“…the great trouble with the world           was that which survivedwas held in hard evidence as to past events.       A f...
© J. Paul Getty TrustUnintentional artifact…
© J. Paul Getty Trust
Telephoto view (north) of Laetoli trackway site, 1996                                                        © J. Paul Get...
Laetoli, May 1996; Point cloud with elevation data of footprint                                                           ...
[Laetoli Diorama ], Hall of Human Biology, American Museum of Natural         History, (Courtesy Special Collections, AMNH...
AND
“A representation of the cholera epidemic       of the nineteenth century” http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/history/index.h...
http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/snowmap1_1854_lge.htm
http://johnsnow.matrix.msu.edu/images/online_companion/chapter_images/fig12-6.jpg
http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/epidemic/
AND
“Crimea, 1855: Which is"true?" Aroad withcannonballs,or without?”“Errol Morris Looks for the Truth in Photography,” by Kat...
Collections & Memory,      Data as EvidenceMuseums, Libraries and Archives   as Veritistic advocates?
“Nothing is required for this enlightenment,however, except freedom; and the freedom in                     question      ...
WIPO “Knowledge Pyramid” http://www.wipo.int/global_ip/en/knowledge_gap.html
“KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES”:Insight                                                                                      Technol...
Khandhas: Buddhist Constituents of the “self”“The five khandhas are ‘bundles’ or ‘piles’ of     form,     feeling,     ...
Meta-cognition --             Descartes: “Cogito ergo sum”“I have convinced myself that there is absolutely nothing in   t...
Samuel Taylor Coleridge:                          “Imagination” / “Fancy”“The Imagination then I consider either as primar...
Meta-cognition --             Descartes: “Cogito ergo sum”“I have convinced myself that there is absolutely nothing in   t...
”First Person Ontology”      EXPRESSION                 Physics           PERCEPTION          Engineering                 ...
Letter: Charles Darwin to Alfred Russell Wallace                  May 1, 1857  ” …it is lamentable how each man  draws his...
”Third Person Ontology”?                        PhysicsEngineering                                                        ...
WIPO “Knowledge Pyramid”
Paul Otlet ¬–LaboratoriumMundaneum –Dissection of Documents andRe-order in UDC –Mundaneum Mons
Complex typesof knowledgeresourcessupport allforms ofresearch   Research Information Network and British Library “Patterns...
“Competence”                                 “Involvement”This is a very useful effort to depict graphically the “involvem...
Essential Definitions: “Data”?
Essential Definitions: “Data”?       “Data” – a philosophical definition            The Diaphoric Definition of Data (DDD)...
Essential Definitions: “Data” ? [technical]“…’data’ are defined as any information that can be stored in  digital form and...
“Most commonly, computer scientists are concerned with  digital objects that are defined as a set of sequences of  bits. O...
Definition: “Data” [epistemic]“Measurements, observations or descriptions of a  referent -- such as an individual, an even...
Raw Data and “Native” Metadata                       “manzanita_sapflow_12-5-07_to_7-7-08.xls”“instantaneous sap flow data...
“Quality of Data”??? / 3 Key Values“Validity”: logical decisive force in support of an hypothesis or proposition – may be ...
What is “Evidence”?:“Data having potentially    decisive / dispositive     value as proof of a                      hypoth...
ConsciousValidity???               No Stated hypothesis as basis                          for defining valid data-typesAn ...
COMPREHENSIVE VALIDITY???  An exemplar of the possible range of data types available as “evidence” – in this case, that a ...
“Reliability” ???“Methodology/Principal Findings: The present study uses a large set of   fungal DNA sequences from the in...
Losses of Integrity: Data Degraded by successive transformations                                                         D...
“…the “validation” of any scientific hypothesis rests upon the sum validity, reliability and integrity                 of ...
The ethos of knowledge sharing
“The field of knowledge is the common       property of all mankind “       -- Thomas Jefferson “Letter to Henry Dearborn”...
“Declaration of Scientific Principles”                          in          “The Commonwealth of Science”“7. The pursuit o...
The erosion of the ethic of data sharing:                          “Could you patent the sun? “    In a 1954 interview wit...
Isknowledge a “commodity” ???                                                    What                  are the implication...
“Full Life Cycle”Data Management
The risks of curatorial inaction: Data Entropy“…data longevity is increased. Comprehensive metadata counteract the natural...
“The Data Life Cycle” #1                    US NSF “DataNet” Program:           “the full data preservation and access lif...
“The Data Life Cycle”                                         US Interagency Working                                      ...
“JISC DCC Curation Lifecycle Model”
W. K. Michener “Meta-information concepts for ecological data management”Ecological Informatics 1 (2006) 3-7
Commentary and the Accretion      of Knowledge
“Talmud and its Shape”“Here is the first page of the BabylonianTalmud, as it appears in the standard Vilnaedition. The sta...
Lets color-code the layout so that we can             distinguish the various layers more easily.                Mishnah (...
Hashiyat ala sharh Muhammad BinMubarakshah al-Bukhari alaHikmat al-ayn li-Ali Bin UmarAuthor: Ibn Mubarakshah al-Bukharaks...
DANTE ALIGHIERI, Inferno e Purgatorio, col commento acefalo di Jacopo della LanaSec. XIV, secondo quarto; Bologna, "lIllus...
How knowledge is developed:        sources…
Annotation
Annotation: Darwin (notes in Lyell’s Principles               of Geology Vol. 2)
Notebooks, Sketchbooks, Diaries
http://darwin-                                            http://www.nyu.edu/projects/materialonline.org.uk/converted/publ...
AMNH: “ The James Chapin Diaries”                         Book 1: (May 8, 1909 to July 17, 1909)                         M...
http://diglib1.amnh.org/cgi-bin/database/index.cgi
Peer Review:          Pre-Publication                 (Presentations, Conversations, , Corre            spondence )
Darwin Correspondence                  w. Alfred Russell Wallace“Down Bromley Kentf1May 1.— 1857My dear SirI am much oblig...
MOMA Interactives: “FANTASTIC ART, DADA, SURREALISM                    December 7, 1936–January 17, 1937”“Travel notebook ...
An Assessment -- Reviewing Peer Review                             Sense About Science | Peer Review Survey 2009:         ...
2.7 Reviewing GenerallyQuestion: Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following:                        ...
2.9 Types of Peer Review thought effectiveQuestion: For research papers published in your field, to what extent do you agr...
Peer Review   – Post-Publication/Exhibition:                BookReviews, Letters, Debates, Sermons…
T.H.H. Huxley, The origin of Species, Westminster Review 17                    (n.s.) 1860, pp. 541-70.“Everybody has read...
Darwin [letter] to Journal of Horticulture [17 May 1861]      a response to a letter from Donald Beaton“Beaton had written...
Mistakes / Revisions / Drafts
Yan Zhenqing (709-785 AD), Lament for a nephew (letter), detailYang Renkai, ed., Zhongguo meishu quanji, Shufajuanke bian ...
http://darwin-online.org.uk/converted/published/1975_NaturalSelection_F1583/1975_NaturalSelection_F                       ...
Canonical Forms?Variorum Editions
Online Chopin Variorum Edition   http://www.ocve.org.uk/guide/sourcedesc.html
http://donnevariorum.tamu.edu/anglist/index.html
Publication and Exhibition
Publicationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Origin_of_Species_title_page.jpg [September 2, 2011]
Exhibition???http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/picassoguitars/picassos-studio/03.php
http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/picassoguitars/picassos-studio/01.php
http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/picassoguitars/picassos-studio/02.php
T.R. Uthco and Ant Farms “The Eternal Frame”“In The Eternal Frame from 1975-76, recreated specifically for the exhibition,...
Public Expression•   Letters to the Editor•   Posters•   Leaflets•   Graffiti•   Wall Painting
Petroglyph “Rock Art Ranch” Arizona
Poetry on Cliffs
LA Creek Freak, “Hundred Year Old Hobo Graffiti”     http://lacreekfreak.wordpress.com/2008/10/03/hundred-year-old-hobo-gr...
Graffiti at Santa Monica (California)          Farmers’ Market…
And Sibiu…Sibiu, Romania, Pedestrian Underpass   Sibiu, Romania, Pedestrian Underpass         September 5, 2011           ...
Grafitti…
And Innovation…
COLLABORATION
Professors Peg Jacob (UCLA) , Wijnand Mijnhardt (Utrecht) , Lynn Hunt (UCLA)
“Meta-               Archiving”George Herms
Topanga Canyon in the 60’s
“Science flourishes in a secular democracy” ???“... two key elements *have+ proven to be essential    in moving forward in...
MEMORIES OF BANKSY???
Tom Moritztom.moritz@gmail.com  Monk, Bean & Moritz   “ARTIFACT” | objet trouvé – gutter, 10th& Colorado, Santa Monica,   ...
[Repatriation of biodiversity information through Clearing House Mechanism of theConvention on Biological Diversity and Gl...
“Tacit Knowledge”...?“ ‘...theyre meat all the way through.’‘No brain?’‘Oh, theres a brain all right. Its just that the br...
c. 1897 (220 Kb); Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from the Bibemus Quarry; Oil on Canvas, 64.8 x 81.3 cm (25 1/2 x 32 in); The  ...
Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7, No. 8–9, 2000, pp. 57–74         http://www.imprint.co.uk/ione/1037.PDF
Google Art Project               Paul Cezanne “Mill On The Couleuvre At Pontoise”      http://www.paul-cezanne.org/Mill-On...
http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/ethnobotany/resins.shtml
Fig. 38.                                                              Crematogaster(Sphaerocr                             ...
ANTS
“Ochetellusglaber” © Brian Fisher, AntWeb, California Academy of Sciences, 2004http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_BL...
“Township art” purchased at Stellenbosch, South Africa, Fall 2011
Carl Theodor Dreyer:The Passion of Joan of Arc
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011
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Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011

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Keynote talk given for ICOM CIDOC at Sibiu, Romania September, 2011

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  • This is a very useful effort to depict graphically the “involvement” of a range of people in a scientific debate based in evidence. It has implications for Web 2.0 approaches and for social media… as opportunities for both peer review and public review
  • Paradigms: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Committee on Documentation (CIDOC) Sibiu, Romania Sept, 2011

    1. 1. “…the great trouble with the world was that which survivedwas held in hard evidence as to past events. A false authority clung to whatpersisted, as if those artifacts of the past which had endured had done so by some act of their own will.” [emphasis added] -- Cormac McCarthy The Crossing
    2. 2. © J. Paul Getty TrustUnintentional artifact…
    3. 3. © J. Paul Getty Trust
    4. 4. Telephoto view (north) of Laetoli trackway site, 1996 © J. Paul Getty Trust
    5. 5. Laetoli, May 1996; Point cloud with elevation data of footprint © J. Paul Getty Trust
    6. 6. [Laetoli Diorama ], Hall of Human Biology, American Museum of Natural History, (Courtesy Special Collections, AMNH Library)
    7. 7. AND
    8. 8. “A representation of the cholera epidemic of the nineteenth century” http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/history/index.html
    9. 9. http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/snowmap1_1854_lge.htm
    10. 10. http://johnsnow.matrix.msu.edu/images/online_companion/chapter_images/fig12-6.jpg
    11. 11. http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/epidemic/
    12. 12. AND
    13. 13. “Crimea, 1855: Which is"true?" Aroad withcannonballs,or without?”“Errol Morris Looks for the Truth in Photography,” by Kathryn Schulz, NYT Sep.1 ,2011 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/04/books/review/believing-is-seeing-by-errol-morris-book-review.html
    14. 14. Collections & Memory, Data as EvidenceMuseums, Libraries and Archives as Veritistic advocates?
    15. 15. “Nothing is required for this enlightenment,however, except freedom; and the freedom in question is the least harmful of all, namely, the freedom to use reason publicly in all matters..." Immanuel Kant “What is Enlightement?”
    16. 16. WIPO “Knowledge Pyramid” http://www.wipo.int/global_ip/en/knowledge_gap.html
    17. 17. “KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES”:Insight TechnologyRepatriation of biodiversity information through Clearing House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity and GlobalBiodiversity Information Facility; Views and experiences of Peruvian andBolivian non-governmental organizations. Ulla Helimo Master’s Thesis University of Turku Department of Biology 6.10. 2004p.11. http://enbi.utu.fi/Documents/Ulla%20Helimo%20PRO%20GRADU.pdf[06-06-05]
    18. 18. Khandhas: Buddhist Constituents of the “self”“The five khandhas are ‘bundles’ or ‘piles’ of  form,  feeling,  perception,  fabrications,  consciousness.” The Five Aggregates: A Study Guide by ThanissaroBhikkhu http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/study/khandha.html
    19. 19. Meta-cognition -- Descartes: “Cogito ergo sum”“I have convinced myself that there is absolutely nothing in the world, no sky, no earth, no minds, no bodies. Does it now follow that I too do not exist? No: if I convinced myself of something then I certainly existed. But there is a deceiver of supreme power and cunning who is deliberately and constantly deceiving me. In that case I too undoubtedly exist, if he is deceiving me; and let him deceive me as much as he can, he will never bring it about that I am nothing so long as I think that I am something. So after considering everything very thoroughly, I must finally conclude that this proposition, I am, I exist, is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived in my mind.” (Med. 2, AT 7:25) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-epistemology/#4
    20. 20. Samuel Taylor Coleridge: “Imagination” / “Fancy”“The Imagination then I consider either as primary, or secondary. The primary Imagination I hold to be the living power and prime agent of all human perception, and as a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infinite I AM... It is essentially vital, even as all objects (as objects) are essentially fixed and dead.“FANCY, on the contrary, has no other counters to play with, but fixities and definites. The fancy is indeed no other than a mode of memory emancipated from the order of time and space; while it is blended with, and modified by that empirical phaenomenon of the will, which we express by the word Choice. But equally with the ordinary memory the Fancy must receive all its materials ready made from the law of association.” [emphasis added] -- Samuel Taylor Coleridge BibliographiaLitera (Chpt 12) http://www.archive.org/stream/biographialitera06081gut/bioli10.txt
    21. 21. Meta-cognition -- Descartes: “Cogito ergo sum”“I have convinced myself that there is absolutely nothing in the world, no sky, no earth, no minds, no bodies. Does it now follow that I too do not exist? No: if I convinced myself of something then I certainly existed. But there is a deceiver of supreme power and cunning who is deliberately and constantly deceiving me. In that case I too undoubtedly exist, if he is deceiving me; and let him deceive me as much as he can, he will never bring it about that I am nothing so long as I think that I am something. So after considering everything very thoroughly, I must finally conclude that this proposition, I am, I exist, is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived in my mind.” (Med. 2, AT 7:25) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-epistemology/#4
    22. 22. ”First Person Ontology” EXPRESSION Physics PERCEPTION Engineering BiologyProblem Domain of Problem Domain of “AESTHETICS” “CONSCIOUSNESS” “INTUITION” “VALUATION” (Memory) Social Sciences Cognitive Studies REASON
    23. 23. Letter: Charles Darwin to Alfred Russell Wallace May 1, 1857 ” …it is lamentable how each man draws his own different conclusions from the very same fact.” Darwin Correspondence Project http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2086
    24. 24. ”Third Person Ontology”? PhysicsEngineering Biology Problem Domain of “CONSCIOUSNESS”Social sciences Cognitive Studies With presumed values of OBJECTIVITY and INVARIANCE
    25. 25. WIPO “Knowledge Pyramid”
    26. 26. Paul Otlet ¬–LaboratoriumMundaneum –Dissection of Documents andRe-order in UDC –Mundaneum Mons
    27. 27. Complex typesof knowledgeresourcessupport allforms ofresearch Research Information Network and British Library “Patterns of information use and exchange: case studies of researchers in the life sciences” http://www.rin.ac.uk/system/files/attachments/Patterns_information_use-REPORT_Nov09.pdf
    28. 28. “Competence” “Involvement”This is a very useful effort to depict graphically the “involvement” of a range of “actors” in a scientific debatebased in evidence. It has implications for Web 2.0 approaches and for social media… as opportunities for bothpeer review and public review D. J. Meltzer, “Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleoindian Bison Kill” Univ of California Press, 2006.
    29. 29. Essential Definitions: “Data”?
    30. 30. Essential Definitions: “Data”? “Data” – a philosophical definition The Diaphoric Definition of Data (DDD): “A datum is a putative factregarding some difference or lack of uniformity within some context.”Luciano Floridi<luciano.floridi@philosophy.ox.ac.uk> “Semantic Conceptions of Information” (First published Wed Oct 5, 2005) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/information-semantic/ [visited 11/12/09]
    31. 31. Essential Definitions: “Data” ? [technical]“…’data’ are defined as any information that can be stored in digital form and accessed electronically, including, but not limited to, numeric data, text, publications, sensor streams, video, audio, algorithms, software, models and simulations, images, etc.” -- US NSF Program Solicitation 07-601 “Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners (DataNet)” Taken in this broadest possible sense, “data” are thus simply coded electronic forms of information (bits and bytes). Virtually anything can be represented as “data” so long as it is electronically machine-readable.
    32. 32. “Most commonly, computer scientists are concerned with digital objects that are defined as a set of sequences of bits. One can then ask computationally based questions about whether one has the correct set of sequences of bits, such as whether the digital object in ones possession is the same as that which some entity published under a specific identifier at a specific point in time… However, this is a simplistic notion. There are additional factors to consider.” *!+ Clifford Lynch, “Authenticity and Integrity in the Digital Environment: An Exploratory Analysis of the Central Role of Trust,” http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub92/lynch.html
    33. 33. Definition: “Data” [epistemic]“Measurements, observations or descriptions of a referent -- such as an individual, an event, a specimen in a collection or an excavated/surveyed object -- created or collected through human interpretation (whether directly “by hand” or through the use of technologies)” -- AnthroDPA Working Group on Metadata (May, 2009)
    34. 34. Raw Data and “Native” Metadata “manzanita_sapflow_12-5-07_to_7-7-08.xls”“instantaneous sap flow data (as temperature differences on a constant temperature heatdissipation probe) for multiple branches of Manzanita, collected with a datalogger.used to correlate physiological activity with below-ground measures of root grown andCO2 production.”sbid battery datetime heater_voltage Manz1Sap1 Manz1Sap2 Manz1Sap3 Manz1Sap4 Manz2Sap5 Manz2Sap6 Manz2Sap7 Manz3Sap10 Manz3Sap8 Manz3Sap9 Manz4Sap11 timestamp Datagap Julian2 12.365 1196796112 2018.8 0.5585 0.51029 0.55517 0.54354 0.6067 0.52858 0.55351 0.59008 0.59506 0.60337 0.56514 12/4/07 11:21 4.473513 12.348 1196796232 2017.9 0.55682 0.51028 0.5535 0.54352 0.60669 0.52857 0.55017 0.59007 0.59505 0.60336 0.56513 12/4/07 11:23 0 4.474904 12.357 1196796352 2018.6 0.55514 0.51027 0.55348 0.54351 0.60501 0.52855 0.55016 0.59005 0.59504 0.60501 0.56512 12/4/07 11:25 0 4.476285 12.354 1196796472 2017.6 0.55514 0.51026 0.55181 0.5435 0.60334 0.52855 0.54849 0.59004 0.59503 0.60334 0.56511 12/4/07 11:27 0 4.477676 12.334 1196796592 2018.3 0.55347 0.51026 0.55015 0.5435 0.60333 0.52854 0.54682 0.59004 0.59502 0.605 0.56511 12/4/07 11:29 0 4.479067 12.34 1196796712 2018.5 0.55014 0.50859 0.55014 0.54349 0.60332 0.53019 0.54349 0.59003 0.59501 0.60498 0.56676 12/4/07 11:31 0 4.480458 12.337 1196796832 2017.8 0.55013 0.50692 0.55013 0.54348 0.60332 0.53019 0.54182 0.59002 0.59501 0.60498 0.56675 12/4/07 11:33 0 4.481849 12.328 1196796952 2017.5 0.5468 0.50691 0.5468 0.54347 0.60331 0.53018 0.53849 0.59001 0.595 0.60497 0.56674 12/4/07 11:35 0 4.4832310 12.323 1196797072 2017 0.54679 0.50524 0.54679 0.54347 0.59998 0.53017 0.53682 0.59 0.59499 0.60496 0.56674 12/4/07 11:37 0 4.4846211 12.328 1196797192 2018.9 0.54679 0.50191 0.54512 0.5418 0.59665 0.53017 0.53349 0.59 0.59498 0.60496 0.56673 12/4/07 11:39 0 4.4860112 12.319 1196797312 2017.7 0.54345 0.49857 0.54178 0.54178 0.59663 0.53015 0.53015 0.58998 0.5933 0.60327 0.56671 12/4/07 11:41 0 4.4874013 12.311 1196797432 2017.3 0.54343 0.4969 0.54011 0.54177 0.59661 0.53014 0.52848 0.58997 0.59329 0.6016 0.5667 12/4/07 11:43 0 4.4887814 12.316 1196797552 2018.6 0.5401 0.49357 0.53678 0.54176 0.59328 0.53013 0.5268 0.58995 0.59328 0.60325 0.56669 12/4/07 11:45 0 4.4901715 12.31 1196797672 2016.8 0.53844 0.4919 0.53511 0.54176 0.59494 0.53013 0.52514 0.58995 0.59328 0.60325 0.56503 12/4/07 11:47 0 4.4915616 12.31 1196797792 2017.1 0.53676 0.48856 0.53343 0.54174 0.59326 0.53011 0.5218 0.58993 0.59326 0.60323 0.56501 12/4/07 11:49 0 4.4929517 12.31 1196797912 2017.1 0.53342 0.48523 0.5301 0.54173 0.59324 0.5301 0.51846 0.58826 0.59324 0.60321 0.56499 12/4/07 11:51 0 4.4943418 12.301 1196798031 2017.5 0.53174 0.48521 0.52842 0.53839 0.59156 0.53008 0.51845 0.58824 0.59323 0.6032 0.56498 12/4/07 11:53 0 4.4957319 12.301 1196798151 2016.3 0.53007 0.48188 0.52509 0.53838 0.59155 0.53007 0.51512 0.58823 0.59321 0.60152 0.5633 12/4/07 11:55 0 4.4971220 12.303 1196798271 2016.6 0.5284 0.47855 0.52175 0.53837 0.59154 0.5284 0.5151 0.58821 0.59154 0.60151 0.56163 12/4/07 11:57 0 4.49851 Datum: “0.59998”
    35. 35. “Quality of Data”??? / 3 Key Values“Validity”: logical decisive force in support of an hypothesis or proposition – may be discipline or domain specific (in United States Law, generally, the Popperian notion of falsifiability or testability is normative). This value requires close consideration of the full range of possible and available types of evidence… The ideal form of evidence – in law – is “dispositive” – that is conclusively decisive in settling the matter under adjudication…“Reliability”: acquisition of data: The use of competent (certified?) expert personnel, methods and properly calibrated deployed and operated equipment/apparatus to collect and/or record data? (Were these methods and equipment appropriately selected, calibrated, deployed and operated properly? Were the human agents properly trained and certified for the work they performed? Was the work performed properly?) [These elements can be systematically presented using open source work-flow applications like Kepler SEE: https://kepler-project.org/ [“Integrity”: – Management and Maintenance of Data: Secure maintenance and proper management of data? (Accordance with established best practices?) Maintenance of the integrity of original data includes appropriate description, documentation of the chain of custody and uses all appropriate methods and metrics that establish data have not been inadvertently lost or changed. – Transformations of Data: Proper selection, execution and documentation of all data transformations. (Have all transformations been validly applied to insure the integrity of original data? Can the complete documented “audit trail” of data be analyzed to reveal provenance and lineage, the integral, original data sources?)
    36. 36. What is “Evidence”?:“Data having potentially decisive / dispositive value as proof of a hypothesis” (in terms of applicable rules of evidence within a domain of knowledge)• Being demonstrably valid (i.e. well supported by scientific logic)• Being reliable by conformity to expert consensus and expert practice• Having integrity as demonstrated by well documented lineage and provenance.
    37. 37. ConsciousValidity??? No Stated hypothesis as basis for defining valid data-typesAn example fromwildlifemanagement Page image is from “Road Ecology” RTT Forman et al. Island Press, 2002 SEE: http://www.indiebound. org/book/97815596393 30
    38. 38. COMPREHENSIVE VALIDITY??? An exemplar of the possible range of data types available as “evidence” – in this case, that a zoologicalsurvey has generated comprehensive results… Note: an inclusive combination of evidence types is ideally necessary to optimize the evidentiary force of a survey… Comprehensive set of data types Source: Voss & Emmons, AMNH Bull. No. 230, 1996 (by permission)
    39. 39. “Reliability” ???“Methodology/Principal Findings: The present study uses a large set of fungal DNA sequences from the inclusive International Nucleotide Sequence Database to show that the taxon sampling of fungi is far from complete, that about 20% of the entries may be incorrectly identified to species level, and that the majority of entries lack descriptive and up-to-date annotations.“Conclusions: The problems with taxonomic reliability and insufficient annotations in public DNA repositories form a tangible obstacle to sequence-based species identification, and it is manifest that the greatest challenges to biological barcoding will be of taxonomical, rather than technical, nature.”RH Nilsson et al. “Taxonomic Reliability of DNA Sequences in Public SequenceDatabases: A Fungal Perspective,” PLoS ONE 1(1): e59.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000059http://www.plosone.org/article/citationList.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000059
    40. 40. Losses of Integrity: Data Degraded by successive transformations Data transformations and the risks of loss of integrity -- (we must fully analyze the etiology of data degradation!)
    41. 41. “…the “validation” of any scientific hypothesis rests upon the sum validity, reliability and integrity of all original data andon the iterative validation of all subsequent sequences of data transformation to which original data have been subject. “ T. Moritz “The Burden of Proof”
    42. 42. The ethos of knowledge sharing
    43. 43. “The field of knowledge is the common property of all mankind “ -- Thomas Jefferson “Letter to Henry Dearborn” 1807
    44. 44. “Declaration of Scientific Principles” in “The Commonwealth of Science”“7. The pursuit of scientific inquiry demands complete intellectual freedom. And unrestricted international exchange of knowledge…“ from “The Commonwealth of Science ” Nature No.3753 October 4, 1941.
    45. 45. The erosion of the ethic of data sharing: “Could you patent the sun? “ In a 1954 interview with Edward R Murrow, Jonas Salk responded to a question suggesting the patenting of the polio vaccine : “Could you patent the sun?” and then ca 50 years later In a 2002 study, 47% of surveyed geneticists had been rejected at least once in their efforts to gain access to key genetics data (this result indicated a significant increase over a previous survey). EG Campbell et al. “Data Withholding in Academic Genetics: Evidence From a National Survey” JAMA, Jan 2002; 287: 473 – 480; Massachusetts General Hospital (2006). “Studies examine withholding of scientific data amongresearchers, trainees: Relationships with industry, competitive environments associated with research secrecy.” News release (January 25). Massachusetts General Hospital. http://www.massgeneral.org/news/releases/012506campbell.html, as of November 17, 2008.
    46. 46. Isknowledge a “commodity” ??? What are the implications of this view? ??? Julian Birkinshaw and Tony Sheehan, “Managing the Knowledge Life Cycle,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44 (2) Fall, 2002: 77.
    47. 47. “Full Life Cycle”Data Management
    48. 48. The risks of curatorial inaction: Data Entropy“…data longevity is increased. Comprehensive metadata counteract the natural tendency for data to degrade in information content through time (i.e. information entropy sensu Michener et al., 1997; Fig. 1).” W. K. Michener “Meta-information concepts for ecological data management” Ecological Informatics 1 (2006) 3-7
    49. 49. “The Data Life Cycle” #1 US NSF “DataNet” Program: “the full data preservation and access lifecycle” • “Acquisition” • “Documentation” • “Protection” • “Access” • “Analysis and dissemination” • “Migration” • “Disposition”“Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners (DataNet) Program Solicitation” NSF 07-601 US National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure Directorate for Computer & Information Science & Engineering
    50. 50. “The Data Life Cycle” US Interagency Working Group on Digital Datahttp://wiki.esipfed.org/images/c/c4/IWGDD.ppt
    51. 51. “JISC DCC Curation Lifecycle Model”
    52. 52. W. K. Michener “Meta-information concepts for ecological data management”Ecological Informatics 1 (2006) 3-7
    53. 53. Commentary and the Accretion of Knowledge
    54. 54. “Talmud and its Shape”“Here is the first page of the BabylonianTalmud, as it appears in the standard Vilnaedition. The standardized pagination followsthat of the third Bomberg edition, Venice, 1548.Pages are numbered by folio. This page isBerakhoth 2a (that is, the first side of folio 2 inthe tractate Berakhoth, "Blessings").“Considered from the standpoint of typographyalone, the printed page of the Talmud is anamazingly complex text with many intertextualconnections representing fifteen centuries ofdiscussion.” http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/2/Judaism/talmud.html
    55. 55. Lets color-code the layout so that we can distinguish the various layers more easily. Mishnah (Palestine, about 220 CE) Gemara (Babylonia, about 500 CE) Comments of Rashi (Northern France, 1040-1105 CE) Comments of the Tosafists (France and Germany, 12th-13th centuries) Comments of R. Nissim ben Jacob (Tunisia, 11th century) Notes by R. Aqiva Eger (Prussia, 1761-1837) Anonymous comment (printers?) Key to scriptural quotations Cross-references to medieval codes of Jewish law Cross-references to other passages in Talmud A textual emendation from the Proofs of Joel Sirkes (Poland, 1561-1640)http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/2/Judaism/talmud.html
    56. 56. Hashiyat ala sharh Muhammad BinMubarakshah al-Bukhari alaHikmat al-ayn li-Ali Bin UmarAuthor: Ibn Mubarakshah al-Bukharakshah al-Bukhari, Shams-al-dinLibrary: National Library of the CzechRepublicOwner: Czech Republic http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/file_download.php/40ccadf3ed6e2b181b3a8e5fead40c9d0005V.jpg[June 2,2007 ]
    57. 57. DANTE ALIGHIERI, Inferno e Purgatorio, col commento acefalo di Jacopo della LanaSec. XIV, secondo quarto; Bologna, "lIllustratore" (attr.).Membr.; mm. 380x250; cc. II, 187, II°;littera textualis (copista: maestro Galvano da Bologna). http://www.istitutodatini.it/biblio/images/it/riccard/1005/ [clipped 02 / 19 /08 ]
    58. 58. How knowledge is developed: sources…
    59. 59. Annotation
    60. 60. Annotation: Darwin (notes in Lyell’s Principles of Geology Vol. 2)
    61. 61. Notebooks, Sketchbooks, Diaries
    62. 62. http://darwin- http://www.nyu.edu/projects/materialonline.org.uk/converted/published/1975_NaturalSelection world/images/1_Darwin%20Tree%20B%_F1583/1975_NaturalSelection_F1583_fig03.jpg 2036.jpg
    63. 63. AMNH: “ The James Chapin Diaries” Book 1: (May 8, 1909 to July 17, 1909) May • June • July Diaries List [Business card (loose)]: Y. Le Boulbin, Directeur de lOngomo. Kakamoeka. Par Loango Gabon. (Back): Y Le BoulbinGoudelin; Cotes-du-Nord; France. DATE: 5/8/1909 (Saturday) LOCALITY: Sailed from New York, at 11am on SS "Zeeland". “WEATHER: Fair, a fresh easterly breeze. Going down the bay we saw 10 or 15 herring gulls, and off Fort Wadsworth, Staten Id. a flock of at least 50 small gulls, almost certainly Larusphiladelphia.” http://diglib1.amnh.org/articles/chapin_diary/chapin_diary.html
    64. 64. http://diglib1.amnh.org/cgi-bin/database/index.cgi
    65. 65. Peer Review: Pre-Publication (Presentations, Conversations, , Corre spondence )
    66. 66. Darwin Correspondence w. Alfred Russell Wallace“Down Bromley Kentf1May 1.— 1857My dear SirI am much obliged for your letter of Oct. 10th. from Celebes received a few days ago:f2 in a laborious undertaking sympathy is a valuable & real encouragement. By your letter & even still more by your paper in Annals, a year or more ago,f3 I can plainly see that we have thought much alike & to a certain extent have come to similar conclusions. In regard to the Paper in Annals, I agree to the truth of almost every word of your paper; & I daresay that you will agree with me that it is very rare to find oneself agreeing pretty closely with any theoretical paper; for it is lamentable how each man draws his own different conclusions from the very same fact.—” http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2086
    67. 67. MOMA Interactives: “FANTASTIC ART, DADA, SURREALISM December 7, 1936–January 17, 1937”“Travel notebook Summer 1936 *AHB, 9.E.2+Barr traveled in Europe with his wife, Margaret Scolari Barr, from May 18 to August1, 1936, to secure works of art for the exhibition. This page includes notes on Barr’svisit to Jean Arp in Meudon, France.“Letter Barr to George Grosz, May 11, 1936 *REG, Exh. #55]Barr solicits the artist for information on obtaining work by him and his Germancolleagues from the Dada era.“Letter Barr to Tzara, November 7, 1936 [REG, Exh. #55]Barr attempts to placate Tzara, the “chef d’école” of the Dada movement, byreassuring him that Dada will hold a very prominent place in the exhibition.[ Installation photograph [PA, IN55] ]“Letter Barr to Marcel Duchamp, February 1, 1937 *REG, Exh. #55]“Letters Dreier to Barr, February 16 and 27, 1937 *REG, Exh. #55]Dreier expresses her displeasure over the inclusion of artwork by children and “theinsane” in the exhibition.” http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2008/dadaatmoma/
    68. 68. An Assessment -- Reviewing Peer Review Sense About Science | Peer Review Survey 2009: Preliminary Findings 8th Sept 2009Should peer review detect fraud and misconduct? What does it do for science and what does the scientific community want it to do? Will it illuminate good ideas or shut them down? Should reviewers remain anonymous? These questions are part of one of the largest ever international surveys of authors and reviewers (over 4,000), the Peer Review Survey 20091, whose preliminary findings are released today.Peer review now results in 1.3 million2 learned articles published every year. It is fundamental to integration of new research findings in hundreds of fields of inquiry. It is the front line in critical review of research, enabling other researchers to analyse or use findings and, in turn, society at large to sift research claims. It is growing year on year with the expansion of the global research community, and with it has come a corresponding expansion of concerns about getting the next generation of researchers to review in sufficient numbers: Can the peer reviewing effort be sustained? Can the system be truly globalised and its integrity maintained? Some observers say that peer review will be able to keep pace, following uptake of electronic technologies – from online processes to programmes that help identify plagiarism; others have suggested that alternative metrics will play a greater role.As a science education charity, Sense About Science2 sees peer review as vital to the transparency of scientific reasoning, and the pressure of these questions led Sense About Science to find out more about what researchers actually think about peer review and its future. The Peer Review Survey 2009 was developed by Sense About Science in consultation with editors and publishers and administered with a grant from Elsevier. It repeated some questions from the Peer Review Survey 20073 for comparison, and developed emerging questions about future improvements, public awareness and new pressures on the system. Preliminary findings are presented in the following pages. 70
    69. 69. 2.7 Reviewing GenerallyQuestion: Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following: % agree 68% 73% 86% 56% n=359 7
    70. 70. 2.9 Types of Peer Review thought effectiveQuestion: For research papers published in your field, to what extent do you agree that the following % agreetypes of peer review are/would be effective? 2009 2007 15% 5% 47% n/a * 25% n/a 20% 27% 76% 71% 45% 52%* This is where the authors and reviewers are known to each other and additionally the reviewers’signed reports are openly published alongside the paper n=4037 72
    71. 71. Peer Review – Post-Publication/Exhibition: BookReviews, Letters, Debates, Sermons…
    72. 72. T.H.H. Huxley, The origin of Species, Westminster Review 17 (n.s.) 1860, pp. 541-70.“Everybody has read Mr. Darwins book, or, at least, has given an opinion upon its merits or demerits; pietists, whether lay or ecclesiastic, decry it with the mild railing which sounds so charitable; bigots denounce it with ignorant invective; old ladies of both sexes consider it a [23] decidedly dangerous book, and even savants, who have no better mud to throw, quote antiquated writers to show that its author is no better than an ape himself; while every philosophical thinker hails it as a veritable Whitworth gun in the armoury of liberalism; and all competent naturalists and physiologists, whatever their opinions as to the ultimate fate of the doctrines put forth, acknowledge that the work in which they are embodied is a solid contribution to knowledge and inaugurates a new epoch in natural history.” http://www.victorianweb.org/science/science_texts/huxley_review_of_origin.html
    73. 73. Darwin [letter] to Journal of Horticulture [17 May 1861] a response to a letter from Donald Beaton“Beaton had written in response to CD’s previous letter (see n. 2, above) (Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener, and Country Gentleman n.s. 1 (1861): 113):‘My own experience of variable plants was given last week, and I do not exactly comprehend what is meant by natural varieties, for all the so-called varieties in cultivation have been artificially obtained either by a change of cultivation, or by crossing with pollen such kinds or species as would sport from seeds under cultivation. ‘ ”Darwin responded:“Much obliged am I to Mr. Beaton for his very interesting answer to my question.f2 When Mr. Beaton says he does “not know of an instance of the natural crossing of varieties,” I presume he intends to confine his remark to the plants of the flower garden; for every one knows how largely the varieties of the Cabbage cross, as is likewise the case (as I know from careful trial) with Radishes and Onions.” http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-3162
    74. 74. Mistakes / Revisions / Drafts
    75. 75. Yan Zhenqing (709-785 AD), Lament for a nephew (letter), detailYang Renkai, ed., Zhongguo meishu quanji, Shufajuanke bian 3: Sui Tang Wudai shufa (Beijing:Renming meishu chubanshe, 1986), plate 69, pg. 154.Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/callig/7calindv.htm [June 2, 2007]
    76. 76. http://darwin-online.org.uk/converted/published/1975_NaturalSelection_F1583/1975_NaturalSelection_F 1583_fig03.jpg
    77. 77. Canonical Forms?Variorum Editions
    78. 78. Online Chopin Variorum Edition http://www.ocve.org.uk/guide/sourcedesc.html
    79. 79. http://donnevariorum.tamu.edu/anglist/index.html
    80. 80. Publication and Exhibition
    81. 81. Publicationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Origin_of_Species_title_page.jpg [September 2, 2011]
    82. 82. Exhibition???http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/picassoguitars/picassos-studio/03.php
    83. 83. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/picassoguitars/picassos-studio/01.php
    84. 84. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2011/picassoguitars/picassos-studio/02.php
    85. 85. T.R. Uthco and Ant Farms “The Eternal Frame”“In The Eternal Frame from 1975-76, recreated specifically for the exhibition, SanFrancisco Bay area artists T.R. Uthco and Ant Farm situate their video in a 1960sAmerican living room diorama adorned with knick-knacks memorializing the Kennedypresidency.” Tucker Neel, “California Video at the Getty Museum” July 11, 2008http://tuckerneel.wordpress.com/2008/07/11/california-video-at-the-getty-museum/
    86. 86. Public Expression• Letters to the Editor• Posters• Leaflets• Graffiti• Wall Painting
    87. 87. Petroglyph “Rock Art Ranch” Arizona
    88. 88. Poetry on Cliffs
    89. 89. LA Creek Freak, “Hundred Year Old Hobo Graffiti” http://lacreekfreak.wordpress.com/2008/10/03/hundred-year-old-hobo-graffiti/“River Bottom is Queerest Spot in Los Angeles / Hobos Washing; Junk Men Searching … Theinherent desire of the roaming tramp seems to be to leave at the places where he has tarriedsome mark or inscription as evidence of his visit. Scrawled in oil and tar on the concrete basesof the sewer trestle, below Fourth street, are a great number of these marks. They bear mutetestimony to the visits to the river bottom of numerous notables of hobo-land. If they are tobe accepted as authentic.“ -- Los Angeles Times, August 5th 1923
    90. 90. Graffiti at Santa Monica (California) Farmers’ Market…
    91. 91. And Sibiu…Sibiu, Romania, Pedestrian Underpass Sibiu, Romania, Pedestrian Underpass September 5, 2011 September 5, 2011
    92. 92. Grafitti…
    93. 93. And Innovation…
    94. 94. COLLABORATION
    95. 95. Professors Peg Jacob (UCLA) , Wijnand Mijnhardt (Utrecht) , Lynn Hunt (UCLA)
    96. 96. “Meta- Archiving”George Herms
    97. 97. Topanga Canyon in the 60’s
    98. 98. “Science flourishes in a secular democracy” ???“... two key elements *have+ proven to be essential in moving forward in science: secularism and a working democracy, as exemplified by Turkey.“... Turkey is the only member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) states with universities ranking among the worlds top 500, and it leads OIC states in terms of annual output of research papers…” Correspondence: Iclal Büÿükderim-Özçelik, Tayfun Özçelik “Science flourishes in a secular democracy” Nature433, 355 (27 January 2005) | doi:10.1038/433355b http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7024/full/433355b.html
    99. 99. MEMORIES OF BANKSY???
    100. 100. Tom Moritztom.moritz@gmail.com Monk, Bean & Moritz “ARTIFACT” | objet trouvé – gutter, 10th& Colorado, Santa Monica, Los Angeles ICOM CIDOC Sibiu, Romania September 5, 2011 SEEALSO:
    101. 101. [Repatriation of biodiversity information through Clearing House Mechanism of theConvention on Biological Diversity and Global Biodiversity Information Facility; Views andexperiences of Peruvian and Bolivian non-governmental organizations. Ulla HelimoMaster’s Thesis University of Turku Department of Biology 6.10. 2004+
    102. 102. “Tacit Knowledge”...?“ ‘...theyre meat all the way through.’‘No brain?’‘Oh, theres a brain all right. Its just that the brain is made out of meat! Thats what Ive been trying to tell you.’‘So ... what does the thinking?’‘Youre not understanding, are you? Youre refusing to deal with what Im telling you. The brain does the thinking. The meat.’‘Thinking meat! Youre asking me to believe in thinking meat!’ “ THEYRE MADE OUT OF MEAT by Terry Bisson http://www.terrybisson.com/meat.html
    103. 103. c. 1897 (220 Kb); Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from the Bibemus Quarry; Oil on Canvas, 64.8 x 81.3 cm (25 1/2 x 32 in); The Baltimore Museum of Art http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/st-victoire/vue-bibemus/
    104. 104. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7, No. 8–9, 2000, pp. 57–74 http://www.imprint.co.uk/ione/1037.PDF
    105. 105. Google Art Project Paul Cezanne “Mill On The Couleuvre At Pontoise” http://www.paul-cezanne.org/Mill-On-The-Couleuvre-At-Pontoise.htmlhttp://www.googleartproject.com/museums/altesnational/mill-on-the-couleuvre-at-pontoise
    106. 106. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/ethnobotany/resins.shtml
    107. 107. Fig. 38. Crematogaster(Sphaerocr ema) concara Emery. Worker from aboye.William Morton Wheeler, “Ants of the American Museum Congo Expedition : a contributionto the myrmecology of Africa. Bulletin of the AMNH” ; v. 45, article 1, p155
    108. 108. ANTS
    109. 109. “Ochetellusglaber” © Brian Fisher, AntWeb, California Academy of Sciences, 2004http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_BLF660&res=640
    110. 110. “Township art” purchased at Stellenbosch, South Africa, Fall 2011
    111. 111. Carl Theodor Dreyer:The Passion of Joan of Arc

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