Ecological Society of America             Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing                                         ...
“Experiments to determine the density of the earth,” by Henry Cavendish, ESQ., F.R.S. AND A.S. Read June 21, 1798     (Fro...
Field notes from the AMNH “Lang-Chapin” expedition to the Belgian Congo (1909-1915)                    http://diglib1.amnh...
The NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA)    “The NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA) is a comparatively small       (currently 24...
NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA)C.A. Jacobs, S. J. Worley, “Data Curation in Climate and Weather: Transforming our ability...
“Reanalyses” [or Meta-Analyses ]    “Atmospheric reanalyses are a main feature within the RDA and were       intended to b...
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/globalwarming/ar4-fig-3-9.gif
The $3.6 billion Large HadronCollider (LHC) will sample andrecord the results of up to 600million proton collisions persec...
2-d_soil_temps.csv               surface, and sub-surface soil temperatures (at 2cm and 8cm depths) measured at one locati...
manzanita_sapflow_12-5-07_to_7-7-08.xlsinstantaneous sap flow data (as temperature differences on a constant temperature h...
“A mishmash of non-standardized  databases of raw results and unevenly  reported study designs is not a strong   foundatio...
The “small science,” independent investigator approach traditionally hascharacterized a large area of experimental laborat...
By Serge Bloch in NYT: Natalie Anger “Tracking forest creatures on the move.” NYT Feb 2, 2009               SEE:          ...
Rheinardia ocellata, the Crested Argus. Photographed at night by anautomatic camera-trap in the Ngoc Linh foothills (Quang...
VAQUITA•   AGS Alto Golfo Sustentable STAKEHOLDERS Attorney for Environmental                                      • Profe...
•   Marine Stewardship Council                                                    •   Somemma Mexican Society for Marine• ...
How many data sources contributed to this analysis?
The Ecology of Data Sharing
OECD Follow Up Group on Issues of Access to Publicly Funded Research Data. Promoting Accessto Public Research Data for Sci...
“Research Commons”  The Public Domain                                                                                     ...
What is the “logical structure” of incentives                                   for these        institutions/ organizatio...
The Social Enterprise Spectrum          Purely Philanthropic                                              Purely Commercia...
The Social Enterprise Spectrum: Key Stakeholders          Purely Philanthropic                                           P...
Some Recent History:
Stages of Digital Library Development  Stage           Date                  Sponsor                                      ...
“…government is not the solution to our problem;                  government is the problem.”                 Ronald Reaga...
1990’s:Re-positioning Knowledge as a Corporate Asset
Is scientific knowledge a “commodity” ???                                                                         ???Julia...
United States Patent 1,781,541     Nov. 11, 1930 ALBERT EINSTEIN, OF BERLIN, AND LEO SZILARD, OF BERLIN-WILMERSDORF, GERMA...
References to “Intellectual Property”       in U.S. federal cases  “Professor Hank Greely” Cited in Lessig, L. The future ...
Differing Interpretations of IPR Regulation                                           Current Norms                       ...
Perhaps certain typesof “cultural properties”     are inevitably     commodities?
The ethical case for sharingscientific knowledge resourceshas long been well established!
“The field of knowledge is the common       property of all mankind “                      Thomas Jefferson 1807
Ethical Context for Sharing• Knowledge Equity as a fundamental good• Ethos of Science• Ethos of Conservation• Human Rights...
“The substantive findings of science are a product of social     collaboration and are assigned to the community. They    ...
“The field of knowledge is the common       property of all mankind “                      Thomas Jefferson 1807
ALL knowledge? Or perhaps, an Ethical Spectrum ? –                     Support for Scientific Knowledge                   ...
Conservation Ethos
RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND                  DEVELOPMENT (1992)                        Principle 10Environmental is...
          Convention on Biological Diversity: Article 17                          Exchange of Information     1. The Contr...
The Library Tradition
For hundreds of years, libraries have been the “protected areas” of the knowledge commons.The “public library” is a common...
“Between 1886 and 1919,                                         Carnegie’s donations of                                   ...
Table 1: Distribution of Carnegie Libraries, 1920State   Pop       Libraries Libraries/M     State   Pop       Libraries L...
Irony…?In fact, policy for sharing knowledge resources                   is not a “left”/”right” (or “red”/”blue”) issue… ...
Civic Responsibility
Poder Politico y Conocimiento                          Alto                                  Políticos                    ...
“Science Literacy” ? “...the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to     identify questions, and to draw evidence-     ba...
An Inconvenient Truth?“Compared with practical science literacy, the  achievement of a functional level of civic science  ...
And… Why are standards     important?
Standards?An old quip about “standards” notes that the  good thing about them is that there are so  many to choose from…Wh...
Consequence of a lack of standardization?                                 Cell Phone Dead Spots Map of reported cell phone...
OAIS Model
Access Profiles“Data can be separated into access profiles, for  example, acquisition, heavy access, medium  access, rare ...
So… How “open” is “open” ???
A work is “open” if its manner of distribution          satisfies the following conditions•    Access•    Redistribution• ...
1. Access: The work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost,     preferably downl...
7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups: The license must not discriminate against any person or    group of person...
http://sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/open-access-data-protocol/       Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data1...
What does “Full Life-Cycle” Data    Management Mean ?
www.dcc.ac.uk/docs/publications/DCCLifecycle.pdf
http://wiki.esipfed.org/images/c/c4/IWGDD.pp t
US NSF “DataNet” Program       “the full data preservation and access lifecycle”  •   “acquisition”  •   “documentation”  ...
“Sustainable data curation”       “There are several main elements necessary to sustain data curation:     “Robust data s...
Sustainable data curation                                              (cont.)         “Non-proprietary data formats that...
The Conservation Commons
BCIS (a predecessor):     the Biodiversity Conservation Information System •   Initiated in 1995 •   12 Partner Organizati...
Toward Evidenced-based Conservation                      Colin Bibby, 2002
The Conservation Commons               promotes and enablesconscious, effective and equitable sharing               of kno...
PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSERVATION COMMONSOpen AccessThe Conservation Commons promotes free and open access to data, informati...
Organizations that have formally endorsed the PrinciplesAmerican Museum of Natural History                                ...
Commons-Consistent Initiatives and Projects•   CONSERVEONLINE SEE: http://conserveonline.org/•   Global Biodiversity Infor...
As a result of the Darwin Core analysis…GBIF UDDI Registry* registration* update information______________________________...
How do we Incentivize Change ?• Individually• Professionally / Disciplinarily• Organizationally / Institutionally
A Framework for Considering    Individual Incentives
Cost Benefit Calculations of Change                                                      High Cost                 Cell A ...
Personal Incentives for Sharing?            (The “Reputational Economy”)• Ethics and the ethos of conservation or of  scie...
Individual’s willingness to share:               the Core functions of Scholarly Communication • “Registration, which allo...
The Benefits of Open Access“The influence of OA is more modest than many  have proposed, at ~8% for recently published  re...
Professional / Disciplinary       Incentives?
• Expectations of sharing vary by discipline• In “big science” (astrophysics / astronomy /  meteorology / oceanography / g...
Small Science: Data Deposit and Access• Data are typically held in many formats• Discovery of data is very weakly supporte...
Data Citation and Access?-- Even common standards for data citation are weakHence for example:  M. Altman and G. King “A P...
Organizational / Institutional        Incentives?
The Social Enterprise Spectrum          Purely Philanthropic                                              Purely Commercia...
Perhaps, an Ethical Spectrum ? –        Support for Scientific Knowledge CommonsHuman Health      Agriculture          Bio...
Kirtland’s Warbler / Abaco   Island, The Bahamas
“NATIVE”                    METADATA DEAD HARBOR SEALand            5    CALIFORNIA    CONDORS !!!
The Science of Science Policy: a Federal Research Roadmap. Report on theScience of Science Policy to the Subcommittee on S...
CURRENT AND POTENTIAL TOOLKIT FOR SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY
http://www.mikero.com/blog/2009/02/20/more-darwin         http://www.zazzle.com/darwin2009
Disintermediation of the traditional value chain:                  “…a clash of business models.” -- Kevin Kelly“But a new...
Fraud?
Ralph Baxter, CEO of security company ClusterSeve: "Although fraud is not the primary reason    for the precarious state o...
There are three types of fraud that are growing in popularity:  Presentation fraud - is an increasingly common form of cri...
Error?
“Barclays Spreadsheet Error                    Results In Lehman Chaos” “It pays to have good spreadsheet skills. Were jus...
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing
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Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing

  1. 1. Ecological Society of America Workshop on Incentives for Data Sharing Washington, DC February 19-20 2009“Vertical section drawing of Cavendishs torsion balance instrument including the building in which it was housed.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavendish_experiment
  2. 2. “Experiments to determine the density of the earth,” by Henry Cavendish, ESQ., F.R.S. AND A.S. Read June 21, 1798 (From the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London for the year 1798, Part II. , pp. 469-526) From: http://www.archive.org/details/lawsofgravitatio00mackrich
  3. 3. Field notes from the AMNH “Lang-Chapin” expedition to the Belgian Congo (1909-1915) http://diglib1.amnh.org/cgi-bin/database/index.cgi
  4. 4. The NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA) “The NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA) is a comparatively small (currently 246 TB, less than 5% of the MSS [Mass Storage System] total size), but very important, part of the MSS stored data. The RDA has been curated by the staff in the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory for over 40 years, [emphasis added] and as such contains reference datasets used by large numbers of scientists. The RDA contents are long-term atmospheric (surface and upper air) and oceanographic observations, grid analyses of observational datasets, operational weather prediction model output, reanalyses, satellite derived datasets, and ancillary datasets, such as topography/bathymetry, vegetation, and land use. The RDA is not a static collection; it is now over 580 datasets with about 100 routinely updated and 10-20 new ones added each year. “C.A. Jacobs, S. J. Worley, “Data Curation in Climate and Weather: Transforming our ability to improve predictions through global knowledge sharing ,” from the 4th International Digital Curation Conference December 2008, page 5. www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/programme/papers/Data%20Curation%20in%20Climate%20and%20Weather.pdf [03 02 09]
  5. 5. NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA)C.A. Jacobs, S. J. Worley, “Data Curation in Climate and Weather: Transforming our ability to improve predictions through global knowledge sharing ,” from the 4th International Digital Curation Conference December 2008 , page 7. www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/programme/papers/Data%20Curation%20in%20Climate%20and%20Weather.pdf [03 02 09]
  6. 6. “Reanalyses” [or Meta-Analyses ] “Atmospheric reanalyses are a main feature within the RDA and were intended to be, and have become, a very valuable data resource for a wide variety of climate and weather studies. By combining many types of atmospheric observations with advanced data assimilation and forecast models a “best possible” 3D estimate of the atmospheric state over extended time periods is achieved. “Reanalyses are supported by many historical data sources that have been curated over time. As an illustration the major sources of atmospheric profile data include wind only soundings beginning in 1920 (Figure 2). These are augmented with soundings of temperature, humidity, and wind beginning in 1948. “C.A. Jacobs, S. J. Worley, “Data Curation in Climate and Weather: Transforming our ability to improve predictions through global knowledge sharing ,” from the 4th International Digital Curation Conference December 2008, page 6. www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/programme/papers/Data%20Curation%20in%20Climate%20and%20Weather.pdf [03 02 09]
  7. 7. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/globalwarming/ar4-fig-3-9.gif
  8. 8. The $3.6 billion Large HadronCollider (LHC) will sample andrecord the results of up to 600million proton collisions persecond, producing roughly 15petabytes (15 million gigabytes) ofdata annually in search of newfundamental particles. To allowthousands of scientists from aroundthe globe to collaborate on theanalysis of these data over the next15 years (the estimated lifetime ofthe LHC), tens of thousands ofcomputers located around the worldare being harnessed in a distributedcomputing network called the Grid.Within the Grid, described as themost powerful supercomputersystem in the world, the avalancheof data will be analyzed, shared, re-purposed and combined ininnovative new ways designed toreveal the secrets of the fundamental properties of matter.LHC source:http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/LHCSource:http://public.web.cern.ch/Public/en/LHC
  9. 9. 2-d_soil_temps.csv surface, and sub-surface soil temperatures (at 2cm and 8cm depths) measured at one location for a few days in order to calibrate a model of temperature propagation. Surface temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer, subsurface temperatures with a thermocouple. ---------------------------- 5-minute_light_data_for_4_continuous_days_plus_reference.xls PPF (photosynthetic photon flux = photosynthetically active radiation 400-700nm) measured with an array of photodiodes calibrated to a Licor sensor, along a linear transect for a few days. used to get an idea of how much light plants along the transect are receiving. ---------------------------- DATA CO2_of_air_at_different_heights_July_9.xls concentration of CO2 in the air during the evening for one day, measured with a Licor infrared gas analyzer and a series of relays and tubes with a pump. used to examine the gradient of CO2 coming from the soil when the air is still during the evening. SETS ---------------------------- Fern_light_response.xls Light response curves for bracken ferns, measured with a Licor photosynthesis system. Fronds are exposed to different light levels and their instantaneous photosynthesis and conductance is measured. used in conjunction with the induction data (below) for physiological characterization of the ferns. ---------------------------- La_Selva_species_photosyntheis_table.xls incomplete data set on instantaneous photosynthesis rates for various tropical understory and epiphytic species grown in a shade house in Costa Rica. ---------------------------- some manzanita_sapflow_12-5-07_to_7-7-08.xls instantaneous sap flow data (as temperature differences on a constant temperature heat dissipation probe) for multiple branches of Manzanita, collected with a datalogger. used to correlate physiological activity with below-ground examples measures of root grown and CO2 production. ---------------------------- moisture_release_curves.xlswith “native percentage of water content, water potential (in MegaPascals) and temperature of soil samples, measured in the laboratory for calibration of water content with water potential. soil is from the James Reserve in California. ---------------------------- Photosynthetic_induction.xlsmetadata” 2 O C . 5 3 v l d n y h p f s r u o c - e m i t a � m/2/s and light level is probably 1000 micromoles. used to determine physiological characteristics of bracken ferns. ---------------------------- run_2_24-h_data_for_mesh.xls measurements of micrometeorological parameters on a moving shuttle, going from a clearing across a forest edge and into the forest for about 30 meters. Pyronometers facing up and down, pyrgeometer facing up and down, PAR, air temperature, relative humidity. Also data from a station fixed in the clearing and some derived variables calculated. used for examining edge effects in forests. ---------------------------- Segment_of_wallflower_compare_colorspaces_blur.xls pixel counts from images of wallflowers that were segmented into flower/not-flower under different color spaces. segmentation was made using a probability matrix of hand-segmented images. used to automatically count flowers in images collected after this training data was collected (and used to determine the best color space for this task).
  10. 10. manzanita_sapflow_12-5-07_to_7-7-08.xlsinstantaneous sap flow data (as temperature differences on a constant temperature heatdissipation probe) for multiple branches of Manzanita, collected with a datalogger.used to correlate physiological activity with below-ground measures of root grown and CO2production.sbid battery datetime heater_voltage Manz1Sap1 Manz1Sap2 Manz1Sap3 Manz1Sap4 Manz2Sap5 Manz2Sap6 Manz2Sap7 Manz3Sap10 Manz3Sap8 Manz3Sap9 Manz4Sap11 timestamp Datagap Julian2 12.365 1196796112 2018.8 0.5585 0.51029 0.55517 0.54354 0.6067 0.52858 0.55351 0.59008 0.59506 0.60337 0.56514 12/4/07 11:21 4.473513 12.348 1196796232 2017.9 0.55682 0.51028 0.5535 0.54352 0.60669 0.52857 0.55017 0.59007 0.59505 0.60336 0.56513 12/4/07 11:23 0 4.474904 12.357 1196796352 2018.6 0.55514 0.51027 0.55348 0.54351 0.60501 0.52855 0.55016 0.59005 0.59504 0.60501 0.56512 12/4/07 11:25 0 4.476285 12.354 1196796472 2017.6 0.55514 0.51026 0.55181 0.5435 0.60334 0.52855 0.54849 0.59004 0.59503 0.60334 0.56511 12/4/07 11:27 0 4.477676 12.334 1196796592 2018.3 0.55347 0.51026 0.55015 0.5435 0.60333 0.52854 0.54682 0.59004 0.59502 0.605 0.56511 12/4/07 11:29 0 4.479067 12.34 1196796712 2018.5 0.55014 0.50859 0.55014 0.54349 0.60332 0.53019 0.54349 0.59003 0.59501 0.60498 0.56676 12/4/07 11:31 0 4.480458 12.337 1196796832 2017.8 0.55013 0.50692 0.55013 0.54348 0.60332 0.53019 0.54182 0.59002 0.59501 0.60498 0.56675 12/4/07 11:33 0 4.481849 12.328 1196796952 2017.5 0.5468 0.50691 0.5468 0.54347 0.60331 0.53018 0.53849 0.59001 0.595 0.60497 0.56674 12/4/07 11:35 0 4.4832310 12.323 1196797072 2017 0.54679 0.50524 0.54679 0.54347 0.59998 0.53017 0.53682 0.59 0.59499 0.60496 0.56674 12/4/07 11:37 0 4.4846211 12.328 1196797192 2018.9 0.54679 0.50191 0.54512 0.5418 0.59665 0.53017 0.53349 0.59 0.59498 0.60496 0.56673 12/4/07 11:39 0 4.4860112 12.319 1196797312 2017.7 0.54345 0.49857 0.54178 0.54178 0.59663 0.53015 0.53015 0.58998 0.5933 0.60327 0.56671 12/4/07 11:41 0 4.4874013 12.311 1196797432 2017.3 0.54343 0.4969 0.54011 0.54177 0.59661 0.53014 0.52848 0.58997 0.59329 0.6016 0.5667 12/4/07 11:43 0 4.4887814 12.316 1196797552 2018.6 0.5401 0.49357 0.53678 0.54176 0.59328 0.53013 0.5268 0.58995 0.59328 0.60325 0.56669 12/4/07 11:45 0 4.4901715 12.31 1196797672 2016.8 0.53844 0.4919 0.53511 0.54176 0.59494 0.53013 0.52514 0.58995 0.59328 0.60325 0.56503 12/4/07 11:47 0 4.4915616 12.31 1196797792 2017.1 0.53676 0.48856 0.53343 0.54174 0.59326 0.53011 0.5218 0.58993 0.59326 0.60323 0.56501 12/4/07 11:49 0 4.4929517 12.31 1196797912 2017.1 0.53342 0.48523 0.5301 0.54173 0.59324 0.5301 0.51846 0.58826 0.59324 0.60321 0.56499 12/4/07 11:51 0 4.4943418 12.301 1196798031 2017.5 0.53174 0.48521 0.52842 0.53839 0.59156 0.53008 0.51845 0.58824 0.59323 0.6032 0.56498 12/4/07 11:53 0 4.4957319 12.301 1196798151 2016.3 0.53007 0.48188 0.52509 0.53838 0.59155 0.53007 0.51512 0.58823 0.59321 0.60152 0.5633 12/4/07 11:55 0 4.4971220 12.303 1196798271 2016.6 0.5284 0.47855 0.52175 0.53837 0.59154 0.5284 0.5151 0.58821 0.59154 0.60151 0.56163 12/4/07 11:57 0 4.49851 Datum: “0.59998”
  11. 11. “A mishmash of non-standardized databases of raw results and unevenly reported study designs is not a strong foundation for clinical research data sharing.”Sim, et al “Keeping Raw Data in Context” (letter to) Science VOL 3236 FEBRUARY 2009 www.sciencemag.org
  12. 12. The “small science,” independent investigator approach traditionally hascharacterized a large area of experimental laboratory sciences, such aschemistry or biomedical research, and field work and studies, such asbiodiversity, ecology, microbiology, soil science, and anthropology. The dataor samples are collected and analyzed independently, and the resulting data independentlysets from such studies generally are heterogeneous and unstandardized, with unstandardizedfew of the individual data holdings deposited in public data repositories oropenly shared. The data exist in various twilight states of accessibility, depending on accessibilitythe extent to which they are published, discussed in papers but not revealed, orjust known about because of reputation or ongoing work, but kept underabsolute or relative secrecy. The data are thus disaggregated components ofan incipient network that is only as effective as the individual transactionsthat put it together. Openness and sharing are not ignored, but they are not togethernecessarily dominant either. These values must compete with strategicconsiderations of self-interest, secrecy, and the logic of mutually beneficialexchange, particularly in areas of research in which commercial applicationsare more readily identifiable.The Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain: Proceedings of a Symposium. JulieM. Esanu and Paul F. Uhlir, Eds. Steering Committee on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in thePublic Domain Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs Board on International ScientificOrganizations Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council of the National Academies, p. 8
  13. 13. By Serge Bloch in NYT: Natalie Anger “Tracking forest creatures on the move.” NYT Feb 2, 2009 SEE: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/03/science/03angier.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=tracking%20mammals&st=cse http://www.jamesreserve.edu/webcams.lasso?CameraID=Cam14
  14. 14. Rheinardia ocellata, the Crested Argus. Photographed at night by anautomatic camera-trap in the Ngoc Linh foothills (Quang Nam Province). Courtesy AMNH Center for Biodiversity and Conservation
  15. 15. VAQUITA• AGS Alto Golfo Sustentable STAKEHOLDERS Attorney for Environmental • Profepa Federal• ASM American Society of Mammalogists Protection• CEC Commission for Environmental Cooperation • Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries, and Food (Mexico)• CEDO Intercultural Center for the Study of Salud Secretariat of Health (Mexico) Deserts and Oceans CI Conservation International • COSEWIC Committee on the Status of• Endangered Wildlife in Canada• CIRVA International Committee for the Recovery • Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) of the Vaquita • United States Department of the Interior• CICESE Centro de Investigación Científica y Ecuación Superior de Ensenada • European Cetacean Society• CILA International Boundary and Water • US Environmental Protection Agency Commission • US Food and Drug Administration• CITES Convention on International Trade in • GEF Global Environmental Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora • IBWC International Boundary and Water• Conagua National Water Commission Commission• Conanp National Commission for Protected • National Institute of Ecology, Semarnat Natural Areas, • Inapesca National Fisheries Institute, Sagarpa• Semarnat (Comisión Nacional de Áreas • IUCN World Conservation Union Naturales Protegida—Semarnat) • International Whaling Commission• Conapesca National Fisheries and Aquaculture • Local Economic and Employment Development Commission program• Sagarpa (Comisión Nacional de Pesca y • United States Marine Mammal Commission Acuacultura, Sagarpa)
  16. 16. • Marine Stewardship Council • Somemma Mexican Society for Marine• NAMPAN North American Marine Protected Mammalogy Areas Network (CEC) • SWFSC Southwest Fisheries Science Center( US• US National Academy of Sciences NMFS, NOAA)• North American Wildlife Enforcement Group • The Nature Conservancy (CEC) • Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur• US National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce • University of California• US National Oceanic and Atmospheric • United Nations Administration, Department of Commerce • United States Coast Guard• United States National Ocean Service (NOAA) • United States Fish and Wildlife Service• PACE Species Conservation Action Programs, • World Wildlife Fund Conanp• PGR Attorney General Office (Mexico)• POEMGC Marine Ecological Planning of the Gulf of California Program, Semarnat• Procer Conservation Program for Species at Risk• Secretariat of Economy (Mexico)• Sectur Secretariat of Tourism (Mexico)• Sedesol Secretariat for Social Development (Mexico)• Semar Secretariat of the Navy• Semarnat Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources• Society for Marine Mammalogy• Solamac Latin American Society for Aquatic Mammals
  17. 17. How many data sources contributed to this analysis?
  18. 18. The Ecology of Data Sharing
  19. 19. OECD Follow Up Group on Issues of Access to Publicly Funded Research Data. Promoting Accessto Public Research Data for Scientific,Economic, and Social Development: Final Report March 2003
  20. 20. “Research Commons” The Public Domain Knowledge CommonsTHE ROLE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA AND INFORMATION IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN PROCEEDINGS OF ASYMPOSIUM Julie M. Esanu and Paul F. Uhlir, Editors Steering Committee on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Informationin the Public Domain Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs Board on International ScientificOrganizations Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council of the National Academies, p. 5
  21. 21. What is the “logical structure” of incentives for these institutions/ organizations?
  22. 22. The Social Enterprise Spectrum Purely Philanthropic Purely Commercial Appeal to Mixed Motives Appeal to Self Motives Goodwill Interest Mission Mission and Market Driven Driven Methods Market Driven Social Goals Value Social and Economic Value Economic ValueJG Dees, “Enterprising Non-profits" in Harvard Business Review on Non-Profits Harvard, Cambridge, 1999, p.147
  23. 23. The Social Enterprise Spectrum: Key Stakeholders Purely Philanthropic Purely Commercial Beneficiaries Pay Nothing Mixed Market rate prices Capital Donations and Mixed Market Rate Capital Grants (TAXES?) Workforce Nonprofit Prof’s / Mixed Market Rate Compensations Volunteers Suppliers In-Kind Donations Mixed / Market Rate Prices Special DiscountsJG Dees, “Enterprising Non-profits" in Harvard Business Review on Non-Profits Harvard, Cambridge, 1999, p.147
  24. 24. Some Recent History:
  25. 25. Stages of Digital Library Development Stage Date Sponsor Purpose NSF/ARPA/NASAI: Experiments on collections of digital materials 1994Experimental 1998/199II: Begin to consider custodianship, sustainability, user 9 NSF/ARPA/NASA, DLF/CLIRDeveloping communities ? Funded through normalIII: Mature Real sustainable interoperable digital libraries channels?     Howard Besser. Adapted from The Next Stage: Moving from Isolated Digital Collections to Interoperable Digital Libraries by First Monday, volume 7, number 6 (June 2002), URL: http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_6/besser/index.html  
  26. 26. “…government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.” Ronald Reagan First Inaugural Address January 20, 1981http://www.reaganlibrary.com/reagan/speeches/first.asp For much of the past 30 years we have worked in a climate of increasing concern and skepticism about public investment and public science…
  27. 27. 1990’s:Re-positioning Knowledge as a Corporate Asset
  28. 28. Is scientific knowledge a “commodity” ??? ???Julian Birkinshaw and Tony Sheehan, “Managing the Knowledge Life Cycle,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44 (2) Fall, 2002: 77.
  29. 29. United States Patent 1,781,541 Nov. 11, 1930 ALBERT EINSTEIN, OF BERLIN, AND LEO SZILARD, OF BERLIN-WILMERSDORF, GERMANY. ASSIGNORS TO ELECTROLUX SERVEL CORPORATION, OF NEW YORK, N.Y., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE REFRIGERATION Application filed December 16,1927. Serial No.240,566, and in Germany December 16, 1926.http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~o-pat/ein-zu2.htm
  30. 30. References to “Intellectual Property” in U.S. federal cases “Professor Hank Greely” Cited in Lessig, L. The future of ideas: the fate of the commons in a connrcted world. NY, Random House, 2001. P. 294.
  31. 31. Differing Interpretations of IPR Regulation Current Norms Maximalists Reductionists ExpansionistsBENEFITS Intellectual Property Rights Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America.; Screen Cartoonists Local Union No. 852 (Hollywood, Calif.); Animation Guild and Affiliated Optical Electronic and Graphic Arts, Local 839 I.A.T.S.E. (North Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif.); Motion Pictures Screen Cartoonists Local 839, I.A.T.S.E.
  32. 32. Perhaps certain typesof “cultural properties” are inevitably commodities?
  33. 33. The ethical case for sharingscientific knowledge resourceshas long been well established!
  34. 34. “The field of knowledge is the common property of all mankind “ Thomas Jefferson 1807
  35. 35. Ethical Context for Sharing• Knowledge Equity as a fundamental good• Ethos of Science• Ethos of Conservation• Human Rights• Governmental / Organizational Transparency and Accountability• Civic Responsibility and Science Literacy
  36. 36. “The substantive findings of science are a product of social collaboration and are assigned to the community. They constitute a common heritage in which the equity of the individual producer is severely limited…”“The scientist’s claim to “his” intellectual “property” is limited to that of recognition and esteem which, if the institution functions with a modicum of efficiency, is roughly commensurate with the significance of the increments brought to the common fund of knowledge.” Robert K. Merton, “A Note on Science and Democracy,” Journal of Law and Political Sociology 1 (1942): 121.
  37. 37. “The field of knowledge is the common property of all mankind “ Thomas Jefferson 1807
  38. 38. ALL knowledge? Or perhaps, an Ethical Spectrum ? – Support for Scientific Knowledge CommonsHuman Health Agriculture Science- [Biotechnology] Tech Earth Education [ Nuclear Technology ] Science/Conse rvation
  39. 39. Conservation Ethos
  40. 40. RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (1992) Principle 10Environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided
  41. 41.   Convention on Biological Diversity: Article 17  Exchange of Information  1. The Contracting Parties shall facilitate the exchange of  information, from all publicly available sources, relevant to  the conservation and sustainable use of biological  diversity, taking into account the special needs of  developing countries. 2. Such exchange of information shall include exchange of results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research, as well as information on training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, indigenous and traditional knowledge as such and in  combination with the technologies referred to in Article 16, paragraph 1. It shall also, where feasible, include repatriation of information. http://www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp?lg=0&a=cbd-17
  42. 42. The Library Tradition
  43. 43. For hundreds of years, libraries have been the “protected areas” of the knowledge commons.The “public library” is a commons or zone of “fair use” that makes knowledge freely and equitably available to all.
  44. 44. “Between 1886 and 1919, Carnegie’s donations of more than $40 million paid for 1,679 new library buildings in communities large and small across America.”http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50visual3.htm
  45. 45. Table 1: Distribution of Carnegie Libraries, 1920State Pop Libraries Libraries/M State Pop Libraries Libraries/MAL 2,348,174 14 6.0 MT 548,889 17 31.0AZ 334,162 4 12.0 NE 1,296,372 69 53.2AR 1,752,204 4 2.3 NV 77,407 1 12.9CA 3,426,861 142 41.4 NH 443,083 9 20.3CO 939,629 35 37.2 NJ 3,155,900 35 11.1CT 1,380,631 11 8.0 NM 360,350 3 8.3DE 223,003 0 0 NY 10,385,230 106 10.2DC 437,571 4 9.1 NC 2,559,123 10 3.9FL 968,470 10 10.3 ND 646,872 8 12.3GA 2,895,832 24 8.3 OH 5,759,394 105 18.2ID 431,866 10 23.2 OK 2,028,283 24 11.8IL 6,485,280 106 16.3 OR 783,389 31 39.6IN 2,930,390 164 56.0 PA 8,720,017 58 6.6IA 2,404,021 101 42.0 RI 604,397 0 0KS 1,769,257 59 33.3 SC 1,683,724 14 8.3KY 2,416,630 23 9.5 SD 636,547 25 39.3LA 1,798,509 9 5.0 TN 2,337,885 13 5.5ME 768,014 17 22.1 TX 4,663,228 32 6.9MD 1,449,661 14 9.6 UT 449,396 23 51.2MA 3,852,356 43 11.2 VT 352,428 4 11.3MI 3,668,412 61 16.6 VA 2,309,187 3 1.3MN 2,387,125 65 27.2 WA 1,356,621 43 31.7MS 1,790,618 11 6.1 WV 1,463,701 3 2.0MO 3,404,055 33 9.7 WI 2,632,067 63 23.9MT 548,889 17 31.0 WY 194,402 16 82.3http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50visual3.htm
  46. 46. Irony…?In fact, policy for sharing knowledge resources is not a “left”/”right” (or “red”/”blue”) issue… Robert Minor, St Louis Post-Dispatch (1908)
  47. 47. Civic Responsibility
  48. 48. Poder Politico y Conocimiento Alto Políticos ???Responsabilidad y Poder Administradores o Gestores Analistas- Técnicos Científicos Alto Bajo Conocimiento (en términos científicos-occidentales) (Sutton, 1999) From: Organizaciones que aprenden, paises que aprenden: lecciones y AP en Costa Rica by Andrea Ballestero Directora ELAP
  49. 49. “Science Literacy” ? “...the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions, and to draw evidence- based conclusions in order to understand and help make decisions about the natural world and the changes made to it through human activity.”Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (1999). Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills: A New Framework for Assessment. Paris: Author. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/45/32/33693997.pdf
  50. 50. An Inconvenient Truth?“Compared with practical science literacy, the achievement of a functional level of civic science literacy is a more protracted endeavor. Yet, it is a job that sooner or later must be done, for as time goes on human events will become even more entwined in science, and science-related public issues in the future can only increase in number and in importance. Civic science literacy is a cornerstone of informed public policy.” B. S. P. Shen, “Scientific Literacy and the Public Understanding of Science,” in Communication of Scientific Information, ed. S. Day (Basel: Karger, 1975), 44–52 Quoted in: Jon D. Miller, “The measurement of civic scientific literacy.” Public Understand. Sci. 7 (1998) 203–223. http://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~ccti/Documents/Miller1998.pdf
  51. 51. And… Why are standards important?
  52. 52. Standards?An old quip about “standards” notes that the good thing about them is that there are so many to choose from…Why are standards practically necessary?Whether in the public or private sector, they are efficient and cost effective.
  53. 53. Consequence of a lack of standardization? Cell Phone Dead Spots Map of reported cell phone problems in Queens provided by the NY City Dept. of Information, Technology and Telecommunications.http://www.queenstribune.com/guides/insiders2004/pages/CellPhoneDeadSpots.htm [07/06/05]
  54. 54. OAIS Model
  55. 55. Access Profiles“Data can be separated into access profiles, for example, acquisition, heavy access, medium access, rare access and disposal. By implementing database archiving and storage strategies that meet accessibility requirements, companies can reduce the cost of managing and storing data, while ensuring compliance. “ Proven strategies for archiving complex relational data [Integrated Data Management Solutions December 2008 ] © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 http://solutions.internet.com/5636_proven
  56. 56. So… How “open” is “open” ???
  57. 57. A work is “open” if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions• Access• Redistribution• Reuse• Absence of Technological Restriction• Attribution• Integrity• No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups• No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor• Distribution of License• License Must Not Be Specific to a Package• License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works http://opendefinition.org/1.0 [February 20, 2009]
  58. 58. 1. Access: The work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. The work must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form.[Comment: This can be summarized as social openness - not only are you allowed to get the work but you can get it. As a whole prevents the limitation of access by indirect means, for example by only allowing access to a few items of a database at a time.]2. Redistribution: The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the work either on its own or as part of a package made from works from many different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale or distribution.3. Reuse: The license must allow for modifications and derivative works and must allow them to be distributed under the terms of the original work. The license may impose some form of attribution and integrity requirements: see principle 5 (Attribution) and principle 6 (Integrity) below.[Comment: Note that this clause does not prevent the use of viral or share-alike licenses that require redistribution of modifications under the same terms as the original.]4. Absence of Technological Restriction: The work must be provided in such a form that there are no technological obstacles to the performance of the above activities. This can be achieved by the provision of the work in an open data format, i.e. one whose specification is publicly and freely available and which places no restrictions monetary or otherwise upon its use.5. Attribution: The license may require as a condition for redistribution and re-use the attribution of the contributors and creators to the work. If this condition is imposed it must not be onerous. For example if attribution is required a list of those requiring attribution should accompany the work.6. Integrity: The license may require as a condition for the work being distributed in modified form that the resulting work carry a different name or version number from the original work. http://opendefinition.org/1.0 [February 20, 2009]
  59. 59. 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups: The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.[Comment: In order to get the maximum benefit from the process, the maximum diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible to contribute to open knowledge. Therefore we forbid any open-knowledge license from locking anybody out of the process.]8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor: The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the work in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the work from being used in a business, or from being used for military research.[Comment: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open source from being used commercially. We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.]9. Distribution of License: The rights attached to the work must apply to all to whom the work is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.[Comment: This clause is intended to forbid closing of the work by indirect means such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.]10. License Must Not Be Specific to a Package: The rights attached to the work must not depend on the work being part of a particular package. If the work is extracted from that package and used or distributed within the terms of the works license, all parties to whom the work is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original package.11. License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works: The license must not place restrictions on other works that are distributed along with the licensed work. For example, the license must not insist that all other works distributed on the same medium are open.[Comment: Distributors of open knowledge have the right to make their own choices. Note that share-alike licenses are conformant since those provisions only apply if the whole forms a single work.] http://opendefinition.org/1.0 [February 20, 2009]
  60. 60. http://sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/open-access-data-protocol/ Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data1. Intellectual foundation for the protocolThe motivation behind this memorandum is interoperability of scientific data.The volume of scientific data, and the interconnectedness of the systems under study, makes integration of data a necessity. For example, life scientists must integrate data from across biology and chemistry to comprehend disease and discover cures, and climate change scientists must integrate data from wildly diverse disciplines to understand our current state and predict the impact of new policies.The technical challenge of such integration is significant, although emerging technologies appear to be helping. But the forest of terms and conditions around data make integration difficult to legally perform in many cases. One approach might be to develop and recommend a single license: any data with this license can be integrated with any other data under this license.But this approach, which implicitly builds on intellectual property rights and the ideas of licensing as understood in software and culture, is difficult to scale for scientific uses. There are too many databases under too many terms already, and it is unlikely that any one license or suite of licenses will have the correct mix of terms to gain critical mass and allow massive-scale machine integration of data.Therefore we instead lay out principles for open access data and a protocol for implementing those principles, and we distribute an Open Access Data Mark and metadata for use on databases and data available under a successful implementation of the protocol.
  61. 61. What does “Full Life-Cycle” Data Management Mean ?
  62. 62. www.dcc.ac.uk/docs/publications/DCCLifecycle.pdf
  63. 63. http://wiki.esipfed.org/images/c/c4/IWGDD.pp t
  64. 64. US NSF “DataNet” Program “the full data preservation and access lifecycle” • “acquisition” • “documentation” • “protection” • “access” • “analysis and dissemination” • “migration” • “disposition”“Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners (DataNet) ProgramSolicitation” NSF 07-601 US National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure Directorate for Computer & Information Science & Engineering
  65. 65. “Sustainable data curation” “There are several main elements necessary to sustain data curation:  “Robust data storage facilities (hardware and software) that are capable of accurately handling data migration across generations of media.  “Backup plans, that are tested, so irreplaceable data are not at risk. Unintended data loss can occur for many reasons: some major causes are: poor stewardship leading to the loss of metadata to understand where the data is located and documentation to understand the content, physical facility and equipment failure (fire, flood, irrecoverable hardware crashes), accidental data overwrite or deletion.  “Science-educated staff with knowledge to match the data discipline is important for checking data integrity, choosing archive organization, creating adequate metadata, consulting with users, and designing access systems that meet user expectations. Staff responsible for stewardship and curation must understand the digital data content and potential scientific uses. “C.A. Jacobs, S. J. Worley, “Data Curation in Climate and Weather: Transforming our ability to improve predictions through global knowledge sharing ,” from the 4th International Digital Curation Conference December 2008 , page 10. www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/programme/papers/Data%20Curation%20in%20Climate%20and%20Weather.pdf [03 02 09]
  66. 66. Sustainable data curation (cont.)  “Non-proprietary data formats that will ensure data access capability for many decades and will help avoid data losses resulting from software incompatibilities…  “Consistent staffing levels and people dedicated to best practices in archiving, access, and stewardship…  “National and International partnerships and interactions greatly aids in shared achievements for broad scale user benefits, e.g. reanalyses, TIGGE…  “Stable funding not focused on specific projects, but data management in general…”C.A. Jacobs, S. J. Worley, “Data Curation in Climate and Weather: Transforming our ability to improve predictions through global knowledge sharing ,” from the 4th International Digital Curation Conference December 2008 , page 10-11. www.dcc.ac.uk/events/dcc-2008/programme/papers/Data%20Curation%20in%20Climate%20and%20Weather.pdf [03 02 09]
  67. 67. The Conservation Commons
  68. 68. BCIS (a predecessor): the Biodiversity Conservation Information System • Initiated in 1995 • 12 Partner Organizations • Experimented with Data Sharing • Published Principles of Data Management (in 3 languages)
  69. 69. Toward Evidenced-based Conservation Colin Bibby, 2002
  70. 70. The Conservation Commons promotes and enablesconscious, effective and equitable sharing of knowledge resources to advance conservation.
  71. 71. PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSERVATION COMMONSOpen AccessThe Conservation Commons promotes free and open access to data, informationand knowledge for all conservation purposes.Mutual BenefitThe Conservation Commons welcomes and encourages participants to both useresources and to contribute data, information and knowledge.Rights and ResponsibilitiesContributors to the Conservation Commons have full right to attribution for anyuses of their data, information, or knowledge, and the right to ensure that theoriginal integrity of their contribution to the Commons is preserved. Users of theConservation Commons are expected to comply, in good faith, with terms of usesspecified by contributors.http://www.conservationcommons.org/section.php?section=principle&sous-section=endorsement&langue=en
  72. 72. Organizations that have formally endorsed the PrinciplesAmerican Museum of Natural History National Geographic SocietyARKive: The Wildscreen Trust (UK) (Website of the year) Nature Protection Trust of SeychellesBirdLife International Nature Serve *BP PALNet - Protected Areas Learning Network (from WCPA of IUCN)Centre for Sustainable Watersheds (Canada) Philippine Society for the Protection of Animals (Web link not available)Chevron-Texaco Réseau Africain pour la conservation de la Mangrove (RAM)Chevron-Texaco Specific Endorsement Letter Red HatCIFOR Regional Centre for Development Cooperation (RCDC), Centre for Forestry and GoverCONABIO - Mexico Rio TintoConservation Biology Institute, USA Salim Ali Centre for Ornithilogy and Natural History (SACON-India)Conservation International * Shell ExplorationCRIA - Brazil * Society for Conservation GISDIDG Information Systems Ltd. (Australia) South African National Biodiversity Institute - SANBI *Earth Conservation Toolbox The African Conservation FoundationEnvironmental Education Center - Russia "Zapoveniks“ The Big Sky Conservation InstituteErawan Interactive: Digital Publishing The Natural History Museum, LondonETI BioInformatics The Nature Conservancy *Fauna & Flora International The Rainforest AllianceFriends of Nature - Bolivia The Smithsonian InstitutionGBIF - Global Biodiversity Information Facility * The World Conservation Union, PakistanGlobal Invasive Species Programme (GISP) The Zoological Society of LondonGlobal Transboundary Protected Areas Network of IUCN TRAFFIC InternationalGreenFacts TROPI-DRY: forest research network (based in U.Alberta) UNDPINBio, National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica UNEP WCMCInformation Center for the Environment (ICE), U. of California, Davis UnescoINSnet, Internetwork for Sustainability University of Maryland - Global Land Cover Facility *Instituto de Biología, U.N.A.M. Mexico US NASA *Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (Colombia) Wetlands of India (hosted by SACON-India)International Center for Himalayan Biodiversity (link unavailable for now) Wild Bird Club of the PhilippinesInternational Commission on Zoological Nomenclature Wildlife Conservation SocietyInvasive Species Specialist Group of IUCN/SSC (Species Survival Commission) World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA of IUCN)IUCN - The World Conservation Union * WWF BrazilMy Nature (based in Romania) WWF International
  73. 73. Commons-Consistent Initiatives and Projects• CONSERVEONLINE SEE: http://conserveonline.org/• Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) SEE: http://www.gbif.org/• World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) SEE: http://www.unep- wcmc.org/wdpa/• Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) SEE: http://bhl.si.edu/• Protected Areas Learning Network (PALNet) SEE: http://www.parksnet.org/New Initiatives: Development of open data standards for Biodiversity (with OASIS SEE: http://www.oasis-open.org/home/index.php ) Conservation GIS developments (GLCF / Univ of Md.) World Conservation Base Map http://conserveonline.org/workspaces/conservation.basemap Development of model contractual language supporting commons principles San Francisco Bay Conservation Commons (Calif. Conservation Commons?) SEE: http://sfbayarea.calconservationcommons.net/
  74. 74. As a result of the Darwin Core analysis…GBIF UDDI Registry* registration* update information________________________________________Data Providers 259Datasets 7481Searchable Records 147,539,975 http://www.gbif.org/ [clipped Oct 8, 2008]
  75. 75. How do we Incentivize Change ?• Individually• Professionally / Disciplinarily• Organizationally / Institutionally
  76. 76. A Framework for Considering Individual Incentives
  77. 77. Cost Benefit Calculations of Change High Cost Cell A Cell B -- Clear, direct benefits -- Intangible, indirect benefits --Change is difficult --Change if difficult --Balancing communication -- Try to reposition into “Cell with a strong support D” – leveraging enthusiasm / system is key supply-side persuasion Tangible Intangible Societal Cell C Cell D Personal -- Clear, direct benefits -- Intangible direct benefits Benefit Benefit -- Change is easy -- Change is easy -- Communication & -- Ultimate benefit should information are key be stressed --Convenience is key Low CostAdapted from VK Rangan et al. “Do better at doing good,” in in Harvard Business Review on Non-Profits Harvard, Cambridge,1999, p. 173- ff.
  78. 78. Personal Incentives for Sharing? (The “Reputational Economy”)• Ethics and the ethos of conservation or of science – Ethical imperative• The “Reputation Economy” – Personal recognition: priority/ prestige ( evidence of substantial increases in citation) – Professional credential for hiring and for job security (tenure & promotion) (also requires professional/disciplinary change)
  79. 79. Individual’s willingness to share: the Core functions of Scholarly Communication • “Registration, which allows claims of precedence for a scholarly finding. • “Certification, which establishes the validity of a registered scholarly claim. • “Awareness, which allows participants in the scholarly system to remain aware of new claims and findings. • “Archiving, which preserves the scholarly record over time. • “Rewarding, which rewards participants for their performance in the communication system based on metrics derived from that system.Roosendaal, H., Geurts, P in Cooperative Research Information Systems in Physics (Oldenburg, Germany, 1997).
  80. 80. The Benefits of Open Access“The influence of OA is more modest than many have proposed, at ~8% for recently published research, but our work provides clear support for its ability to widen the global circle of those who can participate in science and benefit from it. “J. A. Evans and J. Reimer, Open access and global participation in science. Science v. 323 20 February, 2009 p. 1025.
  81. 81. Professional / Disciplinary Incentives?
  82. 82. • Expectations of sharing vary by discipline• In “big science” (astrophysics / astronomy / meteorology / oceanography / genomics) sharing is expected (if not required) and contributions to a common fund of knowledge are assumed (See also: GENBANK ) – Standards are relatively clear – Mechanisms for sharing are well-developed• In “small science” such capacity is weaker
  83. 83. Small Science: Data Deposit and Access• Data are typically held in many formats• Discovery of data is very weakly supported by standards-development• Access to and use of data are highly variable• [ However progress has been made respecting museum specimen data in the past 20 years [SEE for ex. : GBIF and many allied projects] ]• Some progress has been made respecting observational and other data• Ecological and conservation field data remain highly problematic
  84. 84. Data Citation and Access?-- Even common standards for data citation are weakHence for example: M. Altman and G. King “A Proposed Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Quantitative Data” D-Lib Magazine March/April 2007 Vol.13:3/4 http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march07/altman/03altman.html
  85. 85. Organizational / Institutional Incentives?
  86. 86. The Social Enterprise Spectrum Purely Philanthropic Purely Commercial Appeal to Mixed Motives Appeal to Self Motives Goodwill Interest Mission Mission and Market Driven Driven Methods Market Driven Social Goals Value Social and Economic Value Economic ValueJG Dees, “Enterprising Non-profits" in Harvard Business Review on Non-Profits Harvard, Cambridge, 1999, p.147
  87. 87. Perhaps, an Ethical Spectrum ? – Support for Scientific Knowledge CommonsHuman Health Agriculture Biotechnology Earth Education Nuclear Technology Science /Conservation
  88. 88. Kirtland’s Warbler / Abaco Island, The Bahamas
  89. 89. “NATIVE” METADATA DEAD HARBOR SEALand 5 CALIFORNIA CONDORS !!!
  90. 90. The Science of Science Policy: a Federal Research Roadmap. Report on theScience of Science Policy to the Subcommittee on Social, Behavioral andEconomic Sciences. Committee on Science. National Science and TechnologyCouncil. Office of Science and Technology Policy. November, 2008. p.11.
  91. 91. CURRENT AND POTENTIAL TOOLKIT FOR SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY
  92. 92. http://www.mikero.com/blog/2009/02/20/more-darwin http://www.zazzle.com/darwin2009
  93. 93. Disintermediation of the traditional value chain: “…a clash of business models.” -- Kevin Kelly“But a new regime of digital technology has now disrupted all business models based on mass-produced copies, including individual livelihoods of artists. The contours of the electronic economy are still emerging, but while they do, the wealth derived from the old business model is being spent to try to protect that old model, through legislation and enforcement. Laws based on the mass-produced copy artifact are being taken to the extreme, while desperate measures to outlaw new technologies in the marketplace "for our protection" are introduced in misguided righteousness. (This is to be expected. The fact is, entire industries and the fortunes of those working in them are threatened with demise. Newspapers and magazines, Hollywood, record labels, broadcasters and many hard-working and wonderful creative people in those fields have to change the model of how they earn money. Not all will make it.)”Kevin Kelly, “Scan This Book!” NYT. Published: May 14, 2006
  94. 94. Fraud?
  95. 95. Ralph Baxter, CEO of security company ClusterSeve: "Although fraud is not the primary reason for the precarious state of the current economy, it is still a cause of concern to banks because most of them incorrectly believe their current security measures are adequate and they are preoccupied with surviving and may have inadvertently lowered their guard when it comes to fraud.”• , “Spreadsheets where fraud is often committed, are very accident prone, especially when they have thousands of lines of data. Baxter notes, "If for example, someone changes one cell to boost a future bonus, the bank will still need to prove the employee did not make an honest mistake and intended to commit fraud."• “To make matters worse in detecting this kind of fraud, the departments responsible for rooting out fraud tend to have very high turnover and are considered "low priority" for funding and training. Baxter says he sees morale is usually low, and the high turnover requires higher than average training resources, which arent often available. This further reduces the effectiveness of institutions security measures.
  96. 96. There are three types of fraud that are growing in popularity: Presentation fraud - is an increasingly common form of criminal activity and involves modifying the way a spreadsheet is viewed. Sometimes whole lines of data are made invisible, or a number in a cell is displayed using a white font on a similarly colored background. "Fraudsters with a great deal of experience using Excel can lay a false number over the real one. This type of fraud is quick and easy to do and occurs right before bonuses are calculated," he Baxter says. Adjustment fraud - involves incorrectly recording numbers on a spreadsheet as part of the process of updating information about the markets a bank is involved in. Ongoing adjustments are a normal part of the banking business and an employee who is committing adjustment fraud may actually appear to be doing a very thorough job. This type of fraud involves making multiple false data entries over a period of time and ultimately removing all evidence of fraud by the end of the manipulation process. Gradual fabrication fraud - involves inserting false data that is only slightly higher or lower than the actual number so that it does not attract attention from other employees or auditors. This scheme is meant to slowly inflate a banks assets or worth. Once the false numbers have been accepted and a higher bonus check issued, the employee corrects the false number slowly, over time, once again to avoid raising any suspicion.
  97. 97. Error?
  98. 98. “Barclays Spreadsheet Error Results In Lehman Chaos” “It pays to have good spreadsheet skills. Were just now learning that Barclays wound up with scores of Lehman Brothers trading positions that it never meant to buy when a pair of very junior lawyers attempted to reformat an Excel spreadsheet and convert it into a pdf document. The result was that a "hidden" column of 179 contracts no intended to be purchased became unhidden, and when Barclays filed the document with the court it wound up picking up the contracts.”http://www.businessinsider.com/2008/10/barclays-excel-error-results-in-lehman-chaos John Carney|Oct. 16, 2008, 8:49 AM

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