design research | service designContextual InquiryRapid PrototypingCo-Design WorkshopsStakeholder EngagementPomo Indian NationGDF-SUEZDig Deep FarmsUNHCR - Refugee CampsManufacturing3-910-2627-3536-4243-47
Pomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~The Pomo tribe lives in Ukiah California.They are dissatisfied with their homes but distrustengineering due to negative experiences in the past
Pomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~2Homes completed inSeptember 2012.4Co-design workshopsand rounds of iteration50+Tribal members tookleadership in parts ofthe process15New homes planned offthe same model
Pomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~Immersion & Home Visitsbuild trust and understandingCultural activities are central to the Pomo way oflife, but limited space in homes is an obstacle.// Household size varies from five to eight// Cooking is communal, requiring large kitchens// Emphasis on passing traditions onto youth// Crafts i.e. basketweaving require storage space// Large amount of underemployed skilled labor// Ceremonies such as“Big Time”involve hostingup to twenty extended famiy members
Co-Design Workshopsgive the tribe ownershipTribal members and engineers brainstormed unmethousing needs. The Pomo led in determining andpresenting solutions, ensuring comfort with thechosen technologies meeting their needs.Top Needs:// Optimizing Space// Living Comfortably// Conserving Energy// Integrating Culture// InteractingPomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~
Pomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~synthesisprototypingtribal leadersgrantwritingcontractors
The homes combined native and moderngreen technologies and were constructed aspart of a combined community effort.Thanks toMy teammates:Cindy Bayley, Mike Himawan, and Yao YuanOur mentors:Alice Agogino, Ryan Shelby, and Yael PerezAnd our friends at the Pomo Indian NationPomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012GDF-SUEZ is France’s largest utility. A newpolicy requires their clients to reducebuilding energy usage by 40%.Can they retain business through innovativenew energy efficiency consulting services?
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012200+Interviews with occupants,building managers, andindustry experts duringdiscovery and prototyping50GDF-SUEZ executivesengaged in 2-daydesign workshop3Pilots in the US andFrance, including one byGDF-SUEZ in Dijon7%Energy savingsrecorded
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012A Failed TrialGDF-SUEZ renovated a Dijon building with theirtop services to show clients energy efficiency’svalue. In reality it uses three times the predictedenergy, while occupants threaten strikes.
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012We explored new technologies, conductingexpert interviews with 20 CEOs and founders.Technology and policy solutions existed, butbehavior remains an unresolved hot topic.Benchmarkingexisting solutions
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012Facility Managersrun the buildingOwnersrent the buildingUsersoccupy the buildingWho uses the solutions in Dijon?
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012Marie complained about comfort, feeling stingy facilitymanagers and energy efficient features were to blame.Although personal heating and cooling appliancesare banned, we found examples of workarounds -occupants sneaking heaters and fans in - everywhereContextual Inquiryoccupants at work
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012“The building iscomplicated to control,new facility managerstake a year to learn.”“Owners are alwayspressuring to use lessenergy, and make thebuilding gain value.”Contextual Inquiryfacility managers’ dilemma“Occupant behavior is an issue.Space heaters near thermostatsdisrupt the whole building.”“We give them a Ferrari andthey drive it like a Twingo.”Henri, Dijon’s facility manager, is underpressure. He wants to keep occupantscomfortable but had to ban personal heaterswhich disrupt the building’s control systems.Other buildings had similar conflicts.
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012Low fidelity experience prototypes uncoveredissues to target in the future.// Low responsibility for “common resources”// Perceived lack of control// Comfort and convenience always come firstSacrificial Prototypesrapidly generate insights1. Energy usage facts shocked occupants, butconvenience came first - “elevator over the stairs.”2. Games showed a lack of ownership over commonareas, and no incentive to help the building.12
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012Functional Prototypestechnological intervention6 iterative prototypes. 100+ tests. We failed earlyand often to determine the true opportunity areas.Occupants expressed concern for their buildingafter learning how it worked, but only acted for atangible benefit, without giving up personal comfort.11231. What is the minimum amount of local heat needed?2. Can aesthetics encourage sustainable behavior?3. Explaining energy usage provides ownership
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012We held a 2 day event at GDF-SUEZ’s Paris oficewith 50 executives to launch a new innovation group.Our work with the sales team revealed troubledelivering proven value to and engaging owners.Co-design Workshopembedding design thinking
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012Stakeholder Engagementunderstanding ownersOccupancy:30/100Arnaud owns the Dijon building. His company DIGLmanages one million m2of real-estate, which is losingvalue due to low occupancy - energy is an afterthought.Can improved comfort attract more occupants to thesebuildings, adding value to DIGL’s entire portfolio?
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012Facility Managers needinformation and cooperationby occupantsOwners need to improvebuilding attractiveness,value, and occupancyUsers need comort withoutinconvenienceWe designed a modular system that connects andaddresses each stakeholder and the building’s needs.It complements GDF-SUEZ’s existing sales strategy.Trials were run in Stanford’s d.School and DijonCan we change theParadigmso energy efficiencyrepresents valuerather than a constraintto these three groups?
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 201267% occupant participation7% energy saved20% of users took learnings home- January 2013 trial in DijonSymbioseé greets occupants with educationalvideos and interactive lobby art informing them ofthe building’s features and health.A temperature forecast and facility manager feed-back system empowers occupants to maximizecomfort and efficiency through “good” behaviorhttp://stanfordsymbiosee.herokuapp.com/
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012“It’s much easier to satisfy occupantswhen I can reference complaints againstthe current temperatures.”-Chris Crismon, d.School Facility ManagerSymbioseé provides facility managersclear communication with occupants.A building history manual enables newmanagers to quickly acclimate.
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012“Symbioseé represents a completelynew point of view, without goingagainst our business”- Cofely, GDF SUEZ sales divisionSymbioseé provides immediate value to ownersthrough its sensor nework and database. Therelationships it builds work towards the 40%energy savings requirement while increasingcomfort and potential occupancy.
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZ, Paris FranceFall 2011 / 2012The Teaminternational & mulitdisciplinary
My first projectPomo Indian NationSpring 2008~ashland-cherryland is a food desert.30minute bus ride to thenearest supermarket46local fast food andcorner stores providelittle to no fresh food
Dig Deep FarmsSan Leandro, CAWinter 2012Dig Deep is an urban farm attempting to bringquality fresh food to underserved areas.Produce is grown on four plots, packed by localemployees, and delivered to 70 customers.Their CSA business model is proven in affluentareas, but has had trouble reaching locals.
“I’m just keeping it together.It’s like trying to balance a stack of boxesin your closet... some days it all falls down.I’ve got to take care of my niece, pay bills,and my car got stolen the other day. I tryto cook vegetarian and make it to the gymbut there’s never really time.”- Terryl “Pac” RuckerMeet Pac
Dig Deep FarmsSan Leandro, CAWinter 2012I spent several days working and eatingwith Pac and his friends. Stops includedfast food, corner stores, or gas stations.Daily life’s pressures created a habit ofimmediate gratification - ramen,microwave burritos, and lottery ticketsContextual Inquirylunch with Pac & friends
Dig Deep FarmsSan Leandro, CAWinter 2012Contextual Inquiryat local storesI explored a more diverse subset of localshoppers by spending time outside local stores.Elderly widows, families of four, and neighborscarpooling with each other agreed thattransportation and affordability were key issues.Many didn’t know what the farm was, and didn’tknow that it accepts food subsidies as payment.
Dig Deep FarmsSan Leandro, CAWinter 2012Co-design Workshopenergizing the communityThe workshop brought together parents,farm workers, local youth, and healthofficials to discuss healthy eating.Barriers// Transportation to stores// No time to prepare complicated meals.// Habit and a taste for certain foods.“I try to live my reality. Like I saidI’ve been doing this for a long time.Are my habits really gonna change?I don’t know. I like the way a bar-becqued rib tastes. I’m not gonnalie to you...”“When you get back at9PM and have to feedyour babies there’s onlyone choice.”
Dig Deep FarmsSan Leandro, CAWinter 2012| Alberta |Age 61WidowedSpent time in homeless shelterRaised 2 childrenReceives food subsidiesTakes 30 minute bus ride to shopPicky about food’s qualityWaits for checks on the first of themonth before shoppingPersonasKey InsightsMore community interaction couldchange habits and establish Dig Deepas a go-to fo using food subsidies.The current CSA model does not fitusers’ spontaneous shopping habitswhite a permanent sales base would.Three personalities emerged basedon the qualities of those I met.
Dig Deep FarmsSan Leandro, CAWinter 2012These insights led to the constructionof a community farm stand.It will provide an accessible face tounderstand the farm, host events andworkshops to educate locals, andprovide constant access to produce.
Pomo Indian NationUkiah, CASpring 2008~refugees & host communities
UNHCR - Refugee CampsPalo Alto, CAFall 2012 ~UNHCR serves 10 million refugees.Half spend up to 17 years in campswhere tension with host communitiesand governments over resources leadto violence and restricted rights.Can this tension be reduced by sharedplaces between the two communities?
UNHCR - Refugee CampsPalo Alto, CAFall 2012 ~2Camps visited inEthiopia20Refugees engaged ininterviews, co-design,and partnerships25Case studies of sharedplaces by UNHCR andother aid agencies4Opportunity areasdiscovered for usingshared places.10UNHCR officialsand aid workersconsulted
UNHCR - Refugee CampsPalo Alto, CAFall 2012 ~UNHCR has used shared places inthe past. We decided to identify andaddress issues leading to failure.// No sustained funding// Lack of understanding of eachcommunity’s needs// Exploitation of services by locals200019601980Development AidedAssistanceFirst support forlong-term refugeesLand grants forrefugeesBenchmarkingpast attempts
UNHCR - Refugee CampsPalo Alto, CAFall 2012 ~UNHCRCommunicationsStakeholder Engagementunhcr’s difficultiesWe spoke with UNHCR officials and aid workers tounderstand the practical challenges they face.// Overworked staff// Unpredicatable annual funding// Difficulty engagng host governments, communities“Host governments havetheir own issues, making ithard for us to collaborate oncamp placement.”
UNHCR - Refugee CampsPalo Alto, CAFall 2012 ~Refugee-drawn camp layouts,Co-design Workshopengaging former refugeesFormer Bhutanese, Burmese, and Eritreanrefugees told stories of harsh conditions thatled them to independently develop initiatives,including host communities partnerships.We opened partnerships with Asylum Accessand a former refugee.“Refugees don’t wantsympathy. We need empathy,and partners to work with toimprove our own situation.”- Former RefugeeRapid Prototypesexplain shared placesand spark discussion
UNHCR - Refugee CampsPalo Alto, CAFall 2012 ~Concepts Under ReviewReframing challengesas opportunities...We are collaborating with former refugees,UNHCR aid workers, architects at Ennead,and lawyers at Asylum Access to unlockthe full potential of shared places.
PrototypingManufacturingBringing Products to MarketFunctional prototyping aids neeedfinding andvalidation in service design. Some identified needs,such as lighting, require manufactured partsMy prototyping and manufacturing skills minimizetime and risk when bringing concepts to market.
SoLite4Angaza DesignCircuit DesignThe SoLite4 is a solar powered light for rural Africanvillages. An initial run of 1000 happened last July andcontinuous distribution is beginning this JuneI designed the circuit board for manufacture andconsulted on the injection molded housing.
EverlightInjection MoldingThe Everlight is a modular lamp made of upcycledmaterials, designed to be more personalizable,affordable, and sustainable than your generic lamp.I manufactured the base, prototyping with laser-cutand 3-D printing, and CNC-ing the mold for injectingmolding, before speaking to contract manufacturers.
SymbioseéGDF-SUEZWireless Sensor NetworksI setup a server, database, website, and wirelesselectronics for the Symbioseé project’s trials.This involved programming the sensor nodes,electronics on the lobby art and databasecalculations. I worked with a programmer to storeand translate this information to websites.