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  • 1. All power to GEOGRAPHY! Last, but not least .. Geographers' Quick Tips 2008
  • 2. Read each question very carefully to get the instructions right! (e.g. Describe? Explain? Photo or graph interpretation skills? Going beyond the resource?)
  • 3. LEAVE NO QUESTION UNANSWERED!!
  • 4.
    • They ask you to do a poster?
    • Needs writing with some development
    • Needs helpful illustrations
    • A bit of appropriate colour
    • Advice - leave until last, but get those marks!
  • 5.
    • They ask you to write a letter?
    • Lay it out correctly
    • Don’t spend hours agonising over the address!
    • What audience? Put the right ‘hat’ on
  • 6. Potentially useful terminology: Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Arterial routeways North South divide Catchment area Limiting the friction of distance Positive / negative multiplier effect Multiples Central Business District Export Zones Social Premium Sweat shop Disposable income Greenfield site Pedestrianisation Trade Unions Death of the high street
  • 7. Where several marks are available, develop your answer! Don’t rely on brief responses, however flashy ‘export zone’ , ‘greenfield site’ or ‘social premium’ may sound. Make it obvious that you know what you’re talking about and what relevance these ideas have to the question
  • 8. Be prepared to provide an answer by annotating a map.e.g. Reasons why this site was chosen for The Mall
  • 9. If you are asked to describe a location on the map - use your tools!: Compass points Scale Road numbers Junction number Built up / non built up (key) Arterial routeways Motorway network
  • 10. Who would like The Mall there? Great shopping venue near to me Could I get a job there? More employment = more taxes = more local spending on sevices More employment = local positive multiplier effect for local businesses Cheap and easy land to develop - lots of profits Will put us on the map, and may increase the CBD’s catchment area too
  • 11. Easy access off M5 J17. Large catchment area due to limiting friction of distance, access to motorway network Greenfield site - no demolition or de-contamination necessary (cheap to develop) 8km from CBD - land cheaper with distance from CBD Main arterial routeway from built up city areas -A4148.Easy access Near built up areas - customer base AND prospective employees Motorway junction / main road location good for delivery vehicles Roads less conjested here than in city centre
  • 12. Who would not like The Mall there? Loads of people encouraged to use their cars Rural habitats destroyed I’ve lost my lovely view of the fields Roads round here will get really clogged up What about ‘ death of the high street’ and its impacts?
  • 13. Simon and Purdeep’s data : No hypothesis or enquiry question Equal sample sizes (Simon - proof?) Tax discs - good, safe idea (but info may be out of date?) 10SR field work task
  • 14. Potential enquiry questions: Which shopping centre has the greater catchment area? Does the effect of ‘friction of distance’ mean that shopper numbers decline with distance from the shopping centre?
  • 15. Simon’s presentation: Mapped - good for visual catchment area / distances travelled (visual) Key - groupings good idea Groupings uneven X 19+ group not adequate X Counties not named for comparison with Purdeep’s data X Density shading not well used X Not same presentation as Purdeep’s for comparisons X Purdeep’s presentation: Obviously surveyed 100 tax discs Clearly shows no. of cars from each county No visual sense of catchment area / distance travelled at all X No use of density shading X Not same presentation as Simon’s for comparison
  • 16. “ Where would you rather shop?” - would have benefited from a more ‘neutral’ survey location
  • 17.
    • THE MALL
    • They said …
    • “ Hurrah” for:
    • Choice / variety
    • Under cover protection from weather
  • 18.
    • THE MALL
    • They said …
    • “ Ugh” for:
    • Lack of public transport
    • Distance to travel
    • Parking queues
    • ‘ Clone town’ feeling
  • 19.
    • BROADMEAD
    • They said …
    • “ Hoorah” for:
    • Public transport
    • Independents
  • 20.
    • BROADMEAD
    • They said …“Ugh” for:
    • Poor parking
    • Shop closures (DOHS evidence?)
    • Shabby (DOHS evidence?)
    • Too many bars / restaurants / mobile phone shops
    • Not enough quality shops (DOHS evidence?)
  • 21.
    • BROADMEAD ‘fight back’
    • - Pedestrianisation
    • Trees
    • - Seating
    • - Events advertising
    • WOW!!
  • 22.
    • Where were 10SR’s clothes made? (secondary industry)
    • Scale!
    • More south of N/S divide line
    • Focus SE Asia (low wages in low wage economies, no trade unions, environmental and social legislation absent or not monitored, government incentives / export zones, some highly skilled / educated (e.g. China)
  • 23.
    • Where were 10SR’s clothes made? (secondary industry)
    • So why in UK?
    • Underwear cost effective
    • Designer labels
    • Some stores (E.G George at Asda) jumping on current demand for more locally sourced goods
  • 24.
    • Resource 9 : ‘However, the wealth created by the clothing industry has had little effect on improving the lives of ordinary women workers and their families’
    • (ie unequal benefits!)
    • WHY NOT?
    • Subsistence wages so little positive multiplier effect
    • Wages kept low by lack of trade union power and Government fears that multi national company will go and find somewhere cheaper
    • Export Zones so no local taxes paid (incentive for multi national)
    • Profits leak back to MEDC HQ
  • 25.
    • Comparing CONDITIONS: Clothing manufacturing (Lesotho, Bangladesh) and Nokia mobile phone assembly factory:
    • Photo evidence:
    • DIFFERENCES?
    • Heating / ventilation / air conditioning (pipes and ducts)
    • How crowded (how dangerous in case of fire)
    • Lighting
    • How hi-tech the equipment is
    • How automated the processes seem to be (labour or capital intensive?)
    • (Text also gives us additional info on ages, abuse, working hours, lack of unions, wages and hours, comfort.)
  • 26.
    • Comparing CONDITIONS: Clothing manufacturing (Lesotho, Bangladesh) and Nokia mobile phone assembly factory:
    • SIMILARITIES?
    • Both export oriented - pressure to achieve quotas for a multi national
    • Both production line (less job satisfaction?)
    • Both laid out in rows (isolating workers - not communal)
    • Both largely womens’ jobs?
  • 27.
    • Improve conditions in clothing factories by:
    • OVER THERE
    • Allowing trade unions.
    • Enforcing ‘Codes of Conduct’
    • Multi nationals pay local taxes
    • National Minimum wages
    • Better legislation about child labour
  • 28.
    • Improve conditions in clothing factories by:
    • OVER HERE
    • Boycotting products (but could be counter productive)
    • Making our feelings known by letter writing, petitions etc (threaten multi national with bad publicity)
  • 29. Our Example of a Product web Starbucks coffee Coffee beans – Ethiopia- PRIMARY Cleaning Centre – Ethiopia Auction – Ethiopia Exported from Djibouti Roasted - Netherlands Sold in Starbucks - UK
  • 30. A Consumer Landscape is simply a place where people shop!
  • 31. Definition of an ‘extreme environment’: Definition of an Extreme Environment: “Exhibits harsh and challenging environmental conditions such as climate and landscape, far outside the boundaries of what a human can comfortably tolerate”
  • 32. Greenland and Antarctica Similarities: Both land-based High latitude / below freezing temps Ice sheets Coastal areas warmer Winter darkness / summer daylight Used for scientific climate change research
  • 33. Greenland and Antarctica Differences: Antarctica - Thicker ice sheets Antarctica - no indigenous people / permanent residents Antarctica - more extreme cold (Vostok - coldest recorded temps of less than -85 degrees (higher latitude) Antarctica - drier (desert) More inaccessible
  • 34. Antarctica
  • 35. Antarctica physical processes: Basal slippage Ice shelves / ice bergs Ventifaction Ventifacts (Ice streams and glaciers)
  • 36. Antarctica physical processes: Posh A*words Eolian transport Abrasion erosion Saltation Prevailing katabatic winds
  • 37. If you are asked about: Depends on Antarctic Treaty future AND Depends on Global Warming Mass tourism? Mineral exploitation? (will we still want / need these resources?) International conflict? Whaling? Krill fishing? Futures
  • 38. If you are asked about: Unequal Development
    • Antarctic Peninsula versus interior ?
    • How different countries might exploit their claims in the future?
  • 39. If you are asked about: Globalisation
    • Effects of global mass media ?
    • Effects of quicker, easier transport (tourism?)
    • Trade / multi nationals and resulting CO2 emissions (global warming)?
  • 40. If you are asked about: Interdependence
    • Effects of global mass media?
    • Effects of quicker, easier transport (tourism?)
    • Trade / multi nationals and resulting CO2 emissions (global warming)?
    • PLUS
    • Antarctic Treaty
    • Scientific cooperation
  • 41. If you are asked about: Sustainability
    • Could focus on sustainable tourism
  • 42. Our Place
  • 43. If you are asked about: Futures? Globalisation? Interdependence? Sustainability? Use:
    • Stanton site eco town
    • Tesco - death of high street
    • Stanton closure by multi national Saint Gobain
    • Stanton closure
    • Afghan drugs link
    Stanton site - new mixed-use eco friendly devt (with SUDS?!)
  • 44. Fair Trade - the key ideas:
    • Wages / guaranteed prices
    • Conditions
    • Environment
    • SOCIAL PREMIUM
    • Cooperative groups
    • Democratic decision making
  • 45. Fair Trade - the key ideas: BUT: Many farmers can’t afford to provide the environmental safeguards Some supermarkets cream off extra profits Doesn’t change overall unfair global trading practice Doesn’t help development of secondary industry, with its ‘value added’
  • 46. Organic - the key ideas:
    • No harmful chemical fertilisers, pesticides, insecticides
    • Benefits the environment - bio diversity of fauna and flora
    • Benefits human health?
  • 47. That's It! All the best from Mrs M and Mr C xxx