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Mining Date: Using Data for Decision-making Rob Horner, Anne Todd, Steve Newton,  Bob Algozzine, Kate Algozzine
Goals <ul><li>Define three roles for data use in a problem-solving model </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key features of a pr...
Uses of Data <ul><li>Identify problems early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use data on a regular basis (every two weeks) to monito...
Collect and Use Data Review  Status and  Identify  Problems Develop and Refine Hypotheses Discuss and Select Solutions Dev...
Identifying problems/issues <ul><li>What data to monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODR per day per month </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Using Data to Refine Problem Statement <ul><li>The statement of a problem is important for team-based problem solving.  </...
Precision Problem Statements (What are the data we need for a decision?) <ul><li>Precise problem statements include inform...
Primary versus Precision Statements <ul><li>Primary Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many referrals </li></ul></ul><ul...
Primary versus Precision Statements <ul><li>Primary Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many referrals </li></ul></ul><ul...
Precise or Primary Statement? <ul><li>Children are using inappropriate language with a high frequency in the presence of b...
Precise or Primary Statement? <ul><li>ODRs during December are higher than in any other month. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor dis...
Precise or Primary Statement? <ul><li>Three 5 th  grade boys are name calling and touching girls inappropriately during re...
SWIS summary 06-07  (Majors Only) 1974 schools; 1,025,422 students; 948,874 ODRs Grade Range Number of Schools Mean Enroll...
Application Activity: Absolute Value Is there a Problem? Middle School of 625 students?
Elementary School with 150 Students
High School of 1800 students
Middle School of 700 students
 
 
Middle School N= 495
Is There a Problem? #2 Absolute  -  Trend  -  Compare Middle School N= 495
Middle School N= 495
Middle School N= 495
What are the data you are most likely to need to move from a Primary to a Precise statement? <ul><li>What  problem behavio...
What other data may you want? <ul><li>ODR by staff </li></ul><ul><li>ODR by IEP </li></ul><ul><li>ODR by grade </li></ul><...
Test precision problem statement <ul><li>Use precision problem statement to build and test hypotheses.  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
What behaviors are problematic?
What behaviors are problematic?
What behaviors are problematic?
Where are the problems occurring?
Where are the problems occurring?
Who is contributing to the problem? R eferrals per Student
Who is contributing to the problem?
When are the problems occurring?
When are the problems occurring?
Using Data to Build Solutions <ul><li>Prevention : How can we avoid the problem context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who, When, W...
Langley Elementary School 478 Students K-5
 
Varying data requires different decisions
Precision Statement/Hypothesis <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul...
Trevor Test Middle School 565 students Grades 6,7,8
Cafeteria  Class Commons  Hall 12:00 Lang.  Defiance  Disrespect Harrass  Skip
Precision Statement/Hypothesis <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul...
Sandhill High school 354 students
Sandhill High School: 354 students
Sandhill High School
Sandhill High School
Precision Statement/Hypothesis <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul...
Local Examples
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Data Mining

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Transcript of "Data Mining"

  1. 1. Mining Date: Using Data for Decision-making Rob Horner, Anne Todd, Steve Newton, Bob Algozzine, Kate Algozzine
  2. 2. Goals <ul><li>Define three roles for data use in a problem-solving model </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key features of a problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>Define the process for identifying the data needed for decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Define the process by which data are used to identify, refine, and problem-solve. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Uses of Data <ul><li>Identify problems early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use data on a regular basis (every two weeks) to monitor key indicators, and identify problems before they become difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refine a problem statement to a level of precision that will allow functional solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Use data to identify possible solutions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Collect and Use Data Review Status and Identify Problems Develop and Refine Hypotheses Discuss and Select Solutions Develop and Implement Action Plan Evaluate and Revise Action Plan Problem Solving Foundations Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model
  5. 5. Identifying problems/issues <ul><li>What data to monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODR per day per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSS, ISS, Attendance, Teacher report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Checklist/ SET (are we doing what we planned to do?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What question to answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we have a problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What questions to ask of Level, Trend, Peaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do our data compare with last year? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do our data compare with national/regional norms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do our data compare with our preferred/expected status? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a problem is identified, then ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the data we need to make a good decision? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Using Data to Refine Problem Statement <ul><li>The statement of a problem is important for team-based problem solving. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone must be working on the same problem with the same assumptions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems often are framed in a “Primary” form, that creates concern, but is not useful for problem-solving. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frame primary problems based on initial review of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use more detailed review of data to build “Precision Problem Statements.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Precision Problem Statements (What are the data we need for a decision?) <ul><li>Precise problem statements include information about the five core “W” questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is problem, and how often is it happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is it happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is engaged in the behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the problem is most likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the problem is sustaining </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Primary versus Precision Statements <ul><li>Primary Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many referrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September has more suspensions than last year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang behavior is increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cafeteria is out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student disrespect is out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precision Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are more ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Primary versus Precision Statements <ul><li>Primary Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many referrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September has more suspensions than last year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang behavior is increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cafeteria is out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student disrespect is out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precision Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are more ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess , with a large number of students , and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Precise or Primary Statement? <ul><li>Children are using inappropriate language with a high frequency in the presence of both adults and other children. This is creating a sense of disrespect and incivility in the school </li></ul><ul><li>James D. is hitting others in the cafeteria during lunch, and his hitting is maintained by peer attention. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Precise or Primary Statement? <ul><li>ODRs during December are higher than in any other month. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor disrespect and disruption are increasing over time, and are most likely during the last 15 minutes of our block periods when students are engaged in independent seat work. This pattern is most common in 7 th and 8 th grades, involves many students, and appears to be maintained by escape from work (but may also be maintained by peer attention… we are not sure). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Precise or Primary Statement? <ul><li>Three 5 th grade boys are name calling and touching girls inappropriately during recess in an apparent attempt to obtain attention and possibly unsophisticated sexual expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are engaging in sexual harassment </li></ul>
  13. 13. SWIS summary 06-07 (Majors Only) 1974 schools; 1,025,422 students; 948,874 ODRs Grade Range Number of Schools Mean Enrollment per school Mean ODRs per 100 per school day K-6 1288 446 . 34 (sd=.37) ( 1 / 300 / day ) 6-9 377 658 .98 (sd=1.36) ( 1/ 100 / day ) 9-12 124 1009 .93 (sd=.83) ( 1/ 107 / day ) K-(8-12) 183 419 .86 (sd=1.14) (1/ 120 / day
  14. 14. Application Activity: Absolute Value Is there a Problem? Middle School of 625 students?
  15. 15. Elementary School with 150 Students
  16. 16. High School of 1800 students
  17. 17. Middle School of 700 students
  18. 20. Middle School N= 495
  19. 21. Is There a Problem? #2 Absolute - Trend - Compare Middle School N= 495
  20. 22. Middle School N= 495
  21. 23. Middle School N= 495
  22. 24. What are the data you are most likely to need to move from a Primary to a Precise statement? <ul><li>What problem behaviors are most common? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODR per Problem Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where are problem behaviors most likely? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODR per Location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When are problem behaviors most likely? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODR per time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who is engaged in problem behavior? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODR per student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why are problem behaviors sustaining? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No graph </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. What other data may you want? <ul><li>ODR by staff </li></ul><ul><li>ODR by IEP </li></ul><ul><li>ODR by grade </li></ul><ul><li>ODR by gender by grade </li></ul>
  24. 26. Test precision problem statement <ul><li>Use precision problem statement to build and test hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems are most common in D-Hall wing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems are more likely during second recess </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems are most common during assembly schedule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems are more likely during state testing periods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 27. What behaviors are problematic?
  26. 28. What behaviors are problematic?
  27. 29. What behaviors are problematic?
  28. 30. Where are the problems occurring?
  29. 31. Where are the problems occurring?
  30. 32. Who is contributing to the problem? R eferrals per Student
  31. 33. Who is contributing to the problem?
  32. 34. When are the problems occurring?
  33. 35. When are the problems occurring?
  34. 36. Using Data to Build Solutions <ul><li>Prevention : How can we avoid the problem context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who, When, Where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule change, curriculum change, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching: How can we define, teach, and monitor what we want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach appropriate behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use problem behavior as negative example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognition : How can we build in systematic reward for desired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction : How can we prevent problem behavior from being rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences : What are efficient, consistent consequences for problem behavior </li></ul><ul><li>How will we collect and use data on (a) implementation fidelity, and (b) impact. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Langley Elementary School 478 Students K-5
  36. 39. Varying data requires different decisions
  37. 40. Precision Statement/Hypothesis <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>What other info needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Solutions? </li></ul>
  38. 41. Trevor Test Middle School 565 students Grades 6,7,8
  39. 42. Cafeteria Class Commons Hall 12:00 Lang. Defiance Disrespect Harrass Skip
  40. 43. Precision Statement/Hypothesis <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>What other info needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Solutions? </li></ul>
  41. 44. Sandhill High school 354 students
  42. 45. Sandhill High School: 354 students
  43. 46. Sandhill High School
  44. 47. Sandhill High School
  45. 48. Precision Statement/Hypothesis <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>What other info needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Solutions? </li></ul>
  46. 49. Local Examples
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