OCR Pilot Geography Revision notes 2010Presentation Transcript
The following notes should be used with your photocopied booklet, class
notes and the Antarctica revision resource.
Exam time- 24th June 2010
Please be present promptly for 8.45 – Quick tips.
Remember this is 33% of your final mark.
T.Cassidy- Kirk Hallam Community Technology and Sports College 2010
You should make sure that you can answer the following
In what ways are jeans a global product? How can products be traded more fairly?
What is ethnical consumerism? How can people be persuaded to buy fairly traded products?
What are ‘clone’ and ‘home’ towns? Why are our high streets changing? How would you
describe your ‘My Place’?
Page 9-11, 13-20
How would you discover the sphere of influence of your ‘My Place’?
What is globalisation? Is it a good thing? Who are the winners and losers?
What makes extreme environments extreme? How and why are extreme environments used by
people? What is the future for extreme environments?
It might be useful to answer these blind (do not use a
blindfold, this wouldn’t be appropriate ) using the resources,
then complete revision on your areas of weakness. 2
Futures- how, and why, might a place be in the future?
Uneven Development- why are some places more developed than
Globalisation –the flow of wealth, people and goods increasingly
across national borders.
Interdependence – how are different places linked to each other.
Sustainability –the use of resources, or an environment, in a way
that makes it available to future generations.
Love the Fugis! By the way, it would not be useful to just
ignore this booklet, or smoke it, read and revise.
Can you provide examples from the graphic
Example of a product web- below to illustrate the different sectors of
Mmm, nice jeans-
remember that these
represent a niche market.
They are targeted at a
smaller market , therefore
command a higher price.
Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary
- Extraction of raw materials - Manufacturing of a product. - Provides a service - Research and development
from the ground.
North America Asia
LEDC- Less economically developed country.
MEDC- More economically developed country.
Example of a product web-
Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary
- Extraction of raw materials - Manufacturing of a product. - Provides a service - Research and development
from the ground.
Jeans are a good example of a global product; they require a number of components from different countries. Fourteen
countries are involved in the manufacturing of ‘Style Jeans’. Most of the countries involved are located in the continent of
Europe. The majority of the primary products needed for the creation of the jeans are from LEDCs , whilst the majority of
the manufacturing of the component products for the jeans are from MEDCs.
Why are the jeans sewn in Tunisia?
• Cheaper wages- due to lower quality of life.
• Lower fixed overheads, i.e. buildings, energy.
We could also speculate on
• Weaker legalisation on working practices governing, pay, holidays,
• Weaker legalisation on treatment of the environment.
• Lack of trade union representation.
Why do retailers take a larger share of the profits?
• Higher fixed overheads
• Employment of staff.
• Cost of high street locations.
• Energy costs.
If you were trying to flog the jeans, what would you
promote to the consumer?
How could the products What’s stopping LEDCs
be traded more fairly? manufacturing Jeans?
Freer and fairer
MEDCs could Issue inhibiting the development of LEDC
•Remove import taxes, tariffs and quotas- this economies.
• Trade rules
•Make LEDC products cheaper
•Widen their market •Lack of infrastructure, roads, railways, airports.
•Encourage the manufacturing of products
• Lack of capital for investment in manufacturing.
by LEDCs (import taxes tend to be higher
on manufactured products.) • Lack of skilled workers, due to lack of
•Reduce subsidies for rich producers i.e. investment in education and training.
American cotton growers- this would
• Difficulty in accessing MEDC markets.
• Enable LEDC farmers to compete
• Widen their market • Political Stability.
• Allow LEDCs to reduce imports, international
loans are dependent on opening their markets-
• Allow LEDCs to protect their local
industries as they grow and become What might put people off purchasing the jeans?
Ethical consumerism is A fairer trade?
purchase of products Fair Trade products
and services that do guarantee that the producer
not exploit humans, is paid a price that covers
and do minimal harm their cost of production.
to animals and the On top of this a 10% social premium is paid- this is invested in
•Community programmes i.e. Health care.
natural environment. •Improved production methods
Ethical consumerism is practiced •Diversifying into new markets
through 'positive buying' of ethical Fair Trade products also guarantee
products and the 'moral boycott‘ of non- •Guaranteed prices and markets for the producer
ethical products and companies. •Appropriate working conditions
•No child labour
As sourced, and adapted, from •Co-operative and democratic decision making
Wikipedia. •Organic production
The New Economic Foundation have How and why are our high streets
suggested that high streets have
increasingly become homogenised. changing?
Increase in multiple stores, loss of •Multiple stores offer
independent stores • predictability of price, service and
This means that multiple (those
with outlets on a number of high
• loyalty schemes
streets) retailers and services now
• larger range of products
dominant the high street, therefore Remember, your place Ilkeston is a • lower prices due to bulk buying and
they have become clones. High good example of how a town has their influence with producers
streets increasingly look the same. both suffered from out of town • in the case of supermarkets, a wider
shopping and fought back using range of goods under one roof, free car
environmental improvements and parking , longer opening times etc
diversification. •Multiple stores can afford high rents for prime
•Enhanced environment to compete with Increase in empty, vacant, stores • Closure of independent stores due to
out of town shopping, in order to attract competition from multiples and out-of-town
people and business. shopping.
Think Ilkeston- • Current economic climate.
•CCTV Diversification of land-use • Leisure and entertainment- pubs, clubs, cafes
•Vegetation and street furniture etc.
• Heritagisation • Emphasis on heritage to attract tourism.
•Improvement car parking • Special events, markets, fairs.
•Improving public transport links
The New Economics • A home town, one that is dominated by • A border town, one with a balance of
Foundation also recognises independent retailers and services. independent and multiple retailers
two other types of high street. and services.
Cloning and Letchworth Criticism of the sampling technique
• How were the two areas chosen?
Garden City • Are these the best areas or worse? Either would influence the results.
• A full area survey may have given a more accurate result.
How else could we present this data?
• Produce % results, this also allows comparison with other shopping areas.
• Graph these results to produce a visual representation.
• Map the results, this produces spatial representation of the data, clustering
may be seen which will highlight the more successful shopping areas and
suggest whether there is business by association in terms of multiples, or
retailers/service selling similar products and services.
Why the result?
Litchfield Garden City has 17 multiples (30%) , 5 vacant shops (10%) and 34
independent stores (60%), this makes it a home town- why?
• According to the resource the town has four supermarket, competition
and everything under one roof!
• The settlement is only half an hour to London, a vast range of outlets here
for people to shop within!
In your own research, most of your results concluded that Ilkeston was a
clone/border town. Why?
• Environmental improvements such as pedestrianisation.
• Serves surrounding semi-rural area?
But it’s not dominant by multiples. Why?
• Environmental issues- i.e. Lower Bath Street
• Proximity to Nottingham and Derby
• Impact of Tesco
• Lacks the threshold population for some multiples.
Cloning is it all bad?
Pros of cloning Cons of cloning.
Raised status of the shopping area, more Less choice for consumers.
consumers attracted potentially from a larger
Multiples attract other multiples- business by Independent retailers can not compete with
association. multiples due to higher overheads. Closure. Loss
of employment. Leakage of money from the high
street and local area.
Multiples will be willing to pay higher rents for Loss of independent retailers leads to
prime locations. Tax incomes increase, increase in homogenisation.
Multiples have more money to spend on shop Loss of independent retailers could lead to an
frontages, environment is improved. increase in vacant buildings and a declining
environment. Loss of tax incomes.
Health of the high street is improved. Potentially declining health of the high street.
Consumers like the predictability of multiples. Less able and affluent in society left with less
(Services, quality, environment, price.) choice.
How can we find your ‘My Place’s’ sphere of influence?
Technique What this would show us? How could we present/interpret What issues are there with this
this information? technique?
Questionnaire of people on the high • Where people travel from to get to •Convert the results into % and graph Sample size
street Ilkeston. to show different locations. Age of the individuals sampled?
• Map the results. Location of the sample taking
• From the map work out the average may affect the result. i.e. next to
distance travelled by people. car park/bus stop/ supermarket
Result may vary due to the time
of day/day/time of year, i.e.
Survey the tax discs of cars within car • Tax discs will show the areas the • Convert the results into % and graph • Only surveys car users, who may
parks cars are registered in, and to show different locations. therefore travel further.
therefore how far people have • Map the results. • Cars may be registered in different
travelled. • From the map work out the average areas to where the owner lives.
distance travelled by people.
Bus timetables •Shows the area that people are able to Map the locations served by the • Only surveys bus users.
travel from via bus to the area. bus routes • People may not travel the full distance
Worked out the average from the surrounding settlements.
distance an individual can travel
to from Ilkeston.
Where shops/services deliver • Shows how far services/retailers are • Approach different retailers/services. Some shops/services may not
willing to deliver. • Map the distance that they are willing deliver.
to deliver their products. Shops/Services may be unwilling
• Work out the average distance. to share the information.
Visitor books at tourist locations- i.e. Will show where visitors have • Use visitors books and tourist • Tourist are likely to travel further,
Erewash museum travelled from. literature to find out the areas people therefore is this an accurate portrayal?
Languages used on tourist literature Tourist materials will be in have travelled from. • Ilkeston is not tourist hotspot!
languages of the most frequent • Map the findings. Gathering data may be difficult.
visitors. •Work out the average distance
Describe the location of How would you describe
Letchworth Garden City. Ilkeston? (My Place)
•Located between Nottingham and Derby
•Limited ethnic diversity- majority of the population is
white and British
•Ex- industrial settlement- primary – coaling mining,
secondary, steel production and textiles.
• Employment services/ tertiary related- largest
employer is Tesco.
Why are house prices so
high in Letchworth
• South East of England
• Next to the M1/A1, close to the A505
• North-West of London • Higher population in the South-East, supply and
• Appropriately 30 Km North-West of London demand.
• Appropriately 7.5 km North-West of Stevenage. • Close proximity to London, house prices extremely
It might be useful to bring a ruler to the exam- particularly
useful for scales! • Short commute and access to capital London.
Ok, go over the top- bring a pen and pencil too! • Semi-rural nature of the settlement.
What would you tell people about
Education Employment Tourism
• Four secondary schools • Tesco is currently the largest
• Industrial heritage, mining and steel
• local sixth-form employer
• Numerous primary schools • Primary industry employment in
•Links to author Lawrence who lived
• Local college farming, mining has declined
in the area and used Ilkeston as
•University of Derby •Loss of secondary employment in
inspiration for town life in his writing
steel making and textiles
Environment Ilkeston Transport
• Close to the M1
• Some Brownfield sites, i.e. Stanton
My Place • Well served by buses
• Continued campaign for the
• Close to the Peak District National
reopening of the train station
The resource suggests you may have to •Short distance to East Midlands
• Environmental improvements made
describe your place- you are best placed to Airport
to the High Street
Sadly we struggle with physical features-, but
you could talk about the proximity of the
Peak National Park.
Shopping Local Issues
• Decline in employment
• Tesco, two other supermarkets.
• Vibrant high street with a number of
Leisure and opportunities- i.e. Stanton
• Drugs use
• Close to both Nottingham and Derby-
Entertainment •Dominance of Tesco and its
• Vibrant high life impact on retailers
major shopping areas • Leisure centre •Reopening of the train station
•Lady boy dancers
Can you draw a simple sketch map to show
the location of your place?
Approx 8 miles NE of Derby City Centre Approx 6.5 miles NW of Nottingham City
Letchworth Garden City Ilkeston
Complete the following table using
resources 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Type of settlement Town Town
Location Located next to A1 Located near M1
South-East of England, 30 NW of London 6.5 miles NW of city centre Nottingham
Rural/Urban Urban/Rural Fringe Urban/Rural Fringe
Population 333,600 38,000
Ethnicity Not provided in the resource Predominantly white
Average House price 2 bedroom house £249,950 Semi-detached 2-3 bedrooms
3 bedroom house £335,000 £100.000+
Accessibility Close to A1/M1- Good road access. Close to M1/Good road access.
London 30 mins via rail. Frequent bus services to Derby and
Nottingham, no train station.
Employment opportunities Not provided in the resource Primary industry- local-farming, opencast
Highly likely that many individuals work in mining.
London. Declining manufacturing industry.
Tertiary- largest employer Tesco.
Local Services 4 secondary schools, 5 primary schools Vibrant High Street, number of multiples
4 supermarkets and a number of multiples Tesco Supermarket
on the high street Cinema
Leisure centre Leisure centre
Local issues Not provided in the resource Impact of Tesco
High cost of housing? Close of manufacturing, Stanton.
Crime, particularly drugs
You might wish to consider where you would rather live!
Issues in our place!
• Pays local rates/taxes
• Provides local jobs in TERTIARY sector
Development of large Tesco
store at the bottom of Bath
• Positive multiplier effect locally
Street, to the north of
Ilkeston’s town centre. Only a • Provides wide range of affordable products and
couple of minutes walk from
the peripheral part of Ilkeston services
shopping area. The store has
quite recently developed • Sponsors local community events, and ‘cause-
another floor and increased its
product range. related marketing’ such as computers for schools
• Supports some local product producers
• Byincreasing Ilkeston shopping’s catchment
area, may have been instrumental in attracting
Make sure you know at
other multiples to local out-of-town retail parks,
least one of these issues. such as M&S
• Good disabled access / child-friendly
• Local bus company axed its Kirk
Hallam - Ilkeston town centre route,
• Signs of Death of High Street in Ilkeston town blaming this on fact that in survey, over
centre, such as … half of Kirk Hallam shoppers used Tesco;
only 25% used the town centre (April
- closure of main food multiple in town, 2006)
- high % vacant / vandalised shops, therefore • All in all, Tesco doesn’t seem to have
less choice for those not using Tesco (who?) acted as an overall magnet for
increasing numbers of shoppers visiting
- high % charity shops / pound shops Ilkeston. No visible signs of it having
helped to revitalise Lower bath Street
•Location on loop road, meaning that
shoppers tend to by-pass the town centre
• Tesco is a large multiple; despite
local economic benefits, large
• Encourages more car journeys (pollution, amounts of money generated will
congestion) ‘leak’ out of the immediate area
Local iron works, been around for 150 years,
finally shutting up shop and moving from
site. This releases a 500 acre brownfield site
for redevelopment . CHARACTERISTICS:
. Majoremployer (secondary industry) in local area,
although well past its boom period
• Since 1990’s, owned by a French multi national
company (HQ Nancy) - Saint Gobain (operations in 46
• Makes iron and concrete pipes
• No longer a desired site - scrap steel and energy costs
too expensive in Britain
• Plans are for a multi functional land- • Loss of @200 local jobs in
use, including housing for different socio- secondary industry
economic groups, employment
opportunities with an industrial estate
development, leisure / green field • Resulting local negative multiplier effect
facilities, local shops, school. (including implications for suppliers of
• Release of 500 acre site for
redevelopment (of regional • Road links to site aren’t good -
importance) congestion fears (eg to A52)
• Currently targeted as a housing
development site, helping to meet the • Pressure to leave as a wild-life site due
housing needs of the East Midlands to urban pressures on greenfield sites
(Why the need?) Bring house prices
• This will provide a huge amount
of local tax revenue and local jobs;
initially construction, later, in
shops, school, industrial estate
• Could boost trade in Ilkeston town
• Site currently a bit of an eye-sore
What is globalisation?
The term globalisation is contested, a general Make sure you know this definition.
An increase in the flow of goods, services, people,
capital across national borders in order to create a
more integrated and interdependent world economy.
There are several factors which have lead to the process of
Improved transport means that people and goods can be
moved around the world more quickly. Distance between
places hasn’t changed, but the time needed to cover those
Improvement in technology, such as the internet, has meant
that capital (money) can be transferred instantly between Basically the
locations. People can also use telephones and the internet
to communicate more easily in ‘real time’. World is
Improvements in technology have also lead to the
development of a mass media, television, radio and
internet, far off places now seem much closer… we can even
see them in real time. 21
Who are the winners of globalisation?
Global competition keeps import Greater cultural
prices and inflation low- good for exchanges- via travel,
consumers. social networking,
I would reconsider these
Countries with a comparative statements again, how are
advantage in a certain area can Liberalisation of cultural values individuals, LEDCs, MEDCs and
compete internationally, i.e. i.e. attitudes towards women, TNCs winner and losers because of
cheaper labour in Asia. importance of democratic globalisation?
You could do this with a cup of tea
and some coloured pencils, but
Wider access to markets Raised global awareness of that’s just me.
across the World. environmental problems and the
need to protect fragile
environments – Antarctica and the
Brain drain from LEDC
countries- MEDC attract
educated workers, i.e.
Doctors/Nurses in the NHS. Raised awareness of the plight
of workers in LEDC countries-
Improved flow of Coca-Cola.
capital, goods and
people. Allows capital investment
in LEDC countries,
Individuals become employment, potential to
more globally aware raising quality of life.
opportunity to travel A wider range of consumer
and a globalised media. products and culture to
Who are the losers of globalisation?
MEDC jobs are outsourced to Trading rules are unfair and Trans-national corporations
Increased risk of global
cheaper locations – My disadvantage LEDC countries, their pandemics being spread- Swine dominating certain sectors i.e.
Place- St Gabian- Stanton- products are subject to import Microsoft, less choice for
manufacturing moved to tariffs and quotas.
Issues with related to Critics argue that access to
More integrated global National brands and consumer products and culture
companies are taken over migration? UK- migrants
economy- national from Iraq/Afghanistan, is restricted to the educated and
economies are more by transnational wealthy, it is also restricted in
corporations, this may Eastern Europe- issues of
sensitive to financial integration and social some countries. i.e. censorship
malpractice/crisis in impact on local of media in Iran and Iraq.
communities- the friction- local politics
other countries i.e. sub- BNP.
prime loans in the U.S. company has no loyalty Trans-national corporations
to the country of origin-. have huge influence over
and the credit crunch. St Gabian, Stanton and Multinationals exploit less government policy due to their
Kraft and the take-over of rigorous worker investments – Columbia, Coca-
Global connections are not Cadburys. protection/health and Cola and Trade Unionism.
always positive- Heroin trail, safety legislation in LEDC
Brain drain from LEDC Increased risk of cultural
Afghanistan to Ilkeston. countries – Coke- Sugar
countries- MEDC attract misunderstanding and
production in El Salvador,
educated workers, i.e. violent reaction to it –
National companies may not Nike in Indonesia.
Doctors/Nurses in the NHS. Islamic Cartoons row in
be able to compete with
global counterparts. i.e. Steel Denmark, McDonalds in
Local traditions threatened Access to loans for LEDC India.
Industry in the UK, faced countries is reliant on them
with competition from by alien cultural values- Environmental impact-
Japanese tradition of not opening their markets to
China. products produced in countries
eating and walking, imports from MEDC, their
with poor environmental
Chinese not celebrating industries are unable to
legislation- i.e. India and Coke-
birthdays- McDonalds compete.
water sustainability. Food
What is an What type of biome would
extreme you classify our extreme
environment? environment as?
Definition of an Polar
“Exhibits harsh and
Remember the resources show, desert, polar and mountain
conditions such as You should think about which is most like your extreme
climate and landscape, environment, how it is similar and how it differs.
far outside the
boundaries of what a
human can comfortably
What is an our
Cold temperatures Low Precipitation
Why can Antarctica be classed as an
• Very cold temperatures - even coastal areas are @ minus 12
degrees C in summer. Vostok recorded minus 89.2
degrees in 1983
• Extreme Weather events such as whiteouts and
blizzards, strong katabatic winds.
•Long periods of 24 hour darkness in parts during
• Low precipitation- classed as a desert area.
• Accessibility to the continent is difficult-
particularly during Winter months.
• Extreme physical landscape- ice sheets, glaciers,
crevasses, Sustrugi, high altitude.
How does the climate of resource
environments compare with our extreme
Much lower temperatures
vary across the
Cold desert- low
equivalents vary across
rainfall per month is
generally higher than the
due to its coastal
location 200 mm, Vostok-
annual equivalent 4.5
Use of Antarctica
What is meant by the term exploitation?
The use of an environment by humans.
What is meant by the term sustainability?
The exploitation of an environment ,or natural resource, in
a way that if can be used by future generations.
I would revise a Tourism
couple of examples-
please also use your
• Disturbing breeding birds and
• Litter and waste- entangled
•Wildlife watching sea birds
• Pollution from ships, effluent
•Mountaineering and oil
•Explorer curiosity •Vegetation degradation-
(e.g. Scott’s hut) trampling on moss and lichens.
•Scientific research • Invasive species from the hulls
station visits of boats.
How is Antarctica • Taking cultural objects- i.e.
used? What is the
• Research in global warming
and ozone depletion. • Contamination of lakes
under the ice sheet through
• Large ice records for ice drilling.
cores -measure changing
concentrations of carbon • Waste disposal from the
dioxide. research stations.
• Remote location allows • Plane transport adds to
accurate assessment of global warming risk.
concentrations/ measuring of • Shipping, threat of invasive
UV intensity. species, oil spillage.
• Measurements of ice sheet • Japanese also state that
thickness, glacier their whaling is for scientific
speeds/retreat, sea temps. research.
Primary Resource exploitation
• Whaling by the Japanese • Threatens sustainability of
the whale population-
• Krill fishing humpbacks particularly.
• Whaling ships may introduce
invasive species, or
contaminate the ocean,
through oil spillage etc.
• Overfishing of Krill may
impact on higher trophic
levels e.g. Penguins and
Antarctica Treaty- International agreement
on the exploitation of the environment.
• No military use of Antarctica. • Any scientific activity must
not impact on the flora/fauna.
• All waste must be removed
from the continent. • Historical/cultural heritage
must not be damaged by any
• Currently mineral exploitation
• Any tourist activity must
• No hunting or killing of seals meet the requirements of
• Strict quotes on fishing in the the treaty- environmental
Southern Ocean. impact audits must be
Dry Valleys warm, permafrost Icebergs reduce open Global warming makes
Global melts- resulting in increased ocean- plankton decline the continent more
risk of carbon dioxide being in numbers, food chain is
Warming released. disrupted.
In the short term, ice Icebergs collide into the
sheets may thicken and continent- disrupting
glaciers grow. migration routes of
Antarctica Emperor penguins.
future? Native species can’t adapt
to the changing climate Land- based ice sides into the sea.
Increase in global
The booklet suggests you will sea levels.
need to know about how overwhelm native
Antarctica might change in the species. Warming of the Peninsula has
future and why, make sure you lead to increased colonisation by
are familiar with the following land-based penguins, mosses
examples. Warmer temperatures and lichens.
Nearly there! accelerate the process
of basal slippage.
resulting in more Loss of sea ice results in a decline
icebergs. in the Krill population- they feed
on algae on the bottom of the
ice- impacts on the food chain.
Mass Tourism Mineral
Extraction Aesthetics of the continent
Global warming makes
the continent more
Mineral resources, such as
accessible. Fauna Increased risk of accidents.
oil become rarer- it
Limits on tourism are disturbed becomes more cost
removed. during mating effective to exploit Potential oil spills.
Cultural heritage such
as Scott’s hut is Increased risk Warmer temperatures
damaged. of accidents. make working conditions Overfishing
Rare lichens, mosses
and plants damaged. Potential oil spills. Antarctica Treaty is not
Ships bring invasive Potential conflict over mining Krill is overfished
species to the continent. and drilling rights on the resulting in decline in
continent. species higher up the
Invasive species food chain- i.e. Whales,
overwhelm native Potential conflict and Penguins.
species. militarisation of the continent
Increase in litter left Ships bring invasive species to Agreement on
behind, hazard to the the continent. Whaling breaks
fauna, doesn’t down- species are
degrade. at increased risk of
Invasive species extinction.
Increased awareness of
the importance of the
continent. Industrial pollutants released in the sea.
Portrayal and Place
Portrayal of place: a depiction
(description) of a place through the
use of words, images and music.
Diverse range of flora and fauna
Barren Increasingly inviting, through tourism, research opportunities and
the globalisation of media
Resource rich, though in some cases difficult to exploit e.g. mineral
Potential for economic development, limited to tourism and
But later recognised as a potential area for commercial fishing due to Antarctica Treaty.
Challenging; though made easier through advancements in
Heroic/Manly Heroic, gender no barrier
Geographically isolated Still geographically isolated; more accessible through tourism and
research, plus remote access via the globalisation of media
Mystery debunked somewhat by scientific research and the media
Stable Still, but limited due to the Antarctica Treaty
Fragile, vulnerable to environmental degradation and human
Portrayal and Place
How is our extreme environment portrayed?
Portrayal and Place
TV series based on Scott and
Amundsen’s race to the South
• Place for heroes and heroics.
• Challenge to be overcome.
•National Importance –
• Enduring part of our national
• Harsh environment that that
the human body struggles to
Portrayal and Place
Al Gore’s documentary on
• Fragile environment.
•Influence by human activity.
• As such, how environment is
interconnected to our lives.
• Importance of physical
features and processes, such as
basal slippage, ice sheets, and
• Global importance in relation
to sea level stability.
Portrayal and Place
March of the Penguins- film
about Emperor Penguins.
• Harsh and challenging
• As a result biodiversity is
•Special adaptations are
need to survive in the
Portrayal and Place
Remember Andrew Cooney
(Youngest Person to reach
the South Pole) visited you
and gave a lecture.
• Entices people who look for
•Harsh environment, an
individual has to be prepared
mentally and physically.
• The challenging climate and
physical features, such as
crevasses and Sustrugi.
Portrayal and Place
We listened to an extract
from Michael Palin’s Pole to
• Inaccessibility of the
• Harsh and challenging
•Entices people who look for
• Importance of scientific
research on climate, e.g.
global warming and ozone.
• Availability of mineral
• Strategically importance-
United States presence at the
Process: Basal melt and slippage Physical Processes
Pre-release booklet doesn’t refer to physical
Snow falls, and over thousands of processes this year, but it is useful to have a
background knowledge, particularly when
years of not melting, accumulates considering the future of Antarctica. I love a
- can be several km deep, bit of basal slippage.
As snow accumulates, it is In summer when
compressed into ice forming temperatures rise,
an ice sheet icebergs break off the
Due to basal melt, bottom of end of the ice shelf -
ice is lubricated and slides over by process called
bedrock downhill due to calving
As ice is Ice may move fast as an ice
compressed stream (moves through ice) or
, bottom slower as a glacier (moves
layer is through rock-sided valley)
pressure. This forms an ice
This causes shelf - protruding
basal melt. When ice stream or out to sea, but
glacier reaches the connected to land
coast, it carries on ice. It floats as it
flowing out to sea reaches deeper
Dry Valley conditions
Abrasion erosion: favour process of
Location: Mc Murdo Dry wind carried ventifaction:
Valley particles are ‘sand • Desert conditions
Prevailing winter wind blasted’ against (lack of precipitation)
direction: Westerly off Ice facing rock surface
• No snow cover and
little vegetation, so …
plentiful supply of
Katabatic Ventifact exposed particles of
(gravity driven) Side of rock rock - rock and ice
winds carrying facing often weird
rock and snow prevailing wind and • Frequent strong
particles may become wonderful katabatic (gravity
grooved or shapes driven) winds.
Even in strong winds,
particles can’t be
continuously held in the air.
Instead, particles bounce Loose, exposed rock and
along ground - saltation. snow particles
This erosion is focused on Enjoy!
base of ventifact, resulting
in mushroom shaped rocks