Tommy McKearney

A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the
Special EU Programmes Bod...
Decade of commemoration
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More than any other decade in modern history, the events that occurred between 1912 and 1922 sh...
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1912 Ulster Covenant
1913 Dublin Lock Out
1914 Outbreak of World War 1
1916 Easter Rising
1916 Battle o...
ULSTER COVENANT 1912
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Signed by just under half a million people to oppose the
British Government’s 3rd Home...
Easter Rising
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Large numbers of Irishmen had joined Irish regiments
and divisions of the British Army at the out...
Battle of the Somme
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The Battle of the Somme fought from July - November 1916 was
the battle that symbolised ...
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The 1918 general election was seen as a landslide victory for Sinn Féin – of
the 105 seats in Ireland, th...
Foundation of Northern Ireland state
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Guerrilla warfare raged across Ireland in the aftermath of the 1918
gener...
Partition of Ireland
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For three days from 6 December 1922 Northern Ireland stopped being part of the United Ki...
Commemoration
•In the aftermath of every conflict there is a period of reflection, remembrance and renegotiation as societ...
Thank You
A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the
Special EU Programmes Body by th...
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Decade of commemorations

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An Expac explanation of the 'Decade of Commemorations'.

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  • This presentation has three broad objectives. They are: a) to let you know who is delivering this programe b) to give you a brief overview of the programme and to allow to understand the concept and ethos that lies behind the project c) to deal with any queries about the programme that you may have.
  • Expac is a company limited by guarantee and as such is a ‘not for profit’ community grounded project. The company’s head office is in Co Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. Although based South of the border, Expac is very familiar with Northern Ireland, its culture and its history. Expac is currently funded by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium to deliver the Conflicts of Interest training course.
    Expac has, from its formation in 1997, worked cross border and cross community and early in its development was party to the publication of a ground breaking venture when co-publishing ‘The Other View” magazine. This project involved republican and loyalist activists sharing editorial responsibility for publishing a widely distributed magazine that dealt with real political issues. Expac has participated on a number of other projects involving engaging with people holding different points of view. E.g. the Consensus programme for sustainable societies, the Fellowship of Messines society and meeting with Healing Through Remembrance members.
    In 2007 Expac constructed the Conflicts of Interest programme and delivered a seven unit pilot course to a range of participants including people from as diverse political backgrounds as; a group from Loyalist South Belfast, a group in a republican district of Armagh and a party with various political opinions from Co. Donegal.
  • The Future Resolutions programme is a workshop based programme aiming to enable participants reach a more sympathetic understanding of all those affected by armed conflict. The course focuses largely on the period of the Northern Ireland Troubles but also examines bloody conflict in other parts of Europe. The organizers of this programme have a strong belief that an essential step towards cementing peace and stability is for all to have an accurate understanding of the viewpoints of all sections of society. There is a need, they believe, for all to hear and question those of a different outlook but to do so with respect and in an unthreatening atmosphere and where no attempt should be made to proselytize.
  • The first aim of the project is to allow participants gain an understanding of the underlying causes of conflict and to put conflict in context. This entails the programme provideing case studies and analyses of other conflicts that are either resolved or still in progress. By doing so participants may see similarities and/or differences between their own experience and that of people abroad and to gain an insight into how others have either solved or failed to solve conflict. The studies chosen have a relevance to the Northern Irish Troubles. The Balkans, for example, demonstrates how stability is never guaranteed, the Iberian peninsula offers contrasting examples of how people address the issue of autonomy and the EU itself shows how ancient conflicts can be overcome.
    As a second aim the course endeavours to demonstrate the vital importance of recognising the need to develop a culture of justice and human rights in all societies. This element is not a human rights course per se but an identification of the importance of basing human relations on a recognised model of good practice i.e. that of respect for others rights
    Overall the course intends to help participants acquire some of the tools necessary for playing an active role in peace building. These tools include the practice of hearing a different and challenging point of view with respect and attention, of recognizing the need to analyze situations calmly rather than react to incident and rumor and to work on the essential requirements for a peaceful and shared future.
  • Module 1 Key Aims
    To give an overview of the historical context of group conflict and to develop understanding of other-focused violence
    Have an understanding of the key issues in the origin of conflict
    Be able to state key elements of group and State violence
    Show awareness of key European conflict events
    Understand the role of prejudice, discrimination and stereotype in negatively defining out-groups
    Understand the role of imagery and symbols in conflict
    2.Module 2 Key Aims
    To give an overview of the origins and characteristics of armed conflict in a multi-ethnic environment by examining the case of the Balkans
    Understand the complexity of multi-ethnic societies
    Develop an appreciation of the issues underlying conflict in such environments
    Be able to define the key components of conflict with specific historic examples
    Be able to appreciate the key elements of conflict and attempted solutions in the Balkans
    3.Module 3 Key Aims
    To explore the roots of human conflict from the perspective of human rights, discrimination and justice
    Understand the origins of the concepts around universal human rights
    Develop an appreciation of the key issues underlying rights and justice frameworks
    Understand the key components of conflict in specific community contexts
    Be able to appreciate the key elements of conflicting issues around understanding of rights
    4 Module 4 Key Aims
    To give an overview of the origins and characteristics of armed conflict in a nationally diverse environment by examining the case of conflict on the Iberian peninsula.
    Understand the historical background to Iberian conflict and identities
    Develop an appreciation of the issues underlying conflict in the region
    Be able to define the key characteristics of dispute and contested State formations
    Be able to appreciate the key issues in regional autonomy, minority languages and national identities (with particular reference to Euzkadi/the Basque country)
    Module 5 Key Aims
    To give an overview of the characteristics of conflict with reference to the nature of sectarianism and reprisal
    Understand the key issues in the origin of sectarianism
    Be able to state key elements of bigotry, discrimination and group exclusion group
    Show awareness of key stages of reprisal and revenge in conflict
    Understand the role of prejudice and stereotype in maintaining conflict
    6. Module 6 Key Aims
    To give an overview of the issues and themes of conflict transformation in a strategic context by examining the emergence of Europe and its structures
    Understand the complexity of European identity
    Develop an appreciation of the issues underlying construction of the European Union
    Be able to define the key components of conflict transformation with specific reference to European post-war history
    Be able to appreciate the key elements of EU structures and policies
    7. Module 7 Key Aims
    To give an overview of the issues and themes of conflict transformation in the context of post-conflict relationships, trust and reconciliation dynamics
    Understand the historic legacies of conflict
    Develop an appreciation of the issues underlying pain, loss and anger arising from conflict
    Be able to explore the key components of conflict transformation
    Be able to appreciate the key elements in restoring dialogue and mutual acceptance
    Be able to define the elements in creating trust and conflict avoidance
  • The list of guest speakers include people from a wide spectrum of opinion and experience of the conflict.
  • Decade of commemorations

    1. 1. Tommy McKearney A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    2. 2. Decade of commemoration • More than any other decade in modern history, the events that occurred between 1912 and 1922 shaped the direction of politics and society here throughout the twentieth century. • The political, social and cultural consequences of what happened during the decade of 1912 -1922 reverberate throughout Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to this day. • Commemorating the events of the past can help bond a community or group and selective use of past events can serve the political needs of the present. • Times change and as they do people look back on the past and reinterpret events and ideas to explain the present. • People often look for patterns, for order, and for coherence in past events to comfort them in periods of social, economic, political and cultural change A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    3. 3. • • • • • • • • • 1912 Ulster Covenant 1913 Dublin Lock Out 1914 Outbreak of World War 1 1916 Easter Rising 1916 Battle of the Somme 1918 General Election and First Dáil 1918 Voting Rights for Women / Suffragettes 1920 Formation of N.Ireland 1922 Anglo Irish Treaty and Civil War A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    4. 4. ULSTER COVENANT 1912 • • • • • • Signed by just under half a million people to oppose the British Government’s 3rd Home Rule Bill in 1912. Almost as many women as men signed the Covenant. January 1913, Ulster Unionist Council formed the Ulster Volunteer Force from among those who had signed the Covenant. Covenant stated that ‘Home Rule would be disastrous to the material well being of Ulster as well as the whole of Ireland’ ‘Home Rule is Rome Rule’ – subversive of our civil and religious freedom Integrity of the Empire A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    5. 5. Easter Rising • • • • Large numbers of Irishmen had joined Irish regiments and divisions of the British Army at the outbreak of war in 1914 However, likelihood of enforced conscription created a backlash The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans with the aims of ending British rule in Ireland and establishing the Irish Republic at a time when the British Empire was heavily engaged in the First World War. The Rising was suppressed after seven days of fighting, and its leaders were court-martialled and executed, but it succeeded in bringing physical force republicanism back to the forefront of Irish politics. A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    6. 6. Battle of the Somme • • • • • The Battle of the Somme fought from July - November 1916 was the battle that symbolised the horrors of warfare in World War 1. The British professional army had taken heavy losses and had to be reinforced with volunteers straight from civilian life. 2,500,000 men enlisted in a torrent of patriotic enthusiasm. Jack Christie born on the Shankill Road was only 16 years old at the outbreak of war: ‘I enlisted because it was an escape route out of the mill, for surely life holds more than the mill can offer.’ John O Reilly from Cavan was 18 years old when the war started: ‘I heard a Catholic priest preaching about how little Catholic Belgium had been attacked by Germany and was suffering. I joined the British Army after that.’ In mid-November the battle ended, with the Allies having advanced only 8km. The British and its dominions suffered around 420,000 casualties, the French 195,000 and the Germans around 650,000. A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    7. 7. • • • • • • • The 1918 general election was seen as a landslide victory for Sinn Féin – of the 105 seats in Ireland, their candidates were elected in 73 constituencies The success of Unionists who won 26 seats overall was largely limited to Ulster. The IPP won six seats in Ireland, all but one of which were in Ulster. In accordance with Sinn Féin doctrine, their elected members refused to attend Westminster having instead formed their own parliament – the First Dáil. However Unionists and members of the IPP refused to recognise the Dáil. At its first meeting on 21 January 1919 the Dáil issued a Declaration of Independence and proclaimed itself the parliament of a state called the "Irish Republic". On the same day, two local Irish members of the RlC were ambushed and killed at Soloheadbeg, in Tipperary. In this way the 1918 elections led to the outbreak of the Anglo-Irish War, giving the impression that the election sanctioned the war. A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    8. 8. Foundation of Northern Ireland state • • • • Guerrilla warfare raged across Ireland in the aftermath of the 1918 general election, leading to the Irish war of Independence. The conflict was complicated by involving not only the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the British Army but the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) as well. Fourth and final Home Rule Bill (the Government of Ireland Act 1920) partitioned the island into Northern Ireland (six north-eastern counties) and Southern Ireland . The first years of the new autonomous region were marked by bitter violence, particularly in Belfast. The IRA was determined to oppose partition and the authorities created the (mainly ex-UVF) Ulster Special Constabulary to aid the Royal Irish Constabulary and introduced emergency powers to put down the IRA. Many died in violence from 1920, which petered out after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1922. Some Unionists such as Sir Edward Carson opposed partition, seeing it as a betrayal of Unionism A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    9. 9. Partition of Ireland • • • • • For three days from 6 December 1922 Northern Ireland stopped being part of the United Kingdom and became part of the newly created Irish Free State. This arose because of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the legislation introduced to give that Treaty legal effect. The Treaty was given effect in the United Kingdom through the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922. That Act established a new Dominion for the whole island of Ireland but also allowed Northern Ireland to opt out. Under Article 12 of the Treaty, Northern Ireland could exercise its opt out by presenting an address to the King requesting not to be part of the Irish Free State. Once the Treaty was ratified, the Parliament of Northern Ireland had one month to exercise this opt out. On 7 December 1922 (the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State) the Parliament of Northern Ireland demonstrated its lack of hesitation by resolving to opt out of the Irish Free State. A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    10. 10. Commemoration •In the aftermath of every conflict there is a period of reflection, remembrance and renegotiation as society attempts to deal with its past. Commemoration is an integral and inherent part of this process •The ‘aftermath’ of the Troubles has instigated a wave of remembering and representation, not only of the very recent past, but also of many other aspects of history which found new meanings in a post-conflict context. UlsterScots heritage, emigration, the Irish Famine, the Great War, etc •Memory continues to be selectively inscribed onto urban and rural landscapes through a variety of different physical forms, from monuments to street murals, from memorial plaques to gardens of remembrance, and from statues to street names. •Memorials help concretise the past in public spaces. Notions of power are also inherent to the commemorative process. The dominant group usually dictates who or what is remembered and is influential in determining where and when the commemoration will take place. •Given the segregation of residential space in Northern Ireland, commemorations can also play a part in the ongoing marking of territory and division of space. A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie
    11. 11. Thank You A project supported by the European Union’s PEACE III Programme managed for the Special EU Programmes Body by the Pobal / Community Relations Council consortium Future Resolutions… Unit 3, 14 Market Street, Monaghan … 047 72182… www.expac.ie

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