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Cause and effect

Cause and effect

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Lesson Plan Lesson Plan Document Transcript

  • Lesson Plan in English Grammar for Fourth Year StudentsI. Objectives Students must be able to do the following at the end of the activities with at least 85% proficiency: Match cause-effect relationship. Use conjunctions to show cause-effect relationship. Compose a paragraph using conjunctive adverbs.II. Subject Matter Conjunctions/Connectives of Cause and Effect Reference: English Book pp. 228-230 Materials: Visual AidsIII. Procedure A. Motivation: 1. Ask the class the following questions: a. Have you ever done something that did not have an outcome? 2. Introduce the cause-effect topic. A cause is WHY something happens. An effect is WHAT happens. B. Presentation: 1. Introduction a. Introduce the lesson. C. Discussion 1. Discuss cause-effect relationship and how to use the connectives. Cause-effect relationship is a form of reasoning to reach valid conclusions. In grammar, we can show this relationship by using conjunctions/connectives of cause and effect. These connectives may introduce the cause-clause or the effect-clause. Example: 1. Ken did not do his homework. 2. He got a bad grade. a. Ken did not do his homework; (therefore/so/thus/consequently), he got a bad grade. b. (Because/Since) Ken did not do his homework, he got a bad grade. In letter a, 2 independent clauses were joined/combined by the connective „therefore‟. In writing this sentence, use a semicolon (;) after the first clause then add a connective followed by a comma (,). In letter b, the 1st sentence was introduced by the connective “Since”. In writing this sentence, we only used a comma to separate the 2nd sentence.*The connectives that introduce the cause-clause () 1
  • If, since, because, thus* The connectives that introduce the effect-clause Therefore, so, thus, consequently*other examples of cause-effect connectives Hence, for, for this reason, on account of this, it follows, as a result, arising from this, so that, etc 2. Ask the students to match the cause-effect relationship of the examples given. C. Application 1. Let the class answer the exercises on the board by using conjunctions to show cause-effect relationship.IV. Evaluation: A. Let the students answer the question using proper conjunctive adverbs on a piece of paper: 1. Why are trees important in the ecological system?V. Assignment: A. Describe the scenario in a world where all trees and forests are destroyed using conjunctive adverbs.Write your answer on a sheet of paper. 2