Humidity • Condensation • Damage to building • Structural damage • Damage to fabric, fixtures and fittings • Mildew and mould growth • Personal discomfort
  31. 31. What do indoor swimming pools require? 1. A pool temperature of between 28ºC and 30ºC to make swimming pools suitable for swimmers 2. Pool hall air at 1ºC above pool temperature to minimise evaporation of pool water to minimise transmission loss to air to provide a comfortable condition for occupants 3. Relative Humidity of 55-65%RH to prevent condensation and damage to building to provide a comfortable condition for occupants 4. Fresh Air Ventilation at 10 litres/sec/person or 3 litres/sec/m2 pool area Dilute CO2 build up reduce airborne chemical build up
  32. 32. Fresh Air Requirements • Number of guides state ventilation rates based on air change rates in the pool hall • Traditionally based on using fresh air for dehumidification • CIBSE Guide B2, section 3.21.7 Overall 4-6 or 8-10 ac/h dependant on use Fresh Air at 10 l/s/m2 pool hall area & 12 l/s/pers • SPATA Standard Vol 2, section 3 Fresh Air at 10 l/s/pers & 3 l/s/m2 pool area for dilution of CO2 and chemicals • ISRM & ILAM – advice based on air changes • Any fresh air introduced will need to be heated • Should be kept to a minimum for occupancy & dilution only
  33. 33. Heat Losses from a Pool There are three major sources of heat loss • Evaporation from pool – 65% • Radiation – 20% • Conduction into ground – 15% Note Use of a pool Cover will significantly reduce the heat losses from a pool and therefore the heat input required
  34. 34. Typical Swimming Pool Losses • At 28ºC a pool loses an average of 20 litres/hour per 100 square metres of pool area • For a 6 lane 25m standard pool, area 325sqm, this equates to 65 litres per hour • The energy content of this moisture is 0.627kWh per litre • This equates to 65 x 0.677 = 44kW available to be recovered • Recovering this energy will make a significant contribution to the pool energy usage
  35. 35. Dehumidification Systems There are several types of dehumidification systems available:- • 100% Fresh air • Fresh air and heat recovery • Partial re-circulation • Mechanical dehumidifier • Heat pump dehumidifier Some offer heat recovery
  36. 36. 100% Full Fresh Air
  37. 37. 100% Full Fresh Air • Simple supply and extract AHU • No heat recovery • Large air heater battery to maintain pool hall temperature • All moisture and heat exhausted • Approx 6-8 air changes required to give sufficient dehumidification at peak ambient dew point • Many existing pools still using this type
  38. 38. 100% Full Fresh Air
  39. 39. Recuperator • 100% fresh air, no recirculation • Heat recovery with plate heat exchanger • 50-60% efficiency • At what condition? • Supply air at -5oC and extract air at 30oC • Possible modulation of air flow volume to suit duty; eg lower air flow at night • Also used; run round coils & rotary wheels
  40. 40. Run-around Coils
  41. 41. Rotary Wheel ss ss ss ssss ss ssss
  42. 42. Recuperator & Recirculation
  43. 43. Recuperator & Recirculation • Recirculation to give fixed air flow volume • Fresh air volume modulated to suit DH duty • Minimum fresh air approx 30% of day time duty during night time operation • Heat recovery with plate heat exchanger • Heat recovery to air only • Up to 75% efficiency claimed for double pass recuperator • At what condition? Inlet -5oC, extract 30oC? • Little or no latent heat recovery
  44. 44. Recuperator & Heat Pump
  45. 45. Recuperator & Heat Pump • Heat pump added after recuperator • Additional heat recovery • Some latent heat recovery • Only used on exhaust air • No heat recovery on by-pass path • Heat recovery by-passed in summer • Can offer option of heat recovery to water
  46. 46. Desiccant Fresh Air Inlet Heater Heater Pool Hall Wet Air Exhaust Exhaust Air
  47. 47. Desiccant • Uses desiccant dehumidifier to do some DH duty • Fresh air modulated to suit extra duty required • Fresh air can be reduced to minimum during unoccupied periods • No heat recovery to air or water • Heat gain through rotor only 50% of regeneration heater energy use • Pay twice to evaporate water. Once for pool heating & then for regen heater to evaporate from desiccant rotor • Life of rotor 7-10 years
  48. 48. Calorex Systems • Based on heat pump dehumidifiers • Recovery of Latent heat • Recovered heat returned to air or water • Air re-circulated • Fresh air introduced when required • Units available for all pool sizes from small domestic to Olympic sized public pools • Stand alone units to fully packaged AHUs
  49. 49. Calorex HRD System
  50. 50. What is a Heat Pump? • A heat pump is a thermodynamic device capable of recovering energy from one medium, enhancing it and transferring it to another • Heat pumps are usually based on a refrigeration cycle • They are often viewed as a ‘fridge in reverse’ • Unlike refrigerators the primary aim of a heat pump is to provide heating
  51. 51. A Heat Pump is a fridge in reverse
  52. 52. Types of Heat Pump • Usually described on basis of mediums between which heat is transferred • Air to air • Air to water • Water to air • Water to water • Geothermal or ground source
  53. 53. Heat Pump Cycle
  54. 54. COP = Coefficient of Performance COP = Total Heat Output Energy Consumed
  55. 55. Why use a Heat Pump? • Recovered energy • Energy efficient • Environmentally friendly • Lower running costs • Swimming pool water usually at 28-30oC • Air temp usually 30oC • Ideal operating conditions for heat pump • COP of approx 5 • Efficiency 500% • Subtract fan energy use, efficiency still 300%
  56. 56. Heat Pump Dehumidifier
  57. 57. Calorex Variheat System
  58. 58. Calorex HRD
  59. 59. Calorex HRD
  60. 60. Calorex HRD
  61. 61. Benefits of HRD • HRD controls air temp, water temp, humidity and fresh air introduction • Pool hall air re-circulated • Fresh air modulated to keep to minimum • Fresh air volume dependant on air temp, humidity or occupancy (AQ/CO2) sensor • Fresh air volume of up to 72% of re-circulated volume • Energy saving due to latent heat recovery • Heat recovery to water and air • Heat recovery to water sufficient to make up all of operational pool water heat losses • Save 30-40% of running cost compared to recuperator based system with variable fresh air • Significant reduction in associated CO2 emissions
  62. 62. Benefits of HRD • Compact size • Fully packaged unit including controls • Controls can be stand alone or utilise local BMS controller • Smaller LPHW air heater required due to lower fresh air volumes • Boiler capacity required therefore reduced compared to AHU with recuperator • Associated project costs lower:- • Boiler • Controls • Plant room space
  63. 63. HRD Kimbolton School
  64. 64. Advantages of Calorex • Wide product range • Comprehensive range of options • Specifically designed for swimming pools • Established reputation • High quality and reliability • Excellent product support, before & after sale • Continuous product development • All units factory tested prior to despatch
  65. 65. Case Study Typical Local Authority Leisure Centre • Main Pool; 25m x 13m • Learner pool; 13m x 8.5M • Deck level type • Water in main pool at 28oC and learner pool at 30oC • Air at 30oC & 60%RH • Pool hall volume; 5000m3 • Municipal use, high activity, 16 hrs per day • No pool covers
  66. 66. Willowburn Sports and LC
  67. 67. Sizing of Heat Pump Dehumidifier Dehumidifiers are sized to cope with the average evaporation from a pool over a 24 hour period and maintain the correct humidity, usually 60%RH. Fresh air is used to assist with humidity loads at times of peak usage Factors that influence selection are:- • Pool surface area • Water temperature • Air temperature • Pool hall volume • Building heat losses and gains • Pool cover • Usage • PoolCalc selection programme
  68. 68. PoolCalc
  69. 69. Equipment Selection:- Calorex HRD30
  70. 70. Evaporation
  71. 71. Calorex HRD 30 Data • Airflow = 9.7m3/s (35,000m3/h) • Power consumption = 44kW • Heat recovery = 131kW (mode A; 117kW to water & 14kW to air) • Efficiency = 297% • Air heater = 210kW • Size = 4.15m l x 1.75m w x 2.53m h
  72. 72. Energy Analysis Energy Usage - kWh Comparative Energy Use per Annum 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 Full Fresh Air Desiccant AHU Recuperator AHU Heat Pump HRD30 EnergyUse-kWhperannum Gas Regen Heater Gas water heating Gas air heating only, building losses not included Electricity compressors & fans included
  73. 73. Energy Analysis Running Costs Running Cost per Annum Full Fresh Air £94,746 Desiccant AHU £69,334 Recuperator AHU £50,407 Heat Pump HRD30 £31,885 £- £10,000 £20,000 £30,000 £40,000 £50,000 £60,000 £70,000 £80,000 £90,000 £100,000 Costperannum Elec = 6.2p/kWh Gas = 2.4p/kWh
  74. 74. Energy Analysis CO2 Emissions CO2 Emissions per Annum Full Fresh Air 1048 Desiccant AHU 723 Recuperator AHU 510 Heat Pump HRD30 229 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 TonnesCO2perannum
  75. 75. Leisure Centres • In Britain there are 1,650 public sites with a total of 2,541 pools (source; Leisure Database Company) • CO2 saving per site when adopting Heat Pump technology from 281 to 819 tonnes per annum • A potential UK wide reduction of between 464,000 and 1,350,000 tonnes CO2 per annum
  76. 76. Health Clubs & School Pools • There are a further 1,362 private sites with a total of 1,508 pools (source; Leisure Database Company) • Assume CO2 saving per site is half that of Leisure Centre, i.e. from 140 to 410 tonnes per annum • An additional potential UK wide reduction of between 191,000 and 558,000 tonnes CO2 per annum
  77. 77. Reference Projects - UK • Cally Pool, Islington – HRD30 • St Helens Pool, Huntingdon – HRD15 • Camberwell Baths – HRD25 • William de Ferrers Centre, Essex – HRD20 • RJ & AH Hospital Hydrotherapy Pool – HRD25 • Queens Drive Recreation Centre, Liverpool – HRD20 • Pontypool Leisure Centre – HRD30 • Royal Wolverhampton School – HRD20 • Over 250 HRD units installed in pools, worldwide • 10,000s of Calorex heat pump ventilation units operating in pools of all sizes in UK and overseas
  78. 78. Cally Pool, Islington
  79. 79. Running Costs £64,469 £42,333 £- £10,000 £20,000 £30,000 £40,000 £50,000 £60,000 £70,000 Energy Cost Total 08-09 Total 09-10 Reduction: £22,135 in first 7 months or 34% Project annual reduction: £38,000
  80. 80. CO2 Reduction 513 tonne 335 tonne 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 Total CO2 Emission kg Total 08-09 Total 09-10 Reduction: 177 tonne in first 7 months or 35% Project annual reduction: 305 tonne
  81. 81. • GSHP providing LPHW at 50-55oC in place of conventional boiler • Output of LPHW coils reduced, usually flow temperature 80oC. • 40-50% of rated output!! • Need to check changed capacity against building and pool heat loads • Calorex are only company that can offer complete 100% heat pump only solution for an indoor pool • Good viable solution, particularly off gas network Air/Ground Source Heat Pump with a swimming pool AHU
  82. 82. Ground Source Heat Pump with a Delta pool AHU
  83. 83. GSHP & Variheat
  84. 84. ASHP & Variheat
  85. 85. GSHP for Indoor Pool Water Heating • Operational heat losses of pool made up from recovered energy if using heat pump heat recovery AHU • Only water heat load comes from back wash of filters and dilution for chemical treatment • Heat up from cold done rarely • Cost prohibitive to size GSHP for rapid heat up time. • Limited usage if installed just for limited pool water heat load • GSHP combined with other loads e.g. pool hall air heating, main dwelling space heating would be OK
  86. 86. GSHP for Outdoor Pool • Summer Season; March - October • Use Air Source Heat Pump; e.g. Calorex PPT range • COP of GSHP fixed at 4 • COP of ASHP variable from 4 when air at 10oC to 6 with air at 25oC • Installation cost of ASHP cheaper than GSHP • Running cost of ASHP cheaper than GSHP • Conclusion - Install ASHP
  87. 87. Funding • Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) – ETL categories for heat pump dehumidifiers – DT14/16 • Carbon Trust & Siemens interest free loan scheme – Interest free loan over 4 years – Ltd company only – Payback based on energy saving achieved – Covers installation costs • Salix Finance – Loans and grants for public sector – Can assist Local Authorities with Carbon and energy saving projects • Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) - commercial – Subsidy based on ‘metered’ renewable heat generated – <100kW; GSHP 4.7p/kWh for 20 years – current – ASHP; 1.7p/kWh for 20 years - due summer 2013
  88. 88. Time for a break Any Questions?
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