A Vision for the Biodiversity Commons Concept, May 2004, IUCN Geneva, Switzerland
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

A Vision for the Biodiversity Commons Concept, May 2004, IUCN Geneva, Switzerland

on

  • 363 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
363
Views on SlideShare
363
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Development of communication parallels GDP/capita Cellular phones has caught on more quickly than use of the Internet - cheaper initial costs - “Latin culture” is more oriented to spoken rather than written communication
  • So this is what it would look like in an Open Access publishing model. The costs are met up-front, with as consequence that research articles are subsequently freely and fully available to anyone who needs them.

 A Vision for the Biodiversity Commons Concept, May 2004, IUCN Geneva, Switzerland A Vision for the Biodiversity Commons Concept, May 2004, IUCN Geneva, Switzerland Presentation Transcript

  • A Vision for theA Vision for the Biodiversity CommonsBiodiversity Commons May, 2004 IUCN Tom Moritz
  • IUCNIUCN Mission To influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity of nature and ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.
  • Strategic decisions about data, information, knowledge and technology must be conscious, explicit and mission-consistentmission-consistent
  • What is a “Commons” ??? • A limited and conditional zone of fair use (defined legally, financially, culturally and technically) • Permits sustainable use of a resource without jeopardizing original ownership rights • Protects against unauthorized commercial use (is compatible with market mechanisms ) • Respects organizational/individual “moral rights” (i.e. rights of authors)
  • “Philosophical” Context?
  • “The field of knowledge is the common property of all mankind “ Thomas Jefferson 1807
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. (emphasis added) http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
  • RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (1992) Principle 10 Environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided
  •       Convention on Biological Diversity: Article 17 Exchange of Information 1. The Contracting Parties shall facilitate the exchange of  information, from all publicly available sources, relevant to  the conservation and sustainable use of biological  diversity, taking into account the special needs of  developing countries. 2. Such exchange of information shall include exchange of results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research, as well as information on training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, indigenous and traditional knowledge as such and in combination with the technologies referred to in Article 16, paragraph 1. It shall also, where feasible, include repatriation of information.   http://www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp?lg=0&a=cbd-17
  • “The substantive findings of science are a product of social collaboration and are assigned to the community. They constitute a common heritage in which the equity of the individual producer is severely limited…” “The scientist’s claim to “his” intellectual “property” is limited to that of recognition and esteem which, if the institution functions with a modicum of efficiency, is roughly commensurate with the significance of the increments brought to the common fund of knowledge.” Robert K. Merton, “A Note on Science and Democarcy,” Journal of Law and Political Sociology 1 (1942): 121. The Ethos of Science
  • Science Library in China August, 1986
  • The Library Tradition • For hundreds of years, libraries have been the “protected areas” of the knowledge commons • The “public library” is a commons or a zone of “fair use” that makes knowledge freely and equitably available to all
  • IUCNIUCN Mission To influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity of nature and ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.
  • Some possible definitions…Some possible definitions… • “Data”: Observations, descriptions or measurements recorded and reported in some standard way… • “Information”: Reasoned associations of data • “Experience”: Personal or collective recollection and interpretation of events • “Expertise”: Individual or collective knowledge that is considered reliable by virtue of accomplishment • “Knowledge”: Rational assumptions derived from information and experience, presumed to be “true”and “reliable”
  • The Conservation Domain
  • Colin Bibby, 2002 The Knowledge Cycle in the International Conservation Community
  • http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0674006771/ref=sib_dp_pt/104-4859238-9642354#reader-link
  • “The data or samples are collected and analyzed independentlycollected and analyzed independently, and the resulting data sets from such studies generally are heterogeneous and unstandardizedheterogeneous and unstandardized, with few of the individual data holdings deposited in public data repositories or openly shared... “The data exist in various twilight states of accessibilityexist in various twilight states of accessibility… “The data are thus disaggregated components of an incipientdata are thus disaggregated components of an incipient network that is only as effective as the individual transactionsnetwork that is only as effective as the individual transactions that put it togetherthat put it together The Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain: Proceedings of a Symposium. Julie M. Esanu and Paul F. Uhlir, Eds. Steering Committee on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs Board on International Scientific Organizations Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council of the
  • Conservation data, information, experience and knowledge is widely dispersed but vaguely synthesized and weakly integrated  Specimen collections preserved & living (museums, herbaria, botanical gardens, zoos, aquaria and culture collections)  Derivatives and “virtual” specimens and samples  Collateral collections (nests, etc)  Genetic sequence data  Scientific publications & “gray literature”  Images of all types / scales (satellite, photo-trap, electro- micrographs)  Observational data of all types  Time-based media (film, video, recorded sounds)  Bibliographic indices (e.g. Zoological Record 1864-present) & Authority Files  Maps (analog or digital)  Environmental Data  Archives and manuscripts (field and lab notes)  Expertise: the experience- based knowledge of individuals or cultures
  • View from the north of the Ngoc Linh Mountain Range in Vietnam's Central Highlands. This image was created by draping a LandSat scene (1998) over a three-dimensional model. Courtesy AMNH Center for Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Rheinardia ocellata, the Crested Argus. Photographed at night by an automatic camera-trap in the Ngoc Linh foothills (Quang Nam Province). Courtesy AMNH Center for Biodiversity and Conservation
  • http://research.amnh.org/biodiversity/center/cbcnews/archive/sprng_sum01/song.html
  • http://birds.cornell.edu/publications/birdscope/Summer2002/ivory_bill_absent.html
  • Source: Voss & Emmons, AMNH Bull. No. 230, 1996 (by permission: T. Erwin) Recent site map from Peru depicting elements of “collecting effort”
  • http://www.sandiegozoo.org/wildideas/kids/job_ryder.html
  • For Whom??? • Educators / Interpreters • Environmentalists / Conservationists • International Organizations • Governmental Administrators / Legislators • Landowners (Ecosystem) • Commercial Interests • Journalists • Indigenous Peoples • Students • Scientific Researchers Local Communities (Occupants) • Naturalists / Recreationists • NGO’s • Policy Makers • Subsistence Consumers / Sustainable Users • Protected Areas Managers and Staff (on site) WORLD-WIDE…
  • Web Training Session in a Russian Zapovednik
  • Finland “Structure of the World Wide Web in Finland. Circles denote sites and lines denote connecting links.” Courtesy of Bernardo Hubernman (HP Labs, Palo Alto) from B. Huberman The Laws of the Web, Cambridge, MIT Press, 2001
  • DIGITAL DIVIDE +
  • Digital Divide?
  • http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0011/earthlights_dmsp_big.jpg A graphic depiction of the digital divide
  • GDP $0.00 $5,000.00 $10,000.00 $15,000.00 $20,000.00 $25,000.00 $30,000.00 $35,000.00 $40,000.00 Luxembourg Jersey FaroeIslands Kuwait Chile Belarus Bulgaria Peru Jordan Bolivia Vietnam Myanmar BurkinaFaso Comoros GDP
  • 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 10000000 Japan Poland China Philippines Kazakhsta Mauritius Morocco Senegal Uganda Honduras Tunisia Northern Banglades Hosts Internet Hosts
  • Communication 0 50 100 150 200 250 M exico Belize Guatem ala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panam a Rateper1,000people 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 $Dollars Main telephone lines Cellular phones Personal computers Internet users Per capita GDP Source: Human Development Index. UNDP. 1998.
  • Information Gradient Pakistan: In the past 50 years… 32 universities and more than 100 colleges, training institutes and other specialized institutions of higher education have been founded [Syed Haider Abbas Zaidi, “Higher Education Pakistan” http://www2.unesco.org/wef/f_conf/000000e2.htm ]
  • University of Peshawar Library Founded in 1951 Librarian Mr. Riaz Ahmad Total Volumes 150,000 Urdu English Other languages Microfilms 39 Periodicals 200 Audio-Visual section Manuscripts 800 Other facilities Address: 1 Administration Block University of Peshawar, Peshawar-25120, Pakistan Tel: (+92-91)921-6483 Fax: (+92-91)921-4670 Telex:
  • From: “xxxxxx” <xxxxxx@hotmail.com> To: library@amnh.org Subject: RESEARCH PAPERS REQUIRED Date: Sun, 25 May 2003 09:54:37 +0500 Dear sir, I am a student of MSC. Veterinary Parasitology ... I need your help because of that these research papers are not available & I could not purchase these research papers which are mentioned in below list with related to some research topics which are below as (1) Epidemiological evaluation of cattle lice/buffalo lice(or) Epidemiological studiessurey cattle lice buffalo lice . (2) Prevalence of cattle lice on calves (or) Prevalence of sucking & chewing lice on cattle (3) incidence (or) Prevalence of sucking & chewing lice on cattleI will be thankfull to your if you will send to me these research papers on my postal address (or) because of that I can not purchase them. (4) Taxonomical study of different species of cattle lice. Please send to me these research papers as early as possible . Postal address :Dr . xxxxxx House#xx,Street#xx Email address: xxxxx@ hotmail.com
  • RESEARCH PAPERS REQUIRED 1: Colwell DD, Clymer B, Booker CW, Guichon PT, Jim GK, Schunicht OC, Wildman BK. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.Can Vet J. 2001 Apr;42(4):281- 2: Chalmers K, Charleston WA. “Cattle lice in New Zealand: observations on the prevalence, distribution and seasonal patterns of infestation.” N Z Vet J. 1980 Oct;28(10):198- 200. 3: Chalmers K, Charleston WA.”Cattle lice in New Zealand: observations on the prevalence, distribution and seasonal patterns of infestation”. N Z Vet J. 1980 Oct;28(10):198- 200. [SNIP]
  • College of African Wildlife Management P.O. Box 3031 Moshi Tanzania Fax 255 55 51113 Tel 0811 520360 http://www.mweka-wildlife.ac.tz/ . COLLEGE OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, MWEKA
  • The Ecology of the Conservation Commons?
  • August 30, 2002 BiodiversityBiodiversityCommonsCommons // WSSD Market Law Norms Architecture (Technology) Data Information Knowledge “Modalities of Constraint” on Open Access to Data, Information, Knowledge Adapted from: Lessig, L. Code and other laws of cyberspace. NY, Basic Books, 1999.
  • OECD Follow Up Group on Issues of Access to Publicly Funded Research Data. Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific,Economic, and Social Development: Final Report March 2003
  • Financial Constraints on Biodiversity Information
  • http://www.arl.org/newsltr/218/costimpact.html
  • http://www.arl.org/newsltr/218/costimpact.html
  • Year Number of Titles Average Price Percentage Increase Index 1984 94 78.35 — 100.0 1985 94 90.75 15.8 115.8 1986 94 102.83 13.3 131.2 1987 94 112.91 9.8 144.1 1988 94 127.33 12.8 162.5 1989 94 142.14 11.6 181.4 1990 94 153.78 8.2 196.3 1991 94 172.56 12.2 220.2 1992 94 197.89 14.7 252.6 1993 94 219.58 11.0 280.3 1994 94 243.38 10.8 310.6 1995 94 266.72 9.6 340.4 1996 94 299.84 12.4 382.7 1997 94 338.31 12.8 431.8 1998 94 385.40 13.9 491.9 1999 94 433.79 12.6 553.7 2000 94 470.43 8.4 600.4 2001 94 510.53 8.5 651.6 2002 94 543.96 6.5 694.3 U.S. Periodical Prices—2002 TABLE VII: Zoology (1 title dropped; 1 title added) (52% of the titles increased in price) http://www.ala.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Products_and_Publications/Periodicals/American_Libraries/Selected_articles/7zoology.htm
  • Julian Birkinshaw and Tony Sheehan, “Managing the Knowledge Life Cycle,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44 (2) Fall, 2002: 77. ??? Is conservation knowledge a “commodity” ???
  • Legal Constraints on Biodiversity Information
  • Dr. Donat Agosti, SSC Social Insects Specialist Group Figure 1. Access to ant systematics information. Each icon represents one of the 424 new ant species described in the year 2003. The species are alphabetically listed (data from http://atbi.biosci.ohio-state.edu:210/hymen optera/manage_lit.new_taxa_by_year?tnuid=152&the_year=2003 or http//:antbase.org)
  • Zoo Record Citations by Publisher Type (1978-2002) Association 58% University 6% Commercial 17% Other 0% NH Institutions/ Non-profit 9% Government 10% Association University Commercial Government NH Institutions/Non- profit Other Analysis by BIOSIS and AMNH (currently unpublished) Ownership of publications?
  • Solutions?
  • Provision of free, universal access to conservation knowledge, information and data is a practical imperative for the international conservation community – this goal should be accomplished: by promotion of the Public Domain and by development of a sustainable Biodiversity Knowledge Commons adapting emergent legal and technical mechanisms to provide a free, secure and persistent environment for access to and use of conservation knowledge, information and data.
  • November 11, 2002 BiodiversityBiodiversityCommons /Commons / World Heritage A definition of the “Public Domain” “The public domain is a range of uses of information that any person is privileged to make absent individualized facts that make a particular use by a particular person unprivileged.” Yochai Benkler, “Free as the air to common use: First Amendment constraints on enclosure of the Pulic Domain,” NYU Law Review Vol. 74 (May, 1999):362.
  • A sketch of the public domain and adjacent terrain…
  • What is a “Commons” ??? • A commons is a limited and conditional zone of fair use (defined both legally and technically) • A commons permits sustainable use of a resource without jeopardizing original ownership rights • Supports control of patrimonial / property rights required by owners as required by owners (for example: indigenous peoples, national governments); protects against unauthorized commercial use • BUT also does permit authorized commercial uses (i.e. is compatible with market mechanisms ) • protects organizational/individual “moral rights” (i.e. rights of authors)
  • Digital Commons? Digital resources as “public goods” are: • non-rivalrous (near-zero cost for additional increments of use) • non-excludable (i.e.of potentially universal benefit) • universally accessible (potentially) (But economic inequities and newly emergent legal/technical barriers may deny these benefits) Reichman, Jerome H. and Paul F. Uhlir, Promoting Public Good Uses of Scientific Data: A Contractually Reconstructed Commons for Science and Innovation. http://www.law.duke.edu/pd/papers/ReichmanandUhlir.pdf
  • THE ROLE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA AND INFORMATION IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM Julie M. Esanu and Paul F. Uhlir, Editors Steering Committee on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs Board on International Scientific Organizations Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council of the National Academies, p. 5 The Commons The Public Domain
  • Recent Progress
  • Biodiversity Informatics Infrastructure:Biodiversity Informatics Infrastructure: An Information Commons for the Biodiversity CommunityAn Information Commons for the Biodiversity Community Gladys A. Cotter and Barbara T. Bauldock U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey 300 National Center 300 National Center Reston, VA 20192 Reston, VA 20192 USA USA gladys_cotter@usgs.gov barbara_bauldock@usgs.gov Abstract This paper provides an overview of efforts to create an informatics infrastructure for the biodiversity community. A vast amount of biodiversity information exists, but no comprehensive infrastructure is in place to provide easy assess and effective use of this information. The advent of modern information technologies provides a foundation for a remedy. Biodiversity informatics infrastructures are being called for at national, regional, and global levels, and plans are in place to coordinate these efforts to ensure interoperability. The paper reviews some essential requirements and some challenges related to building this infrastructure. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Very Large Databases, Cairo, Egypt, Sept. 10-14, 2000
  • Biodiversity Conservation Information System • BirdLife International • Botanic Gardens Conservation International • Conservation International • International Species Information System • IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management • IUCN Environmental Law Programme • IUCN Species Survival Commission • IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas • The Nature Conservancy • TRAFFIC International • Wetlands International • World Conservation Monitoring Centre Members BCIS Information Overview BCIS Center MembersMembers
  • D-Lib Magazine June 2002 Volume 8 Number 6 ISSN 1082-9873 Building the Biodiversity Commons (This Opinion piece presents the opinions of the author. It does not necessarily reflect the views of D-Lib Magazine, its publisher, the Corporation for National Research Initiatives, or its sponsor.) Provision of free, universal access to biodiversity information is a practical imperative for the international conservation community — this goal should be accomplished by promotion of the Public Domain and by development of a sustainable Biodiversity Information Commons adapting emergent legal and technical mechanisms to provide a free, secure and persistent environment for access to and use of biodiversity information and data. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/june02/moritz/06moritz.html Thomas Moritz American Museum of Natural History tmoritz@amnh.org
  • “Common Knowledge” Creating the Biodiversity Knowledge Commons Business plan and implementation strategy A proposal developed with contributions from American Museum of Natural History Biodiversity Conservation Information System BirdLife International Conservation International Global Biodiversity Information Facility Inter American Biodiversity Information Network IUCN Environmental Law Commission IUCN Species Survival Commission IUCN The World Conservation Union IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas NatureServe North American Biodiversity Information Network Rio Tinto Society for Conservation Biology The Nature Conservancy TRAFFIC International UNEP- World Conservation Monitoring Centre Wildlife Conservation Society
  • Current Contributors to the CommonsCommons Design American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Biodiversity Conservation Information System (BCIS) BirdLife International (BI) Conservation International (CI) Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) IUCN Environmental Law Commission (ELC) IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) IUCN Information Management Group IMG) IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) NatureServe North American Biodiversity Information Network (NABIN) Rio Tinto Society for Conservation Biology The Nature Conservancy (TNC) TRAFFIC International UNEP- World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP- WCMC) Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)
  • The Biodiversity Commons: Digital Futures / IUCN World Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg , South Africa data information knowledgedata information knowledge
  • PublisherPublisherManuscript An Open Access Model Result: $$$ Author pays small amount of money or an institution pays on author’s behalf From BioMed Central Free Access on the Web
  • Species Information Service
  • Ecosystems, Protected Areas and PeopleEcosystems, Protected Areas and People (EPP)(EPP) && The Protected Areas Learning NetworkThe Protected Areas Learning Network (PALNet)(PALNet) url: http://www.parksnet.org
  • World Database on Protected Areas 2003 The WDPA Consortium
  • The American Museum of Natural History has published 240,000+ pages of scientific literature. We expect this entire corpus of literature to be digitized and available by mid-2004.
  • You're probably familiar with the phrase, "All rights reserved," and the little (c) that goes along with it. Creative Commons wants to help copyright holders send a different message: "Some rights reserved." For example, if you don't mind people copying and distributing your online image so long as they give you credit, we'll have a license that helps you say so. If you want people to copy your band's MP3 but don't want them to profit off it without your permission, use one of our licenses to express that preference. Our licensing tools will even help you mix and match such preferences from a menu of options: Attribution. Permit others to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and derivative works based upon it only if they give you credit. Noncommercial. Permit others to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and derivative works based upon it only for noncommercial purposes. No Derivative Works. Permit others to copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based upon it. Copyleft. Permit others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs your work. Creative commons: Licensing Options http://www.creativecommons.org/
  • Technology / Architecture: Synthesis? Integration? Interoperability?
  • “Synthesis”? / “Integration”? ““Synthesis”Synthesis” : The analytical, logical effort to compile complete, integral information sets by well-defined, rigorous inference. ““Integration”Integration” : The design and implementation of technology for the digital capture, and coherent linking of data, information and/or knowledge
  • “a full spectrum of views on interoperability…” • the use of common tools and interfaces that provide a superficial uniformity for navigation and access but rely almost entirely on human intelligence to provide any coherence of content • primarily syntactic interoperability (the interchange of metadata and the use of digital object transmission protocols and formats based on this metadata rather than simply common navigation, query, and viewing interfaces) as a means of providing limited coherence of content, supplemented by human interpretation. • deep semantic interoperability Interoperability, Scaling, and the Digital Libraries Research Agenda: A Report on the May 18- 19, 1995 IITA Digital Libraries Workshop August 22, 1995 Clifford Lynch ( clifford.lynch@ucop.edu)
  • Toward a possible “ontology” of conservation information? “Ontology”? : “A formal explicit specification of a shared conceptualization” (T.A. Gruber. A translation approach to portable ontologies, Knowledge 7.)
  • “Darwin Core” – Access Points 1. ScientificName 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species 9. Subspecies 10. InstitutionCode 11. CollectionCode 12. CatalogNumber 13. Collector 14. Year 15. Month 16. Day 17. Country 18. State/Province 19. County 20. Locality 21. Longitude 22. Latitude 23. BoundingBox 24. Julian Day Dave Vieglais Species Analyst 4/20/2000 http://habanero.nhm.ukans.edu/presentations/Gainesville_May2000_files/v3_document.htm Name Person Date Place Address DiGIR and the Darwin Core
  • Knowledge Flows: “Leaking”? or “Conscious Sharing”? • Subcontracting • Joint ventures • Cross licensing • Portfolio Sharing • Collaborative Research Grants • Universities (as vectors) • PUBLIC DOMAINPUBLIC DOMAIN // COMMONSCOMMONS • OPEN SOURCEOPEN SOURCE
  • SO, What is to be done? Conservation organizations are asked: to subscribe to Global Commons Principles. Specifically: – To commit to individual / organizational knowledge assets (analog and digital) to free, secure and persistently available use for non-commercial (research, education, applied conservation ) uses (provided guarantees of organizational and individual “moral rights”). – To make implementation of the Commons an organizational priority and commit significant institutional resources to Commons development. – To display the Commons logo as a part of organizational displays (digital or analog).
  • biodiversitycommons biocommons
  • "...organic processes have an historical contingency that prevents universal explanation." Richard Lewontin in The Triple Helix