Biotechnology
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  • 1. A wide ranging scientificfield which includes themanipulation of livingorganisms that results innew products orprocesses by that cell.
  • 2. Gregor Johann MendelDiscovered the LawsGoverning the GeneticInheritance of Traits byScientific Experimentation.Founded Modern Genetics.
  • 3. *Creation of RECOMBINANTDNA*GENE CLONING*GENE TRANSFER
  • 4.  When DNA is extracted from an organism, all its genes are obtained In gene (DNA) cloning a particular gene is copied (cloned)
  • 5. WHAT IS GENE CLONING ?• To "clone a gene" is to make many copies of it• Act of making many identical copies of gene• Gene can be an exact copy of a natural gene• Gene can be an altered version of a natural
  • 6. Cell based DNA cloning Cell-free DNA cloning (PCR)
  • 7. Blood sample DNA is extracted- here from blood DNA Restriction enzymes, e.g. EcoRI, HindIII, etc., cut the DNA into small pieces Different DNA pieces cut with the same enzyme can join, or recombine. RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE
  • 8. PCR technique ds DNAStep 1 DenatureStep 2 AnnealStep 3 Extend
  • 9. 1st cycle 2nd cycle 3rd cycle 4th cycle 5th cycle 6th cycle
  • 10. * Flavr Savr Tomato*Golden Rice *BT Cotton * BT Brinjal
  • 11. DELAYED RIPENING IN TOMATO
  • 12. VIRUS RESISTANT TOMATO
  • 13. NORMAL GOLDENRICE RICE
  • 14. BIOTECHNOLOGICALAPPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE ProteinPharmaceuticals Vaccines & Therapeutic Agents Diagnostics: Protein or DNA Based Gene Therapy Stem Cell Research Cancer Treatment
  • 15.  Insertion of a new “healthy” gene into the organism to provide needed (usually) proteins, hormones etc. Gene is carried into the host by a viral vector that has been disabled Can provide relief for many genetic diseases Problems: Jessie Gelsinger, xscid babies immune responses, and cancer
  • 16. ORAL VACCINEHUMULIN
  • 17. 1983 Transgenic Mice 1997 Cloned sheep
  • 18. THANKSSS !!!