Introduction to OpenCL, 2010

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Introduction to OpenCL, presentation from OpenCL workshop at OzViz 2010 held in Brisbane, Australia.

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Introduction to OpenCL, 2010

  1. 1. Introduction to OpenCL How to select OpenCL devices, initialise a compute context, allocate device memory, compile and run kernels, output results OpenCL Workshop | December 1, 2010 | Brisbane, Australia! Tomasz Bednarz, CESRE!
  2. 2. OpenCL is a trademark of Apple, Inc. Welcome to Open Computing Language (OpenCLTM) •  N-Body Simulation Demo" •  Khronos Group and OpenCL standard" •  OpenCL Anatomy" •  Platform Model" •  Execution Model" •  Memory Model" •  Short Introduction to OpenCL Programming " •  OpenCL C language" •  Supported data types" •  Synchronisation primitives" •  Additional information and resources." CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  3. 3. N-Body Simulation: demo
  4. 4. N-Body Simulation Lars Nyland, Mark Harris, Jan Prins “Fast N-Body Simulation with CUDA”. In Hubert Nguyen, editor, GPU Gems 3, chapter 31, pages 677-695, Addison Wesley 2007. •  Applications" •  •  •  •  Molecular dynamics" Astronomical and astrophysical simulations" Fluid dynamics simulation" Radiosity (Radiometric transfer)" •  N2 interactions to compute per time-step" •  For the brute force all-pairs approach discussed here" •  Highly Parallel" •  High Arithmetic intensity" Two of these galaxies attract each other. CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  5. 5. N-Body Simulation (http://developer.nvidia.com/gpugems3) •  N-Body simulation models the motion of particles subject to a force due to the particle-particle interactions between all particles in the system" •  Typical example: simulation of stars in a galaxy subject to the gravitational force" •  Given N bodies with an initial position xj and velocity vj for 1≤i≤N, the force fij on body i caused by its gravitational attraction to body j is given by the following:" fij = G mi m j rij 2 ! rij rij Fi = # fij = Gmi 1! j!N i" j # m j rij 1! j!N i" j rij 3 where mi and mj are the masses of bodies i and j." •  The acceleration is computed as:" F ai = j i mi CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. i rij = x j ! xi
  6. 6. N-Body Simulation •  As bodies approach each other, the force between them grows without bound, therefore softening factor e2>0 may be added" Fi ! Gmi # 1" j"N m j rij ( 2 rij + e 2 ) 3 2 •  The softening factor limits the magnitude of the force between the bodies, which is desirable for numerical integration of the system state" •  Acceleration:" F ai = i ! G " $ mi 1# j#N m j rij ( 2 rij + e 2 ) 3 2 CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  7. 7. N-Body Simulation: parallel concept single interaction between i and j Outer Loop (i) Particle i Particle j Inner Loop (j) •  Particles i, j interact with each other" •  OpenCL can be used to compute acceleration on all bodies in parallel " •  N/p work groups of p work items process p bodies at a time" •  Every work item loads all other body positions from off-chip memory" •  N2 loads … bandwidth bound = poor performance " •  Optimization (using tiles) to be presented in the afternoon session"
  8. 8. N-Body Simulation: body-body force calculation Fi ! Gmi # 1" j"N ai = Fi ! G" $ mi 1# j#N m j rij ( ( http://developer.download.nvidia.com/compute/opencl/sdk/website/samples.html#oclNbody http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#samplecode/OpenCL_NBody_Simulation_Example/Introduction/Intro.html 2 rij + e 2 m j rij 2 rij + e 2 ) ) 3 3 2 2
  9. 9. N-Body Simulation: demo
  10. 10. The Khronos Group
  11. 11. http://www.khronos.org/opencl/
  12. 12. http://www.khronos.org/opencl/
  13. 13. http://www.khronos.org/opencl/ What is OpenCL? OpenCL - Open Computing Language: open, royalty-free standard for programming heterogeneous parallel computing at the intersection of GPU and multi-core CPU capabilities. CPUs Multiple cores driving performance increases Multi-processor programming, threading libraries - e.g. OpenMP GPUs Emerging Intersection Heterogeneous Computing CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. Increasingly general purpose data-parallel computing Graphics APIs and Shading Languages, Vendor Compute APIs Courtesy of
  14. 14. What is OpenCL? Roadmap convergence OpenGL 4.0 and OpenGL ES 2.0 are both streamlined, programmable pipelines. GL and ES working groups are working on convergence. WebGL is a positive pressure for portable 3D content for all platforms. Desktop Visual Computing OpenGL and OpenCL have direct interoperability. OpenCL objects can be Created from OpenGL Textures, Buffer Objects and Renderbuffers. Parallel computing and visualisation OpenCL – the center of a visual computing ecosystem with parallel computations, 3D, video, audio, and image processing on desktop, embedded and mobile systems! Desktop 3D Ecosystem Cross-platform desktop 3D 3D for Web Heterogeneous Parallel Programing Embedded 3D Surface and synch abstraction Streaming Media and Image Processing Mobile Visual Computing Compute, graphics and AV APIs interoperate through EGL. CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. Hundreds of men years invested by industry experts in coordinated ecosystem! Streamlined APIs for mobile and embedded graphics, media and compute acceleration Based on http://www.khronos.org/opencl/
  15. 15. OpenCL Timeline •  OpenCL 1.0 was released six months after the proposal was created" •  OpenCL ships first on Appleʼs Mac OS X Snow Leopard" •  18 month cadence between OpenCL 1.0 and OpenCL 1.1" •  Backward compatible to protect software investment" Multiple conformant implementations ship across diverse OS and platforms.! Khronos releases publicly OpenCL 1.1 as royalty-free specification.! June 2008 May 2009 December 2008 OpenCL working group! is proposed by Apple. ! Draft spec is contributed! to Khronos.! June 2010 2nd Half 2009 Khronos releases OpenCL 1.0 conformance tests to ensure highquality implementations.! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. OpenCL 1.1 spec is released and first implementation ship.! Based on http://www.khronos.org/opencl/
  16. 16. OCL Quick Reference Cards http://www.khronos.org/files/opencl-quick-reference-card.pdf
  17. 17. Design goals of OpenCL •  Enable all compute resources in system" •  CPUs, GPUs, and other processors enabled as peers" •  Data- and task- parallel compute model" •  Efficient parallel programming model" •  ANSI C99 based kernel language" •  Low-level abstraction" •  Abstracts the specifics of the underlying hardware" •  High-performance, but device independent " •  Define precision requirements for all floating-point computations" •  Consistent results on all platforms and devices" •  Interoperability with Graphics APIs" •  Dedicated support for OpenGL, OpenGL ES and DirectX" •  Drive future hardware requirements" •  Applicable to both consumer and HPC applications" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  18. 18. OpenCL Platform Model
  19. 19. It’s heterogeneous world •  Platform model encapsulates compute resources" •  A modern platform includes:" •  •  •  •  One or more CPUs" One or more GPUs" Optional accelerators (e.g. DSPs)" Other?" Using OpenCL Programmers write a single portable program that uses ALL resources ! in the heterogeneous platform! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. Based on http://www.khronos.org/opencl/
  20. 20. OpenCL Platform Model •  One Host connected to one or more Compute Devices" •  Compute device can be a CPU, GPU or other processor" •  Each Compute Device is composed of one or more Compute Units" •  Compute Unit can may be a core, multi-processor, etc." •  Each Compute Unit is further divided into one or more Processing Elements " •  Processing Elements execute code as SIMD or SPMD! PROCESSING ELEMENT …. COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT ..... COMPUTE DEVICE COMPUTE DEVICE HOST! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. COMPUTE UNIT
  21. 21. Anatomy of OpenCL Application OpenCL Application Device Code - Written in OpenCL C - Executes on the device Host Code - Written in C/C++ - Executes on the host COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE DEVICE …. HOST! COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE UNIT ..... COMPUTE DEVICES COMPUTE UNIT COMPUTE DEVICE •  Host code sends commands to the Devices:" •  To transfer data between host memory and device memories! •  To execute device code! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  22. 22. Anatomy of OpenCL Application •  Serial code executes in a Host (CPU) thread" •  Parallel code executes in many Device (GPU) threads across multiple processing elements" OCL Application Serial code Parallel code Serial code Parallel code Host = CPU Device = GPU … Host = CPU Device = GPU CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. …
  23. 23. OpenCL Execution Model
  24. 24. OpenCL Execution Model •  OpenCL application runs on a Host which submits work to the Compute Devices! •  Work item: the basic unit of work on an OpenCL device" •  Kernel: the code for a work item, which is basically C function" •  Program: Collection of kernels and other functions (analogous to a dynamic library). Managed by host." •  Context: The environment within which work-items execute, which includes devices and their memories and command queues (contains all resources for computation)" •  Command queue: A queue used by the Host application to submit work to a Device (kernel execution instances)" •  Work is queued in-order, one queue per device" •  Work can be executed in-order or out of order" •  Events are used for synchronisation" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. MEMORY! GPU! CPU! CONTEXT GPU & CPU Queues COMMANDS
  25. 25. OpenCL Execution Model •  Portable execution model that allows a kernel to execute at each point in a problem domain (N-dimensional computational domain) à decomposition of a task into work-items! Traditional loop as a function in C OpenCL C kernel void ! addVector(const float *A,! const float *B,! float *C,! int N)! {! int index;! __kernel void ! addVector(__global const float *A,! __global const float *B,! __global float *C,! int N)! {! int index = get_global_id(0);! ! ! for (index=0; index<N, index++)! C[index] = A[index]+B[index];! }! if (index < N)! C[index] = A[index]+B[index];! }! ! Work item: the basic unit of work on an OpenCL device Kernel: the code for a work item, which is basically C function CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  26. 26. Kernel Execution on Platform Model Work-Item Compute element Work-Group Compute unit Kernel execution instance •  Each work-item is executed by a compute element! •  Each work-group is executed on a compute unit" •  Several concurrent work-groups can reside on one compute unit depending on work-groupʼs memory requirements and compute unitʼs memory resources" Compute device … CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. •  Each kernel is executed on a compute device!
  27. 27. Benefits of Work-Groups •  Automatic scalability across devices with different numbers of compute units" •  Work-groups can execute in any order, concurrently or sequentially" •  Efficient cooperation between work-items of same work-group" •  Fast shared memory and synchronization" •  Independence between work-groups gives scalability:" •  A kernel scales across any number of compute units" Device with 2 compute units Kernel Launch Device with 4 compute units Unit 0 Unit 1 Unit 0 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Work-group 0! Work-group 1! Work-group 0! Work-group 0! Work-group 1! Work-group 2! Work-group 3! Work-group 2! Work-group 3! Work-group 1! Work-group 4! Work-group 5! Work-group 6! Work-group 7! Work-group 4! Work-group 5! Work-group 2! Work-group 6! Work-group 7! Work-group 3! Work-group 4! Work-group 5! Work-group 6! Work-group 7! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  28. 28. Work-group synchronisation •  Always define the best N-dimensional index space (NDRange) for your algorithms (currently 1D, 2D and 3D index spaces are supported)" •  Kernels are executed across a global domain of work-items! •  Work-items are single points of execution and are grouped into local work-groups! •  Global Dimensions: 1024x1024 (whole problem space)" •  Local Dimensions: 32x32 (work-group)" Cannot synchronise outside " of work-groups" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. 1024 1024 Synchronisation between work-items" possible only within workgroups:" barriers and memory fences!
  29. 29. Work-items and work-groups •  A kernel is a function executed in each point of a problem domain (for each work-item)" •  Number of work items = 4096 (16 work-groups, 256 workitems each):" get_group_id(0) = 2 DEVICE __kernel void ! addVector(__global const float *A,! __global const float *B,! __global float *C,! int N)! {! int index = get_global_id(0);! ! if (index < N)! C[index] = A[index]+B[index];! }! get_global_id(0) = 1792 NDRANGE 0 1 2 3 4 … 15 get_global_size(0) = 4096 0 1 get_num_groups (0) = 16 … WORK GROUP 255 WORK ITEM get_local_size(0) = 256 get_local_id(0) = 255
  30. 30. Work-items and work-groups in 2D •  Number of work items to execute 128 x 128 = 16384:" (A kernel is executed in each point of a problem domain) get_group_id(0),get_group_id(1) DEVICE 0,0 1,0 2,0 … 7,0 0,0 1,0 2,0 0,1 1,1 0,2 0,2 … 1,1 … 15,0 4,1 … 2,2 3,4 . 0,7 get_global_size(0) get_global_id(0),get_global_id(1) 7,7 0,15 get_local_size(0) get_local_id(0),get_local_id(1) get_local_size(1) get_global_size(1) 0,1 WORK ITEMS WORK GROUP NDRANGE
  31. 31. OpenCL Memory Model
  32. 32. OpenCL Memory Model •  Address spaces" •  •  •  •  Private: read/write access for work-item only" Local: read/write access for entire work-group" Global/Constant: visible to all work-groups" Host: accessible by the CPU" •  Synchronisation" Private Memory! Private Memory! Private Memory! Private Memory! Work Item1 Work ItemJ Work Item1 Work ItemJ PE! PE! PE! PE! Compute Unit 1 Local Memory! •  All Synchronisation for all memory accesses must be done explicitly" Compute Unit N Local Memory! Global/Constant Memory! Compute Device Memory management is Explicit! You must move data from host à global à local … and back" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. Host Memory! Host
  33. 33. OpenCL Programming •  •  •  •  How to define the platform" How to execute code on the platform" How to move data around in memory" How to write (and build) programs"
  34. 34. Host application
  35. 35. OpenCL Language and API Highlights •  Platform Layer API (called from host)" •  Abstraction layer for diverse computational resources" •  Query, select and initialise compute devices" •  Create compute contexts and work-queues" •  Runtime API (called from host)" •  Launch compute kernels" •  Set kernel execution configuration" •  Manage scheduling, compute, and memory resources" •  OpenCL language" •  To write C-based compute kernels for execution on a compute device" •  Includes rich set of build-in functions" •  Can be compiled JIT/Online or offline" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  36. 36. OpenCL Language Highlights •  Function qualifiers" __kernel void ! addVector(__global const float *A,! __global const float *B,! __global float *C,! int N)! {! int index = get_global_id(0);! •  __kernel qualifier declares a function as a kernel" •  Address space qualifiers" ! if (index < N)! C[index] = A[index]+B[index];! }! •  __global, __local, __constant, __private" •  Work-item functions" •  get_work_dim(), get_global_id(), get_local_id(), get_group_id(), get_local_size()" •  Image functions" •  Images must be accessed through built-in functions" •  Read/writes performed through sampler objects from host or defined in source" •  Synchronisation functions" •  Barriers – all work-items within a work-group must execute the barrier function before any work-item in the work-group can continue" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  37. 37. OpenCL Framework: Overview •  Platform layer: platform query and context creation" •  Compiler for OpenCL C" •  Runtime: memory management and command execution within a context" CPU! GPU! CONTEXT! KERNELS! PROGRAMS! __kernel void ! addVector(! __global float *A,! __global const float *B,! __global float *C)! {! int i = get_global_id(0);! C[i] = A[i]+B[i];! }! GPU binary! addVector! CPU binary! MEMORY OBJECTS! BUFFERS! IMAGES! arg[0] value! IN ORDER! QUEUE! OUT OF ORDER QUEUE! arg[1] value! arg[2] value! COMPILE CODE! COMMAND QUEUES! CREATE ARGS AND DATA! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. COMPUTE DEVICE SEND TO EXECUTION!
  38. 38. OpenCL Framework: Objects Types •  •  •  •  •  •  •  cl_platform_id "– identifier for a specific platform" cl_device_id "– identifier for a specific compute device " cl_context "– handle for a compute context" cl_command_queue "– handle for a command queue (for a compute device)" cl_mem "– handle for a memory resource (managed by context)" cl_program "– handle for a program resource (library of kernels)" cl_kernel "– handle for a compute kernel " •  All object types are opaque handles" •  Enables cross-platform compatibility for complex data types" •  All objects are reference counted and garbage collected" •  When reference count reaches zero, object is deallocated" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  39. 39. OpenCL Framework: Platform Layer •  To query platform information:" •  clGetPlatformIDs() à obtain the list of platforms available" •  clGetPlatformInfo() à platform profile, version, name, vendor, extensions" •  To query Devices: " •  clGetDeviceIDs() à obtain the list of devices available on platform" •  clGetDeviceInfo() à type, capabilities, vendor, name, etc." •  Create an OpenCL context for one or more devices" One or more devices! cl_device_id! Context! cl_context! Memory and device code shared by these devices! cl_mem !cl_program! Command queues to send commands to these devices! cl_command_queue! CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  40. 40. Context creation: platform IDs •  SIMPLE EXAMPLE get the platform ID:! " // get first OpenCL platform ID available" cl_platform_id platform;" err = clGetPlatformIDs(1, &platform, NULL);" cl_int clGetPlatformIDs(! cl_uint num_entries," cl_platform_id *platforms," cl_uint *num_platforms)" •  Get all platform IDs:! " // get number of OpenCL platforms available" cl_int err;" cl_uint num_platforms;" std::vector<cl_platform_id> platformIDs;" err = clGetPlatformIDs(NULL, NULL, &num_platforms); if (err != CL_SUCCESS) { … } platformIDs.resize(num_platforms); // get all OpenCL platform IDs err = clGetPlatformIDs(num_platforms, &platformIDs[0], NULL); CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. If NULL, the arguments are ignored
  41. 41. Context creation: device IDs •  SIMPLE: get first GPU associated with the platform:" " cl_device_id device;" err = clGetDeviceIDs(platform, CL_DEVICE_TYPE_GPU, 1, &device, NULL);" •  Get all platform IDs:" " cl_uint nDevices;" cl_device_type deviceType;" vector<cl_device_id> deviceIDs;" " cl_int clGetDeviceIDs(! cl_platform_id platform," cl_device_type device_type," cl_uint num_entries," cl_device_id *devices," cl_uint *num_devices)" DEVICE TYPE:! if (platformIDs.size() == 0) {" CL_DEVICE_TYPE_CPU" // get number of device IDs for default platform" CL_DEVICE_TYPE_GPU" CL_DEVICE_TYPE_ACCELERATOR" err = clGetDeviceIDs(NULL, deviceType, 0, NULL, &nDevices); " CL_DEVICE_TYPE_DEFAULT" } else {" CL_DEVICE_TYPE_ALL" // get number of device IDs for selected platform" err = clGetDeviceIDs(platformIDs[selectedPlatform], deviceType, 0, NULL, &nDevices); " }" deviceIDs.resize(nDevices);" if (platformIDs.size() == 0) {" // get default device IDs of default platform" err = clGetDeviceIDs(NULL, deviceType, nDevices, &deviceIDs[0], NULL); " } else {" // get device IDs of selected platform" err = clGetDeviceIDs(platformIDs[selectedPlatform], deviceType, nDevices, &deviceIDs[0], NULL); " }" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  42. 42. Context creation •  SIMPLE EXAMPLE: create context object! " cl_context context;" context = clCreateContext(NULL, 1, &device, NULL, NULL, NULL);" •  Create OpenCL context for few devices:! " cl_int err;" cl_context context; context = clCreateContext(NULL, deviceIDs.size(), &deviceIDs[0], NULL, NULL, &err); if (err != CL_SUCCESS) { … } cl_context clCreateContext(! const cl_context_properties *properties," cl_uint num_devices," const cl_device_id *devices, " void CL_CALLBACK *pfn_notify," void *user_data," cl_int *errcode_ret)" cl_contet_properties_enum:! CL_CONTEXT_PLATFORM" CL_CONTEXT_D3D10_DEVICE_KHR" CL_GL_CONTEXT_KHR" CL_EGL_DISPLAY_KHR" ..." …" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  43. 43. Error Handling and Resource Deallocation •  Error handling:" •  All host functions return an error code" •  Context error callback" •  The callback function may be called asynchronously by OpenCL and it is the applicationʼs responsibility to ensure that the callback function is thread-safe" •  Resource deallocation" •  Reference counting API: clRetain*(), clRelease*()" •  •  •  •  •  •  clRetainContext();" clReleaseContext();" clRetainMemObject();" clReleaseMemObject();" clRetainKernel();" clReleaseKernel();" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  44. 44. OpenCL C •  Derived from ISO C99! •  Features added to the language:! •  Work-items and work-groups" •  Vector types" •  Synchronisation" •  Address space qualifiers" •  Also includes a large set of built-in functions:! •  Image manipulation" •  Work-item manipulation" •  Math functions" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  45. 45. OpenCL C Language Restrictions:! •  No functions defined in C99 standard headers" •  No recursion supported" •  Pointers to function are not permitted" •  Pointers to pointers allowed within a kernel, but not as an argument" •  No variable length arrays and structures" •  Bit fields are not supported" •  Writes to a pointer to a type less than 32 bits are not supported*" •  Double types are not supported, but reserved" •  3D Image writes are not supported" " " *Some restrictions are addressed through extensions " CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  46. 46. OpenCL C Optional Extensions •  Extensions are optional features exposed through OpenCL" •  The OpenCL working group has already approved many extensions to the OpenCL specification:" •  •  •  •  •  •  Double precision floating-point types" Built-in functions to support doubles" Atomic functions*" Byte-addressable stores (write to pointers to types < 32 bits)*" 3D Image writes" Built-in functions to support half types" * New core features in OpenCL 1.1 CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  47. 47. OpenCL C: Data Types •  Scalar data types" •  char, uchar, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, float" •  bool, intptr_t, ptrdiff_t, size_t, uintptr_t, void, half (storage)" •  Image types" •  Image2d_t, image3d_t, sampler_t, event_t" •  Vector data types" •  •  •  •  •  Vector lengths 2, 3*, 4, 8, 16 (char2, ushort4, int8, float16, double2^, …)" Endian safe" Aligned at vector length" Vector operations" Built-in function " * New core features in OpenCL 1.1 ^ Double is optional type in OpenCL CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  48. 48. OpenCL C: Synchronisation Primitives •  Built-in functions to order memory operations and synchronise execution:" •  mem_fence(CLK_LOCAL_MEM_FENCE and/or CLK_GLOBAL_MEM_FENCE)" •  Waits until all reads/writes to local and/or global memory made by calling work-item prior to mem_fence() are visible to all threads in the work-group" •  barrier(CLK_LOCAL_MEM_FENCE and/or CLK_GLOBAL_MEM_FENCE)" •  Waits until all work-items in the work-group have reached this point and calls mem_fence (CLK_LOCAL_MEM_FENCE and/or CLK_GLOBAL_MEM_FENCE)" •  Used to coordinate accesses to local or global memory shared among workitems " CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  49. 49. OpenCL Runtime •  •  •  •  Command queues creation and management" Device memory allocation and management" Device code compilation and execution" Event creation and management (synchronisation and profiling)"
  50. 50. Kernel Compilation •  We use cl_program object that encapsulates some source code and its last successful build (it may contain several kernel functions): " •  clCreateProgramWithSource() à creates a program object for a context, and loads the source code specified by the strings array into the program object" •  clCreateProgramWithBinary() à create program objects and loads the binary there" •  clBuildProgram() à compiles and links a program executable from program source or binary" •  Weʼll use also cl_kernel object which encapsulates the values of the kernelʼs arguments used when the kernel is executed: " •  clCreateKernel() à creates a kernel object from successfully compiled program " •  clSetKernelArg() à sets the argument value for a specific argument of a kernel" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  51. 51. Kernel Compilation •  Write a kernel:" " const char* src = ”__kernel void vectorMul(__global const float *a,n” " ” __global const float *b,n” " ” __global float *c,n” " ” int numElements)n”" ”{n”" " ” int i = get_global_id(0);n”" " ” if (i < numElements)n”" ” c[i] = a[i]*b[i];n”" ”}n”;" •  Create program: " cl_program program = " clCreateProgramWithSource(context, 1, &src, NULL, NULL); " •  Build program and create kernel: cl_program clCreateProgramWithSource(! cl_context context," cl_uint count," const char **strings," const size_t *lengths," cl_int *errcode_ret)" cl_int clBuildProgram(! cl_program program," cl_uint num_devices," const cl_device_id *device_list," const char *options;" void CL_CALLBACK *pfn_notify," void *user_data)" " clBuildProgram(program, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL); " cl_kernel kernel = clCreateKernel(program, ”vectorMul”, NULL);" •  Set kernel arguments: " clSetKernelArg(kernel, 0, sizeof(cl_mem), (void*)&devSrcA); " clSetKernelArg(kernel, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), (void*)&devSrcB); clSetKernelArg(kernel, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), (void*)&devDst); clSetKernelArg(kernel, 3, sizeof(cl_int), (void*)&numElements); " " CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. -cl-opt-disable, ! -cl-mad-enable! …" cl_kernel clCreateKernel(! cl_program program," const char *kernel_name," cl_int *errcode_ret)"
  52. 52. Memory Objects •  Memory objects (cl_mem) are categorized into two types:" •  Buffer objects" •  Image objects! •  Memory objects can be copied to host memory, from host memory, or to other memory objects" •  Kernels take memory objects as input, and output to one or more memory objects" •  Regions of a memory object can be accessed by host by mapping them into the host address space" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  53. 53. Memory Objects: Buffer Object •  A buffer object stored a one-dimensional collection of elements (1D array)" •  Elements of a buffer object can be:" •  Scalar data type (such as an int, float)" •  Vector data type" •  User-defined structure" •  Elements in a buffer are stored in sequential fashion and can be accessed using pointer by a kernel executing on a device" •  Data is stored in the same format as it is accessed by the kernel" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  54. 54. Memory Objects: Image Object •  Image object stores a two- or three-dimensional texture, frame-buffer or image" •  Can be created from existing OpenGL texture or render-buffer" •  The elements of an image object are selected from a list of predefined image formats" •  Image elements are always a 4-component vector (each component can be a float or signed/unsigned integer) in a kernel" •  Accessed within device via built-in functions (storage format not exposed to application)" •  Sampler objects are used to configure how built-in functions sample images (addressing modes, filtering modes)" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  55. 55. Command Queue •  Memory, program and kernel objects à created using a context" •  Operations on objects performed using a command-queue" •  The command-queue used to schedule commands for execution on a device" •  En-queuing functions: clEnqueue*()" •  Multiple queues can execute on the same device" •  Modes of execution:" •  In-order: Each command in the queue executes only when the proceeding command has completed (including memory writes) " •  Out-of-order: No guaranteed order of completion for commands" •  CL_QUEUE_PROFILING ENABLE: enable or disable profiling commands in the command-queue" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  56. 56. Command Queue •  Create command queue for a specific device" cl_command_queue queue = clCreateCommandQueue(context, device, 0, NULL); " cl_command_queue clCreateCommandQueue(! cl_context context," cl_device_id device," cl_command_queue_properties properties," cl_int *errcode_ret)" •  Properties" •  CL_QUEUE_OUT_OF_ORDER_EXEC_MODE_ENABLE determines if command-queue are executed in-order or out-of-order. If set, the commands are executed out-of-order." •  CL_QUEUE_PROFILING_ENABLE enables or disables profiling of commands in the command-queue. If set, the profiling of commands is enabled. " CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  57. 57. Data Transfer between Host and Device •  Create buffers on host and device " size_t size = 100000*sizeof(int);" int *host_buffer = (int*)malloc(size); " cl_mem devSrcA = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_WRITE, size, NULL, NULL); " cl_mem devSrcB = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_WRITE, size, NULL, NULL); …" •  Write to buffer objects from host memory " clEnqueueWriteBuffer(queue, devSrcA, " CL_FALSE, 0, size, host_buffer, 0, NULL, NULL); " …" •  Read from buffer object to host memory " clEnqueueReadBuffer(queue, devDst, " CL_TRUE, 0, size, host_buffer, 0, NULL, NULL); " …" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. cl_mem clCreateBuffer(! cl_context context," cl_mem_flags flags," size_t size," void *host_ptr," cl_int *errcode_ret)" CL_MEM_READ_WRITE,! CL_MEM_WRITE_ONLY,! CL_MEM_READ_ONLY,! …" cl_int clEnqueueWriteBuffer(! cl_command_queue queue," cl_mem buffer," cl_bool blocking_write," size_t offset," size_t size," const void *ptr," cl_uint num_events_in_wait_list,! const cl_event *event_wait_list," cl_event *event)"
  58. 58. Kernel Invocation over NDRange •  Host code invokes a kernel over an index space NDRange (1D, 2D or 3D)! •  Work-group dimensionality matches work-item dimensionality" •  Set number of work-items in a work-group" size_t localWorkSize = 256;" int numWorkGroups = (N+localWorkSize-1)/localWorkSize; // round up" size_t globalWorkSize = numWorkGroups * localWorkSize; // must be divisible by localWorkSize •  Enqueue kernel" clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(" queue, kernel 1, NULL, &globalWorkSize, &localWorkSize, 0, NULL, NULL); " CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010. cl_int clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(! cl_command_queue queue," cl_kernel kernel," Cl_uint work_dim," cont size_t *global_work_offset," cont size_t *global_work_size," cont size_t *local_work_offset," cl_uint num_events_in_wait_list,! const cl_event *event_wait_list," cl_event *event)"
  59. 59. Command Synchronisation •  Queue barrier command: clEnqueueBarrier()" •  Commands after the barrier start executing only after all commands before the barrier have completed" •  Events: a cl_event object can be associated with each command" •  Commands return evens and obey event waitlist" •  clEnqueue*(…, num_events_in_waitlist, *event_waitlist, *event);" •  Any commands (or clWaitForEvents()) can wait on events before executing" •  Event object can be queried to track execution status of associated command and get profiling information" •  Some clEnqueue*() calls can be optionally blocking" •  clEnqueueReadBuffer(…, CL_TRUE, …);" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  60. 60. Synchronisation: Queues & Events •  You must explicitly synchronise between queues" •  Multiple devices each have their own queue (possibly multiple queues per device)" •  Use events to synchronise kernel executions between queues" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  61. 61. OpenCL Resources •  OpenCL at Khronos" •  http://www.khronos.org/opencl (spec, registry, man, forums, reference card)" •  NVIDIA OpenCL website, forum" •  http://www.nvidia.com/object/cuda_opencl_new.html" •  http://developer.nvidia.com/object/opencl.html (drivers, profiler, code samples)" •  AMD Developer Central" •  http://developer.amd.com/gpu/atistreamsdk/pages/default.aspx" •  Intel OpenCL SDK" •  http://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-opencl-sdk/" •  IBM OpenCL Development Kid for Linux on Power" •  http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/opencl" •  OpenCL Studio" •  http://www.opencldev.com (develop, visualize, prototype UIs)" CSIRO. Introduction to OpenCL. OpenCL Workshop at the OzViz 2010, Brisbane, December 2010.
  62. 62. Earth Science and Resource Engineering Tomasz P Bednarz 3D Visualisation Engineer Mining Technology Team Mobile: +61 429 153 274 Email: tomasz.bednarz(_at_)csiro.au Web: www.tomaszbednarz.com Acknowledgments Mark Harris, Derek Gerstmann, Mike Houston, Justin Hensley, Jason Young, Dominik Behr, Con Caris, John Taylor, Khronos Group, AMD, NVIDIA and all others for sharing publicly their GPGPU knowledge (this presentation is based on) Thank you … Contact us Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176 Email: enquiries@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au

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