The Mad World of Ebooks Tony Horava University of OttawaAPLA presentation, May 9, 2008
Agenda The ‘madness’ and scope of ebooks Selection and collection development Budgeting Acquisitions and cataloguing Providing access to ebooks Assessing usage of ebooks Ontario’s approach to ebooks The future of ebooks
The ‘madness’ and scope of ebooks Ebooks turn our traditional procedures & paradigms upside down- how are they sold, acquired, budgeted, catalogued, made accessible What is an ebook anyway? No clear equivalent to print book Could include: Book series; reports; reference works; scanned print books; born digital texts ; special issues of journals; theses; government publications. Ebooks can be segmented by chapters (PsycBOOKS) or incorporated with other content (SpringerLink) The discourse on what constitutes publishing
Selection and collection development Tools: Vendor systems such as Coutts, Blackwell, and YBP. Aggregators such as Ebrary, EBL and NetLibrary Publisher sites How to choose between these tools?? Selection: Selecting title by title, or package by package? Do you duplicate print with electronic? How do approval plans integrate the ebook? Who does the selection? Collection development policies Faculty and end user input
Budgeting The many ways of paying for ebooks…. On book funds by subject On a serials or continuations fund On an electronic resources fund On a consortial fund On a special allocation Combination of any of the above
Assessment of ebooks We need to demonstrate cost-effectiveness and value for what we spend What value do ebooks add in relation to print books, or other library materials? How do ebooks contribute to learning outcomes and are they integrated into instruction and the teaching process? Many ways of measuring value: usage statistics, focus groups, user studies
Acquisitions issues Acquisitions practices and procedures based on traditional formats A lot of data required to acquire ebooks: vendor info, budget code, type of order, vendor code, payment options, licensing agreement, MARC records, purchase order, etc What order code is available for ebooks? Innovative Interfaces: ‘ebook’ or ‘ebook renewal’ Training of staff
A smorgasbord of licensing &acquisition models One-time cost + annual access fee One-time cost + one-time platform fee One-time cost with no annual access fee (closed collection) One-time cost + MARC records fee One-time cost with multiple payment plan Annual cost (subscription fee)
Licensing hot button issues Subscribing vs ownership (perpetual access) Unlimited access vs concurrent number of users Fixed collections vs expanding collections Restrictions imposed by DRM (digital rights management) systems: limits on printing, downloading, and coursepacks Exclusion of interlibrary loans Option to local load on ones own platform Portability: being able to migrate the content to new formats
University of Ottawa order form An e-resources order form to capture all the data (is used for ebook collections) Is submitted to an e-resources list that includes Acquisitions staff, Cataloguing, and e-resources unit Ensures key players receive the same information Includes: cost, term, fund code, location, requestor, order type, cataloguing instructions, license information, and type of resource
Cataloguing issues Ensuring title-level access in the catalogue is essential for promoting visibility and usage Creating a viable workflow and regular maintenance, as for print titles Direct links or OpenURL links from a link resolver? MARC records: from the vendor, or OCLC? How to handle records for titles offered by multiple aggregators, eg NetLibrary, ebrary Customizing records, eg URL batch changes The big challenge: Keeping the catalogue up-to- date!
Cataloguing issues (cont’d) Sampling records for accuracy, eg print ISBN; original OCLC number; GMD [“electronic resource”]; supplementary materials notes The reproduction model – print record used as the model….what happens with born-digital ebooks? The advent of FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) will change things What about sharing vendor records with OCLC? What are the implications of not doing this?
How many doors to ebooks &ebook collections? Via the OPAC Via an A-Z Database page listing Via subject pages Via an ebooks publicity page Via OpenURL links (eg SFX, Serials Solutions) Via course management systems (eg WebCT or Blackboard) – durable links Via electronic reserves
“Approaches such as creating Web pages focusingon e-books, including e-books on subject guides,and publicizing new e-books on library homepagesare just a few ways to alert patrons to the availabilityof ebooks. Because searching online catalogs for e-books often has limited success, libraries shouldstrongly consider enhancing or improving thefunctionality of search mechanisms that are used bypatrons to locate all types of electronic resources”“Accessing E-Books through Academic Library Websites” Andrea Dinkelman and Kristine Stacy-Bates.College & Research Libraries 68 (1) 45-58 Jan 2007
Usage statistics What are we measuring and how do these metrics compare? For example, number of downloads, number of searches, number of sessions, combination of various metrics Vendors present data in many different ways How does this vary by discipline or type of resource? (current; historical; chapters; full works) Are there parallels with reserves usage?
Challenges in interpreting usage Certain subjects lend themselves better to e-book format Does the heavy use of ebooks reflect lack of print books in various subject areas, or a need for extra copies? Are print & e-books used for different purposes? What is the effect of promotion/publicity & technology barriers on usage? Incongruity in comparing ebook access (short) versus print book circulation (long) Do core e-book titles represent large percentage of use?
Canadian Public Policy Collection & Canadian HealthResearch Collection – about 8,000 documents
More statistics… Eighteenth Century ACLS Humanities Collection Online: Ebook Project: Jan – Dec 2007 Sept 2006-Aug 2007 108,423 searches 1,525 searches 10,098 sessions 12,398 page views
Ontario’s approach to ebooks OCUL: Ontario Council of University Libraries Twenty universities, ranging from the very large (Univ of Toronto – 64,831) to the very small (Royal Military College – 1,941) 381,000 FTE (full-time equivalent) students Approximately 180 products licensed Total annual spend of about 11M Voluntary model Includes ejournal collections, index databases, reference tools, and ebooks, and software (eg RefWorks)
OCUL-IR Ebooks committee Established in response to a need to deal with the complexity of ebook offerings Ebook proposals are evaluated/prioritized by the committee Information gathering and negotiation Creates efficiencies in communication and pooling of knowledge Use of model license Co-chairs: Warren Holder (U Toronto) and myself. Three other members (Mary Ann Jameson, Janice Adlington, and Carol Stephenson)
Accomplishments to date Setting standards for a consortial ebook agreement: a structured process and clear objectives Leveraging our collective power in the wild marketplace of ebooks Acceptance of local hosting on OCULs ebook platform Springer ebook agreement (all 20 schools) covering 2005-2008 Elsevier ebook agreement; several schools participated Ongoing negotiations with OVID re LWW ebooks (nursing & medicine)
The Future of ebooks…. Will certainly grow in response to various factors: Better integration with course delivery Better usability of platforms Better ebook readers More access points and visibility Business models that favour the online vs the print (eg Springer) A shakedown in licensing models The Google effect Greater acceptance of digital content in some disciplines than others; will eclipse print eventually
US Trade Wholesale Electronic Book Sales (Source: International Digital Publishing Forum, Statistics)
A few caveats… The data above represent United States revenues only The data above represent only trade eBook sales via wholesale channels. Retail numbers may be as much as double the above figures due to industry wholesale discounts. The data above represent only data submitted from approx. 12 to 15 trade publishers The data does not include library, educational or professional electronic sales The numbers reflect the wholesale revenues of publishers The definition used for reporting electronic book sales is "All books delivered electronically over the Internet OR to hand- held reading devices" The IDPF and AAP began collecting data together starting in Q1 2006
Ebooks in Asia South Korea: The countrys e-book market this year is expected to amount to 140 billion won (US$144 million), a surge of 220 per cent from last year, according to the latest edition of eBook Today Japan: The Digital Content Association of Japan projects that mobile phone sales of e-books will increase to 11.7 billion yen (US$99 million) in 2007, compared to a projected 9.4 billion yen (US$79 million) for Internet sales. The convergence of mobile device technology and delivery of ebook content is a key factor