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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies ...
 

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies ...

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    McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies ... McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies ... Presentation Transcript

    • Data Resource Management Chapter 3 The Case is at the end of the presentation. There is a link from that to the solutions
    • What about this concerning DRM?
      • “I have traveled the length & breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won’t last out the year”.
        • The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall (1957)
    • What about this concerning DRM?
      • “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data”.
        • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1892)
        • Sherlock Holmes
    • Database Functions
      • 1. Manage data storage
        • AMR parent of Amer Airlines
        • Teamed with IBM-1 st airline reservation sys.
          • Saabre
        • Saabre became more valuable that the other assets of the co. including its planes.
        • Spun it off as Saabre Holdings Corp.
          • Has 4 times the stock value of AMR
    • Database Functions
      • 2. Transform data into information
      • 3. Provide security – Who has access. Part of Sarbox.
      • 4. Allow multi-user access
      • 5. Allow programming & Query Lang. ability
    • Data Resource Management
      • Data is a resource
      • Data must be organized (table)
      • Data must be managed (backup & retrieval
      • Business survival depends on information regarding internal & external environ.
    • Data Resource Management
      • What is the external environment?
        • Government: Fed., state, city, county
          • New laws, changes in laws, mandates, compliance
        • World Economics
        • Politics
        • Competitors
        • Demographics
        • Suppliers
        • Technology (hardware, software, etc.
        • Customers
    • Data Resource Management
      • A managerial activity
      • Applies information systems technology to managing data resources to
        • meet needs of business stakeholders.
      • IS technology (from above)
        • DBMS
        • Data warehousing
        • Data mining
          • Center for Data Integrity (CDI)
        • Webopedia – database, DBMS
    • Foundation Data Concepts
      • Levels of data
        • Character
          • Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol
        • Field
          • Groupings of characters
          • Represents an attribute of some entity
            • Entity
              • Person
              • Place
              • Object
              • event
    • Foundation Data Concepts (continued)
        • Records
          • Related fields of data
          • Collection of attributes that describe an entity
          • Fixed-length or variable-length
        • Files (table)
          • A group of related records
          • Classified by
            • Primary use
            • Type of data
            • permanence
    • Foundation Data Concepts (continued)
        • Database
          • Integrated collection of logically related data elements
          • Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements
          • Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage device
    • Logical Data Elements
    • Logical Data Elements
      • Compare the previous figure with the data that was organized before computers.
      • Is that older system still used?
      • Since data entry bookkeeping?
      • Can you have more than one database in your organization? Is so, why would you want this?
    • Logical Data Elements
      • Who will organize the data (database, tables, records, fields, entities) in your organization.
        • 4 th generation language
      • Who will use the data in your organization?
      • Who will maintain the data in your org.’s database?
    •  
    • Types of Databases
      • Operational
        • Supports business processes and operations
        • Also called subject-area databases, transaction databases, and production databases
        • Examples
          • HR database
          • Inventory database
          • Customer database
          • E-commerce databases
    • Access. Example of operational DB that can be created & managed by small bus . or dept
    • Types of Databases (continued)
      • Distributed
        • Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites.
          • Network servers on the WWW.
          • Intranets or extranets
        • Replication -- Webopedia
        • Done to improve database performance and security
          • Performance example?
          • Security example?
            • Original database or any of its partitions is destroyed
            • Assigning privileges
    • Types of Databases (continued)
      • Distributed Databases (continued)
        • Challenge
          • Ensuring all replicated data are consistently and concurrently updated
            • Synchronization
            • Novell = NDS=partitioning
            • Time on servers around the world can be a problem.
            • Data log reports are very helpful
    • Replication
      • Country
        • Great Britain
          • London
            • Division 1
              • This
              • That
              • The Other
            • Division 2
            • Division 3
          • Japan
            • Division 1
            • Division 2
          • U.S.
            • Division 1
    • Types of Databases (continued)
      • External
        • Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web or your supplier DB’s.
          • Sources are almost endless
          • External can be download into DBMS Remember that DBMS is a decision support tool. Example?
          • Infor. From the DBMS can be downloaded in to a variety of applications for analysis .
            • Excel. Also a decision support tool. Example?
          • Database inform. can be accessed by Excel. Excel information can be accessed by DB.
      • Hypermedia Databases
        • Hyperlinked pages of multimedia
          • Text, graphics, photographic images, video, and audio
        • A database of interrelated hypermedia page elements, rather than interrelated data records.
    • Components of a Web-based IS The Web server software acts as a DBMS to manage the transfer of hyper files for downloading by the multimedia plug-ins of your browser.
    • Data Warehouses and Data Mining
      • Data warehouse
        • Stores data extracted from operational, external, or other databases of an organization
        • Central source of “structured” data
        • May be subdivided into data marts
          • Subsets of data that focus on specific aspects of the co., e.g., by department or process.
    • Data warehouse
      • Data acquisition
        • This process includes activities
          • Consolidating data from several sources
          • Filtering out unwanted data
          • Correcting incorrect data
          • Converting data to new data types
      • The data is then stored so that it can be moved into the enterprise warehouse
    • Data Warehouse
      • Enterprise warehouse
        • Can then be moved into data marts or
        • To analytical data stores
          • Holds data in a more useful form for certain types of data so that it can be used by OLAP applications.
          • Link to OLAP
    • The Components of a Data Warehouse System
    • Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued)
      • Data mining
        • A major use of data warehouse databases
        • Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations, patterns, and trends
          • In vast amounts of data
            • Usually several terabytes of data.
              • 4, 000,000,000,000 bytes
              • Its above gigabytes
    • Data Mining (continued)
        • Data mining software uses:
          • Advanced pattern recognition algorithms
          • Variety of math & statistical techniques
          • To filter through data to extract previously unknown strategic business information.
          • Examples:
            • New or change products
            • New or change services
            • Marketing activities
            • Organizational change/process change
    • Database Management Approach
      • Consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs . In our banking example:
        • Savings Account program
        • Checking account program
        • Installment loan program
      • This approach allows data to be consolidated into a common database, for our case, Customer Database
        • rather than being kept in separate files for each of those applications.
    • Database Management Approach (continued)
      • DBMS serves as an interface between the users and databases.
        • Controls how databases are
          • Created
          • Interrogated
          • Maintained
        • So users can easily access the data in the database
    • Database Management Approach: Example
    • Database Management Approach (continued)
      • Database Management System
        • Software interface between users and databases
        • Controls creation, maintenance, and use of the database
    • Database Management Approach (continued)
      • Database Interrogation
        • 3 rd Generation. Programming languages
        • 4 th Generation. SQL and then QBE
        • Query
          • Supports ad hoc requests
          • Can save queries
          • Tells the software how you want to organize the data and what data that you want?
          • Has a graphical user interface (GUI)
    • Queries
      • A query lets you easily obtain immediate response to an hoc data requests.
        • What is immediate?
      • Can a query be save for future use? If so, give me an example.
    • Example of Querying 2 Tables
    • SQL & Natural Languages
    • Database Management Approach (continued)
      • Report Generator
        • Turns results of a table or query into a useable report
        • Can specify a report format.
          • Examples of report formatting ???
          • Can these report formats be saved ???
          • Can a report also be linked to a query ??? If so, why would you want to do this ???
    • Access Report Generator
    • Access Report Generator
      • Use Access with an existing database to show options for generating a report.
    • Database Maintenance
      • Database Maintenance
        • What is this? 3 simple things that are imp.
        • Why must this occur?
        • Who does it, usually?
    • Database Management Approach (continued)
      • Application Development
        • Function of a DBMS
        • The DBMS has built-in software dev. tools
        • To develop custom application programs
          • Develop data entry screens
          • Forms
          • Reports
        • Who does this?
          • End users
          • Systems analysts
          • Application developers
    • Implementing Data Resource Management
      • Why is data resource management needed ???
        • Link
      • Data Resource Management includes:
        • DBMS
        • Data planning
        • Database Administration
    • Data Resource Management
      • Database Administration
        • Develop and maintain the data dictionary
        • Design and monitor performance of databases
        • Enforce database use and security standards
    • Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
      • Data Planning
        • Corporate planning and analysis function
        • Developing the overall data architecture
    • Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
      • Data Administration
        • Standardize collection, storage, and dissemination of data to end users
        • Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives
        • May include developing policy and setting standards
    • Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
      • Challenges
        • Technologically complex
          • So difficult & expensive
          • What about recruiting tech. people
          • What about the training of users
        • Vast amounts of data to be managed
        • Vulnerability to fraud, errors, and failures
        • Scalability of your systems
          • What about outsourcing ?
          • Data requirements are going to grow
    • Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
      • Benefits
        • Reduces the duplication of data
        • Integrates data so that they can be accessed by multiple programs & users
        • Software is not dependent on the format of the data or type of secondary storage hardware
        • Business professionals can use inquiry and reporting capabilities
        • The security of data are increased. Access to data & modification of data are controlled through the data admin. function
    • Section II
      • Technical Foundations of Database Management
    • Data Structures
      • The relationships among the many individual data elements stored in databases are based on one of several logical data structures or models
      • DBMS packages are designed to use a specific data structure to provide end users with quck & easy acces to information stored in a DB.
      • 5 database structures
    •  
    • Database Structures
      • Hierarchical
        • Early mainframe DBMS packages used this
        • Treelike or hierarchical
        • All of the relationships are one-to-many
        • Used for structured, routine types of transaction processing
        • Not very flexible. One-to-many relationships only.
    • Database Structures (continued)
      • Network structure
        • More complex
          • Relationships must be specified in advance
        • More flexible
        • Many-to-many relationship
        • More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests well
    • Database Structures (continued)
      • Relational structure
        • Data elements stored in simple tables
        • Relationships do not have to be specified when the database is created.
        • Can link data elements from various tables
        • Can create new tables of data relationships using parts of data from several tables.
        • Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network models
        • Easier to maintain
    • Database Structures (continued)
      • Multi-Dimensional structure
        • A variation of the relational model
        • Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications
        • Popular database structure for the analytical databases that support OLAP.
    • Database Structures (continued)
      • Object-oriented structure
        • Key technology of a new generation of multimedia web-based applications
        • Good for complex, high-volume applications
        • OODB software is finding increasing use in:
          • Managing hypermedia databases on the
            • Web
            • Corporate intranets
            • Corporate extranets
    • Object-oriented structures (continued)
      • OODBMS
        • Can easily manage the access and storage of objects (subsets of Web pages)
          • Document images
          • Graphic images
          • Video
          • Audio
        • Can do these more efficiently than relational DBMS
      • However, major relational DBMS vendors have countered by:
        • Adding object-oriented modules to their relational software.
          • IBM’s DB2
          • Oracles’s object based “cartridges”
    • Accessing Databases
      • Key fields (primary key)
        • A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a table
        • Each table in a relational database must contain a primary key.
        • This field uniquely identifies each record in a file and must also be found in other related tables
          • So that you could be provided with information from 2 or more tables by joining the tables and retrieving infor. You want.
    • Relating Information From Two Tables
    • Accessing Databases (continued)
      • Sequential access
        • Too slow to handle applications requiring immediate updating or responses
      • Direct access
      • Data Dictionary
    • Database Development
      • Who can database administrators be in DBMS packages like MS Access or Lotus Approach?
      • Large organizations
        • DBA’s and data design analyst and other database specialists
        • For integrity and security
        • Work with end users and systems analysts
      • Data Planning & Database Design
      • Planning & Design Process
          • Enterprise model
          • Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs)
          • Data modeling
            • Develop logical framework for the physical design
    • Case for Chapter 3 Sherwin-Williams & Krispy Kreme
      • Solutions to this Case
      • 1. What type of data did both companies need to collect?
        • External data sources
      • 2. What was this information made up of?
        • Information from the customers customers.
          • Who were the customers of Krispy Kreme?
          • Who were the customers of Sherwin-Wms?
      • 3. Is there a need to collect external data on other than your customers?
    • Case for Chapter 3 Sherwin-Williams & Krispy Kreme
      • 4. Why has external data in corporate data warehouses increase so much over the last few years?
      • 5. It is very simple to integrate external data into your databases. ???
      • 6. Most of the external data that is available for purchase is reliable. ???
      • 7. How does S-W collect its external data ???
      • 8. How does KK collect its data ???
    • Case for Chapter 3 Sherwin-Williams & Krispy Kreme
      • 9. Krispy Kreme used a 3 rd party to collect external data. What were some stated advantages ???
      • 10. What challenges in acquiring and using data from external sources are identified in this case?
      • 11. Do you prefer either of the companys external data gathering approach ??? Why