OVERVIEWLearner differences (IDs) • Learning styles o Allport (1937) - Cognitive style • Learning strategies o L2 research o Various models • Pedagogy • Affective variables o Motivation o Expectancy o Self-efficacy o Anxiety • Conclusion o 21st century
LEARNING STYLES AND STRATEGIESDEREK YIU, ELIZ TCHAKARIAN, TONY KAZANJIAN 2/24/2011 LING 8630: SLA PROFESSOR HEEKYEONG LEE
(BRIEF) HISTORY OF LEARNING STYLES• Cognitive style research o 1920s - 1930s Perceptual speed & flexibility o 1940s Field Independence - Field Dependence (FI-FD) o 1950s - 1970s Thelen (1954) - Learning style Thomas & Chess (1977) Temperament theory
CONT. o 1980s - today (Personality variables) McCarthy (1980) 4-MAT Schmeck (1988) Leveling-sharpening Impulsivity-reflectivity Myers et al. (1998) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Busato et al. (1999) Five Factor Personality Model Gardner (1983, 2000) Multiple Intelligences Model
LEARNING STRATEGIES• Neither good nor bad• Useful under certain conditions o Relevance to L2 task o Students learning style preference o Effectively linking and making connections• Biggs (1992), Schmeck (1988) o Purpose of learning Surface Achieving Deep
ISSUES IN L2 LEARNING STRATEGIESRESEARCH1. Identification of language learning strategies.• Identified through self-report.• How? o Retrospective interviews o Stimulated recall interviews o Questionnaires (2 types) o Diaries and Journals o Think - aloud and individual interview.
ISSUES IN L2 LEARNING STRATEGIES RESEARCH2. Other variables must be considered: • Gender • L2 proficiency3. Influence of cultural context: • Individualist cultures vs collectivist culture4. Explicit and integrated strategy instruction: • Researchers agree strategies should be explicitly taught. • Central argument: should strategies be taughtseparately or integrated into the curriculum?Pro to integrated: Allows learners to work withauthentic tasks.Con: What do you think?
ISSUES IN L2 LEARNING STRATEGIESRESEARCH5. Language of instruction • L1 vs L2 • Most research shows that L1 support is needed especially at the beginners level6. Transfer of strategies to new tasks • Transfer of strategies to new tasks proved to be hard in L1. • Harris (2004): study on strategy transfer taught in L1 to L2 learning. The higher achieving students showed a higher rate of transference.
LEARNING STYLES VS. LEARNINGSTRATEGIES• Styles are general approaches o visual/kinesthetic/auditory o abstract-intuitive/concrete-sequential o synthesizer o global/particular o extrovert/introvert• Strategies are specific behaviors and how we use them (i.e. cognitive, metacognitive, affective, social) o cognitive o metacognitive o affective o social used in retrieving language info, rehearsing target structures, compensating for communication gaps
STYLES...MEET STRATEGIES• Ehrman and Oxford (1990) study, using SILL and MBTI, determined which styles apply which strategies. o extroverts -> social strategies o concrete - sequential -> memory strategies o abstract - intuitive -> comprehension strategies o thinkers -> metacognitive strategies o feelers -> social strategies o open learners -> affective strategies• Study by Rossi-Le (1995) o Tactile and kinesthetic learning styles preferred socializing and interacting in conversation with native speakers
INTERACTION OF STYLES, STRATEGIES,AND TASKS• Task - meaningful activity designed to elicit specific grammatical forms which has a goal to work toward. o Primarily based in real-world, evaluated by success of the outcome• Learners will deal with tasks consistent with their individual styles and strategies o Many factors (age, proficiency, aptitude, motivation etc.) can influence which strategies a learner applies to the task o No single strategy can work for everyone
LEARNING STYLES AND RECEPTIVESTRATEGIES• Gallin (1999) study on the relationship of reading strategies and learning style o Visual learning styles tend to use more strategies overall o Concluded that abstract-intuitive and concrete-sequential styles are most likely to affect reading, in terms of inferencing skill• Similar study on learning styles and listening strategies concluded that: o Synthetic learners liked summarizing, planning and social strategies o Open and kinesthetic learners preferred social strategies o Introverts did not like summarizing strategies o Concrete-sequential learners used less resources o Abstract-intuitive used more monitoring strategies
GENERAL IDEA, INFERENCING, ANDSUMMARIZING• To get the general idea in a reading task, concrete-sequential learners will sense the organization of a text first, while abstract-intuitive will skip around, looking for key words.• Abstract-intuitive learners rely more on their own schemata to infer, whereas concrete-sequential learners focus more on clues in the text.• Synthetic and global learners were better at summarizing• Introverted learners may want to listen or read over and over to fully understand new vocabulary• Extroverted learners prefer to engage instructor or peers in the topic to understand the form, meaning, and use of certain vocabulary
PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS1. Teachers must know their students and what strategies thestudents are already using.2. Students have the potential to become better languagelearners if they are aware of the different types oflearning strategies.
MODELS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGYINSTRUCTIONThere are many different models, but all agree: 1. Making students aware of the value of using different learning strategies facilitated through demonstrations. 2. Practice is essential and students may use strategies autonomously. 3. Students should evaluate how well different certain strategies worked for them.Current Models:SSBI (Cohen, 1998); CALLA (Chamor, 2005;chamot et al., 1999); and Grenfell & Harris (1999).All three models are grounded in developingstudent awareness and encouraging the adoptionof different strategies that may help them improve.
AFFECTIVE VARIABLES - MOTIVATION• Gardner & Lambert (1959) o Socio-Educational Model of Language Learning Integrative Instrumental
MOTIVATION CONT.• Deci & Ryan (1985) o Intrinsic motivation o Extrinsic motivation• Combination of both o Continuum• Context o Types of instruction• People o Teachers, parents, administrators• Environment o Classroom, local community
EXPECTANCY MODEL• Bandura (1993); Schunk (1991); Weiner (1986) o Self perception of abilities to be successful
ATTRIBUTION THEORY• Weiner (1986) o Choice vs. fate
SELF-EFFICACY• Bandura (1997) o Believing in ones capability to take action Effort
CRITICISM• Too broad• Too simplistic• Too ambiguous• Other variables o Anxiety o Defense mechanisms o Internal attitudes o Self-esteem o Activation o Beliefs o Affective filter
CONCLUSION• Universality vs. Individuality o Students o Teachers• Learning styles, learning strategies, and affective factors are inseparable• Future directions o Expansion of previous models o Multiple methodologies