Film Voice, sound effects and music, three main elements Sound can be created by foley artists Dialogue is recorded after filming, also known asdubbing or ADR (Automatic Dialogue Replacement) Sound is in place to immerse viewers.
Television Similar to film Television programs have smaller budgets Time and money can’t go into ADR and state of theart sound effects.
Web Sound can be used when clicking on link, usually apop sound Moving images may be involved with a website withaccompanied with a sound. Website for the visually impaired will require sound
Hand-held devices They have small speakers which lack bass, soundwould be affected Films, apps and music will have less depth in audioif played through devices speakers. Sounds are used for different functions, forexample, unlocking phone, volume key change,ringtone
Video DVD and Blu-ray is designed for different audiotypes such as mono, stereo and 5.1 surround sound. In cinemas is would be Dolby surround sound.
Animation No original sound from the start no ambient sounds in the background, Use of foley for most of the production. Wider range of sound effects can be used because not everything mayexist in the animation. Defining characters with sound has to be done very carefully so theviewer doesn’t get the wrong idea about a character.
Studio and location Dialogue is recorded in studios. (ADR) Ambient sounds are often recorded on location. Some foley sounds are created on location and in thestudio before and after filming has taken place. Microphones can be placed all around a steam train forexample to record all the individual sounds.
Interviews Hand-held Mics – versatile, easy to use, suited for mobileinterviews, can only speak when interviewer points mic. Lapel Mics – high quality, consistent sound, each personhas own mic, slower and more difficult to set up. Pressure Zone Mics – useful when number of people areseated around a table. Boom Mics – versatile, both used in studios and mobilesettings, sound operator in full control. Built-in Camera Mic – can be used if you’re desperate
Presentation Cinemas are usually supplied with either 5.1 or 7.1surround sound to give viewers a more immersiveexperience. Home televisions can have the same effect ofsurround sound if bought separately, otherwise itcomes with a standard built in stereo.
Voiceover Voiceovers are done after all the shooting has taken place.(ADR) Actors are in rooms for weeks repeating lines that werentpicked up very well during filming. (90%) Voice overs are also found in adverts, often foreign adverts aredubbed in English, or adverts are American, later dubbed inBritish English to make the advert feel more local.
Drama dialogue Dramatic dialogue is good dialogue Vibrant, involving conflict, involving change,involving movement. Good dialogue will have all ofthese things. You don’t want overblown, unrealistic, clichéd, andsometimes even absurd speech, this is known asmelodramatic speech.
Ambient sound These a background noises, these are heard in thebackground of a scene. E.g. rain, wind, wildlife
Music Used to set the mood of the film. Without music or music being in the wrong place theviewer may be confused in which emotions they aresupposed to feel. Music is composed at the end of a media production,once all editing as taken place. This ensures the composers know how long themusic has to last and the high and low points of thepiece.
Sound effects (SFX) Artificially created or enhanced sounds. Emphasises artistic or other content. Can be used to create sound of things that don’texist.
Stationary and moving sound sources Stationary sound is when it doesn’t move from theviewers perspective. Moving sound is the opposite, this is where thesound moves away, around or towards the viewersperspective.
Use of presence This is used to create a presence for the viewer, usingsurround sound can achieve this either in the cinemaor at home.
Diegetic Sound that is visible on screen Voice of characters, sounds made by objects, musiccoming from instruments within the source of film.
Non-diegetic Sound that isn’t visible on screen. Background music, narrators commentary, soundeffects added for dramatic effect.
External diegetic Sound the audience hears. Can’t be heard by all characters in the shot. An example would be if someone was reading a letterin their head.
Mood Music is used to set the mood of a scene. Horror – Eerie, with strings. Love – Slow, romantic piano Comedy – Trumpets, brass section, upbeat Silent films used a live pianist to create the mood.
Meaning This is when the meaning of the sound can becreated to suit the character that is in the scene. For example anger in a character can cause music tobuild up, a happy character may have soft music.
Illusion This is when sound is used to create an illusion andtrick the viewer that something is in the narrativeworld but it is not shown on screen.