Participatory filmproduction as mediapractice: a theoretical andmethodological approach. Antoni Roig Telo Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) Remix Cinema Workshop Oxford, 24-25 March 2011
Remix Cinema Workshop 1Index1. Overview of previous research2. The practice approach.3. Some key features of practice theories4. Why media practices are important.5. How I use the practice perspective.6. Media practices and remix: final considerations.
Remix Cinema Workshop 2Participatory cinema: case study structure X-ILE PICTURES Energia Productions (USA): related to Comparative (Finland): related to fan culture fan culture Transference Transference A Swarm Of Angels/ ASOA (UK): related to open source culture
Remix Cinema Workshop 5What do we mean about practices?Practice’ (Praxis) in the singular represents merely an emphatic term to describethe whole of human action (in contrast to ‘theory’ and mere thinking). ‘Practices’in the sense of the theory of social practices, however, is something else. A‘practice’ (Praktik) is a routinized type of behaviour which consists of severalelements, interconnected to one other: forms of bodily activities, forms of mentalactivities, ‘things’ and their use, a background knowledge in the form ofunderstanding, know-how, states of emotion and motivational knowledge. Apractice – a way of cooking, of consuming, of working,of investigating, of takingcare of oneself or of others, etc. – forms so to speak a ‘block’ whose existencenecessarily depends on the existence and specific inter- connectedness of theseelements, and which cannot be reduced to any one of these single elements. (Reckwitz, 2002: 249-250).
Remix Cinema Workshop 6Some distinctive features of practice theories.•Practices span from the most simple to the more complex.•Practices are everyday and usually routine, but also powerful toexplain how we relate to a complex object (Knorr-Cetina, 2001)•Practices internally organised by three main elements: understandings,procedures andaffectiveelements (Schatzki, 1996; Reckwitz, 2002).•Practices are interlinked: attention to external organization of practices(Swidler, 2001).•Hierarchy: constitutive rules (implicit, normative, conflict, change…)(Swidler, 2001)•Practices account for innovation and reproduction (Warde, 2005).
Remix Cinema Workshop 7Why media practices are important:• Media practices lead to a shift of attention from the final object, the structures or the individual to what all the people involved are actually doing through the different phases of the process of creation.• They forces us to ask ourselves a lot of questions about how the practice is internally and externally organized.
Remix Cinema Workshop 8This is the theory. How Im using it in practice (1/2):1. Approach to cases as organizational forms’ (long term project over texts or structures).2. Identification of all public manifestations of the form (websites, blogs, press, social media, even virtual worlds and of course the offline...).3. Depiction of the development of the organizational form around its main media project: describing historical background and phases of development.4. Temporal delimitation of phenomena, phases or periods to be analyzed.5. Analyse official sources.6. Analyse potential controversies around the organizational form: the unofficial sources.
Remix Cinema Workshop 9This is the theory. How Im using it in practice (2/2):7. Focus on the organization of practices in participation spaces, mainly forums: • Structure of the Forums. • Hierarchies among users / authority. • Participants and participation figures. • Identification of domains of practice: community organization, project development, content production, promotion. • Forum analysis attending to the practice approach.8. Selected interviews with key participants9. Outline of clusters of practices.7. Outline of a production model.
Remix Cinema Workshop10Performative practices Organizing practices Production practices Self-promotion practices Community Participation practices Collaboration KnowledgeSharing Finance practices Access/ Use Circulation practices Promotion Commercialization
Remix Cinema Workshop 11Clusters ofpractices:Organizing practices (at early stages of practice) construction of normativity, hierarchy, legitimation(meta-practices)Performative practices Playful dimension Affective engagement
Remix Cinema Workshop 12Clusters ofpractices:Production-oriented practices conception and elaboration of ‘objects’Finance-oriented practices business models, engagement of communities (i.e. crowdfunding)Circulation-oriented practices flexibility of licenses, promotion strategiesSelf-promotion oriented practices visibility of brand and creative coreParticipation-oriented practices engagement and integration of followers as participants into project and processes
Remix Cinema Workshop 13Is this relevant for remix projects? 15 final questions. • Can we observe/ track the early stages of the project? • What are the playful dimensions of the project? • How identity and engagement to the project is produced and negotiated? • How is the practice organized internally? • And externally (in relation to other practices)? • What are the different motivations of the participants? • How is normativity defined, that is, what is considered the right way, what is acceptable and tolerable, and what is not? • How hierarchy and authority is established and legitimated? • What’s the role of the ‘brand’ (the long term initiative vs. current project)? • How are decisions made in terms of production and circulation? • How is participation conceived? • Which may the implicit rules behind the practice be? Where do they come from? • What do we think the anchoring practices are (which are those ones that in being change make other practices change)? • Which are the possible issues of conflict and change? How do they manifest? What do they tell us about the evolution of the practice, its reproduction and innovation? • What are the possible rituals regarding the practice that show that a practice is like it is’?....