McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies ...
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  • 1. Data Resource Management Chapter 3 The Case is at the end of the presentation. There is a link from that to the solutions
  • 2. What about this concerning DRM?
    • “I have traveled the length & breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won’t last out the year”.
      • The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall (1957)
  • 3. What about this concerning DRM?
    • “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data”.
      • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1892)
      • Sherlock Holmes
  • 4. Database Functions
    • 1. Manage data storage
      • AMR parent of Amer Airlines
      • Teamed with IBM-1 st airline reservation sys.
        • Saabre
      • Saabre became more valuable that the other assets of the co. including its planes.
      • Spun it off as Saabre Holdings Corp.
        • Has 4 times the stock value of AMR
  • 5. Database Functions
    • 2. Transform data into information
    • 3. Provide security – Who has access. Part of Sarbox.
    • 4. Allow multi-user access
    • 5. Allow programming & Query Lang. ability
  • 6. Data Resource Management
    • Data is a resource
    • Data must be organized (table)
    • Data must be managed (backup & retrieval
    • Business survival depends on information regarding internal & external environ.
  • 7. Data Resource Management
    • What is the external environment?
      • Government: Fed., state, city, county
        • New laws, changes in laws, mandates, compliance
      • World Economics
      • Politics
      • Competitors
      • Demographics
      • Suppliers
      • Technology (hardware, software, etc.
      • Customers
  • 8. Data Resource Management
    • A managerial activity
    • Applies information systems technology to managing data resources to
      • meet needs of business stakeholders.
    • IS technology (from above)
      • DBMS
      • Data warehousing
      • Data mining
        • Center for Data Integrity (CDI)
      • Webopedia – database, DBMS
  • 9. Foundation Data Concepts
    • Levels of data
      • Character
        • Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol
      • Field
        • Groupings of characters
        • Represents an attribute of some entity
          • Entity
            • Person
            • Place
            • Object
            • event
  • 10. Foundation Data Concepts (continued)
      • Records
        • Related fields of data
        • Collection of attributes that describe an entity
        • Fixed-length or variable-length
      • Files (table)
        • A group of related records
        • Classified by
          • Primary use
          • Type of data
          • permanence
  • 11. Foundation Data Concepts (continued)
      • Database
        • Integrated collection of logically related data elements
        • Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements
        • Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage device
  • 12. Logical Data Elements
  • 13. Logical Data Elements
    • Compare the previous figure with the data that was organized before computers.
    • Is that older system still used?
    • Since data entry bookkeeping?
    • Can you have more than one database in your organization? Is so, why would you want this?
  • 14. Logical Data Elements
    • Who will organize the data (database, tables, records, fields, entities) in your organization.
      • 4 th generation language
    • Who will use the data in your organization?
    • Who will maintain the data in your org.’s database?
  • 15.  
  • 16. Types of Databases
    • Operational
      • Supports business processes and operations
      • Also called subject-area databases, transaction databases, and production databases
      • Examples
        • HR database
        • Inventory database
        • Customer database
        • E-commerce databases
  • 17. Access. Example of operational DB that can be created & managed by small bus . or dept
  • 18. Types of Databases (continued)
    • Distributed
      • Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites.
        • Network servers on the WWW.
        • Intranets or extranets
      • Replication -- Webopedia
      • Done to improve database performance and security
        • Performance example?
        • Security example?
          • Original database or any of its partitions is destroyed
          • Assigning privileges
  • 19. Types of Databases (continued)
    • Distributed Databases (continued)
      • Challenge
        • Ensuring all replicated data are consistently and concurrently updated
          • Synchronization
          • Novell = NDS=partitioning
          • Time on servers around the world can be a problem.
          • Data log reports are very helpful
  • 20. Replication
    • Country
      • Great Britain
        • London
          • Division 1
            • This
            • That
            • The Other
          • Division 2
          • Division 3
        • Japan
          • Division 1
          • Division 2
        • U.S.
          • Division 1
  • 21. Types of Databases (continued)
    • External
      • Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web or your supplier DB’s.
        • Sources are almost endless
        • External can be download into DBMS Remember that DBMS is a decision support tool. Example?
        • Infor. From the DBMS can be downloaded in to a variety of applications for analysis .
          • Excel. Also a decision support tool. Example?
        • Database inform. can be accessed by Excel. Excel information can be accessed by DB.
  • 22.
    • Hypermedia Databases
      • Hyperlinked pages of multimedia
        • Text, graphics, photographic images, video, and audio
      • A database of interrelated hypermedia page elements, rather than interrelated data records.
  • 23. Components of a Web-based IS The Web server software acts as a DBMS to manage the transfer of hyper files for downloading by the multimedia plug-ins of your browser.
  • 24. Data Warehouses and Data Mining
    • Data warehouse
      • Stores data extracted from operational, external, or other databases of an organization
      • Central source of “structured” data
      • May be subdivided into data marts
        • Subsets of data that focus on specific aspects of the co., e.g., by department or process.
  • 25. Data warehouse
    • Data acquisition
      • This process includes activities
        • Consolidating data from several sources
        • Filtering out unwanted data
        • Correcting incorrect data
        • Converting data to new data types
    • The data is then stored so that it can be moved into the enterprise warehouse
  • 26. Data Warehouse
    • Enterprise warehouse
      • Can then be moved into data marts or
      • To analytical data stores
        • Holds data in a more useful form for certain types of data so that it can be used by OLAP applications.
        • Link to OLAP
  • 27. The Components of a Data Warehouse System
  • 28. Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued)
    • Data mining
      • A major use of data warehouse databases
      • Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations, patterns, and trends
        • In vast amounts of data
          • Usually several terabytes of data.
            • 4, 000,000,000,000 bytes
            • Its above gigabytes
  • 29. Data Mining (continued)
      • Data mining software uses:
        • Advanced pattern recognition algorithms
        • Variety of math & statistical techniques
        • To filter through data to extract previously unknown strategic business information.
        • Examples:
          • New or change products
          • New or change services
          • Marketing activities
          • Organizational change/process change
  • 30. Database Management Approach
    • Consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs . In our banking example:
      • Savings Account program
      • Checking account program
      • Installment loan program
    • This approach allows data to be consolidated into a common database, for our case, Customer Database
      • rather than being kept in separate files for each of those applications.
  • 31. Database Management Approach (continued)
    • DBMS serves as an interface between the users and databases.
      • Controls how databases are
        • Created
        • Interrogated
        • Maintained
      • So users can easily access the data in the database
  • 32. Database Management Approach: Example
  • 33. Database Management Approach (continued)
    • Database Management System
      • Software interface between users and databases
      • Controls creation, maintenance, and use of the database
  • 34. Database Management Approach (continued)
    • Database Interrogation
      • 3 rd Generation. Programming languages
      • 4 th Generation. SQL and then QBE
      • Query
        • Supports ad hoc requests
        • Can save queries
        • Tells the software how you want to organize the data and what data that you want?
        • Has a graphical user interface (GUI)
  • 35. Queries
    • A query lets you easily obtain immediate response to an hoc data requests.
      • What is immediate?
    • Can a query be save for future use? If so, give me an example.
  • 36. Example of Querying 2 Tables
  • 37. SQL & Natural Languages
  • 38. Database Management Approach (continued)
    • Report Generator
      • Turns results of a table or query into a useable report
      • Can specify a report format.
        • Examples of report formatting ???
        • Can these report formats be saved ???
        • Can a report also be linked to a query ??? If so, why would you want to do this ???
  • 39. Access Report Generator
  • 40. Access Report Generator
    • Use Access with an existing database to show options for generating a report.
  • 41. Database Maintenance
    • Database Maintenance
      • What is this? 3 simple things that are imp.
      • Why must this occur?
      • Who does it, usually?
  • 42. Database Management Approach (continued)
    • Application Development
      • Function of a DBMS
      • The DBMS has built-in software dev. tools
      • To develop custom application programs
        • Develop data entry screens
        • Forms
        • Reports
      • Who does this?
        • End users
        • Systems analysts
        • Application developers
  • 43. Implementing Data Resource Management
    • Why is data resource management needed ???
      • Link
    • Data Resource Management includes:
      • DBMS
      • Data planning
      • Database Administration
  • 44. Data Resource Management
  • 45.
    • Database Administration
      • Develop and maintain the data dictionary
      • Design and monitor performance of databases
      • Enforce database use and security standards
  • 46. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
    • Data Planning
      • Corporate planning and analysis function
      • Developing the overall data architecture
  • 47. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
    • Data Administration
      • Standardize collection, storage, and dissemination of data to end users
      • Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives
      • May include developing policy and setting standards
  • 48. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
    • Challenges
      • Technologically complex
        • So difficult & expensive
        • What about recruiting tech. people
        • What about the training of users
      • Vast amounts of data to be managed
      • Vulnerability to fraud, errors, and failures
      • Scalability of your systems
        • What about outsourcing ?
        • Data requirements are going to grow
  • 49. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
    • Benefits
      • Reduces the duplication of data
      • Integrates data so that they can be accessed by multiple programs & users
      • Software is not dependent on the format of the data or type of secondary storage hardware
      • Business professionals can use inquiry and reporting capabilities
      • The security of data are increased. Access to data & modification of data are controlled through the data admin. function
  • 50. Section II
    • Technical Foundations of Database Management
  • 51. Data Structures
    • The relationships among the many individual data elements stored in databases are based on one of several logical data structures or models
    • DBMS packages are designed to use a specific data structure to provide end users with quck & easy acces to information stored in a DB.
    • 5 database structures
  • 52.  
  • 53. Database Structures
    • Hierarchical
      • Early mainframe DBMS packages used this
      • Treelike or hierarchical
      • All of the relationships are one-to-many
      • Used for structured, routine types of transaction processing
      • Not very flexible. One-to-many relationships only.
  • 54. Database Structures (continued)
    • Network structure
      • More complex
        • Relationships must be specified in advance
      • More flexible
      • Many-to-many relationship
      • More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests well
  • 55. Database Structures (continued)
    • Relational structure
      • Data elements stored in simple tables
      • Relationships do not have to be specified when the database is created.
      • Can link data elements from various tables
      • Can create new tables of data relationships using parts of data from several tables.
      • Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network models
      • Easier to maintain
  • 56. Database Structures (continued)
    • Multi-Dimensional structure
      • A variation of the relational model
      • Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications
      • Popular database structure for the analytical databases that support OLAP.
  • 57. Database Structures (continued)
    • Object-oriented structure
      • Key technology of a new generation of multimedia web-based applications
      • Good for complex, high-volume applications
      • OODB software is finding increasing use in:
        • Managing hypermedia databases on the
          • Web
          • Corporate intranets
          • Corporate extranets
  • 58. Object-oriented structures (continued)
    • OODBMS
      • Can easily manage the access and storage of objects (subsets of Web pages)
        • Document images
        • Graphic images
        • Video
        • Audio
      • Can do these more efficiently than relational DBMS
  • 59.
    • However, major relational DBMS vendors have countered by:
      • Adding object-oriented modules to their relational software.
        • IBM’s DB2
        • Oracles’s object based “cartridges”
  • 60. Accessing Databases
    • Key fields (primary key)
      • A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a table
      • Each table in a relational database must contain a primary key.
      • This field uniquely identifies each record in a file and must also be found in other related tables
        • So that you could be provided with information from 2 or more tables by joining the tables and retrieving infor. You want.
  • 61. Relating Information From Two Tables
  • 62. Accessing Databases (continued)
    • Sequential access
      • Too slow to handle applications requiring immediate updating or responses
    • Direct access
    • Data Dictionary
  • 63. Database Development
    • Who can database administrators be in DBMS packages like MS Access or Lotus Approach?
    • Large organizations
      • DBA’s and data design analyst and other database specialists
      • For integrity and security
      • Work with end users and systems analysts
    • Data Planning & Database Design
    • Planning & Design Process
        • Enterprise model
        • Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs)
        • Data modeling
          • Develop logical framework for the physical design
  • 64. Case for Chapter 3 Sherwin-Williams & Krispy Kreme
    • Solutions to this Case
    • 1. What type of data did both companies need to collect?
      • External data sources
    • 2. What was this information made up of?
      • Information from the customers customers.
        • Who were the customers of Krispy Kreme?
        • Who were the customers of Sherwin-Wms?
    • 3. Is there a need to collect external data on other than your customers?
  • 65. Case for Chapter 3 Sherwin-Williams & Krispy Kreme
    • 4. Why has external data in corporate data warehouses increase so much over the last few years?
    • 5. It is very simple to integrate external data into your databases. ???
    • 6. Most of the external data that is available for purchase is reliable. ???
    • 7. How does S-W collect its external data ???
    • 8. How does KK collect its data ???
  • 66. Case for Chapter 3 Sherwin-Williams & Krispy Kreme
    • 9. Krispy Kreme used a 3 rd party to collect external data. What were some stated advantages ???
    • 10. What challenges in acquiring and using data from external sources are identified in this case?
    • 11. Do you prefer either of the companys external data gathering approach ??? Why