UXability: Where experiential human factors meets interaction design

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As the automotive industry races to include as much technology as possible into new vehicles our relationship with the car is changing. Usability is being superseded by User Experience. …

As the automotive industry races to include as much technology as possible into new vehicles our relationship with the car is changing. Usability is being superseded by User Experience.
This presentation will examine how UX is relevant to automotive Human Machine Interface design

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  • there has been a move from an object-centric approach where concepts like ease of use are the end goal, to one where the relationship between user and situation is central. Put another way, “the focus of human-product interaction work is now on well-being rather than performance”
  • According to industry news reports, sales of the BMW 7 Series in the United States in the first half of 2005 were down about 10% relative to the same period in 2004
  • Contradiction between what features are necessary to be competitive within the market and what features are actually wanted by the customer.Showroom and internet appealLong term use and buy again
  • Drivers have a finite capacity for attentionMental workload represents the proportion of this resource demanded by the taskDeveloped from the commonly used NASA Task Load Index tool (NASA-TLX)
  • 17 percent (an estimated 899,000) of all police-reported crashes in 2010 reportedly involved some type of driver distraction. Of those 899,000 crashes, distraction by a device/control integral in the vehicle was reported in 26,000 cases (3 percent of the distraction-related police-reported crashes).
  • Personalising infotainment systems based on: DemographicsInterface familiarityContent preferences Allowing the customer to choose which features they wish to include or leave out

Transcript

  • 1. UXability Where experiential human factors meets interaction design UX Camp | Brighton December 8th 2012 Tom Wellings Design Research and User Experience Specialist Emotive Systems Ltd tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 2. Usability, Utility and User Experience • Usability = how easy and pleasant a product is to use • Utility = whether the product provides the features you need • Useful = usability + utility An expanded definition: User Experience Supports creativity Efficient Easy to remember Has good utility Safe Helpful Satisfying to use Effective Motivating Easy to learn UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 3. User Experience Framework Wellings, T., Williams, M.A. & Pitts, M.J., (2012). Characterising the experience of interaction: An evaluation of automotive rotary dials. Ergonomics, 55 (11), 1298-1315. UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 4. Why is user experience important? • Safety: Driver distraction when using In Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) is correlated with crash risk • Brand reputation - Poorly resolved technology has large negative impact on customers’ view of automotive brands (e.g. BMW iDrive, My Ford Touch) • Customer satisfaction – Problems rates are up 18% for audio, entertainment, and navigation systems since the 2010 JD Power IQS survey, and up 28% since 2009 UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 5. Usability vs. Marketability Kathy Sierra (2007) UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 6. Maximizing initial sales or maximizing long-term customer satisfaction? • Consumers know that products with more features are harder to use, but before purchase they value capability more than usability. • Even when consumers are allowed to customize a product, they load on the features, worrying little about the learning curve they are setting for themselves. • Once consumers have used a product, their preferences change. Suddenly, usability matters more than capability. Rust, R.T., Thompson, D.V. & Hamilton, R.W., (2006). Defeating Feature Fatigue. Harvard Business Review, 84 (2), 98-107. UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 7. Vehicle Interiors- a vision of the future? UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 8. Current reality … mostly • Familiar and easy to use • Muscle memory and kinaesthetics • Users benefit from direct access to frequently used features through ‘hard’ buttons. • E.g. audio volume, HVAC temperature, driving dynamics UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 9. Towards the glass cockpit UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 10. The demise of hard buttons? • Trend from mechanical to membrane switches to ‘Secret until lit’ proximity sensing switches. • Issues for increasing visual demand - little or no haptic component • Driven by styling, marketing, and CE products UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 11. Don’t speak too soon… This is an emotional subject “I love what you've become Cadillac, and I only want good things for you, but if you can't give me actual buttons with tactile feedback that I can use while watching the road, I'm afraid it's over between us.” UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 12. Switch quality and the user experience The overall appeal of the sensory interaction is dependent on the ‘Positivity/Precision’ of the dials, and their (lack of) ‘Unrefined Loudness’. Wellings, T., Williams, M.A. & Pitts, M.J., (In press). Characterising the experience of interaction: An evaluation of automotive rotary dials. Ergonomics. UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 13. Mental workload and driver distraction In Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) are not websites Safe operation is critical Audi Electric R8 Concept UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 14. Changing legislation Research by The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has shown: > 17 percent of all police-reported crashes in 2010 reportedly involved some type of driver distraction. > Of these, 26,000 accidents were caused by distraction from "a device/control integral to the vehicle“ such as a navigation or infotainment system. • New guidelines aim to limit the use of in-car technology that is "not directly relevant to safely operating the vehicle, or that causes undue distraction." US Department of Transportation, (2012). Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices. NHTSA-2010-0053 UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 15. Categorising driving-related functions: critical vs. non-critical • How do you classify which interaction tasks are directly related to the driving task? • Is this relationship of the same importance in all situations? • Contextual awareness UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 16. Personalisation “Cockpit technology has emerged as a leading differentiator when considering and purchasing an automobile for young adult consumers” (Deloitte, 2011). • Downloadable in-car apps? • Social media updates? • Personalised menus with shortcuts to favourite features • Differences between younger and older customers? • More research needed on the safety implications of user-modified interfaces UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 17. Multimodal user interfaces • Used alongside other forms of input interfaces • Hand writing recognition • Will legislation make these interfaces redundant? UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 18. Audi TouchPad UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 19. Augmented reality UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 20. Summary Automakers “must keep in-vehicle infotainment systems fresh with new content and features, achieve seamless integration with mobile apps and devices, create personalized user experiences, and accelerate their development cycles to keep pace with the expectations of the connected consumer. And, somehow, they must achieve all this without compromising safety and reliability.” (QNX, 2012) UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 21. References • Deloitte. 2011. Third Annual Deloitte Automotive Generation Y Survey: Gaining Speed – Gen Y in the Driver’s Seat. Deloitte Consulting LLP. • DTI. 2004. Innovation through people-centred design - lessons from the USA. In: Wakeford, N. (Eds.), Global Watch Mission Report. Department of Trade and Industry, UK, URN 04/1863 • Jordan, P., 2000. Designing pleasurable products : an introduction to the new human factors, London, Taylor & Francis. • Nielsen, J. 2012. Ten usability heuristics [online]. Available from http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html [Accessed 18 Sept 2012] • Pitts, M.J., Burnett, G.E., Skrypchuk, L., Williams, M.A., Wellings, T. & Attridge, A., 2011. Visualhaptic feedback interaction in automotive touchscreens. Displays, 33 (1), 7-16. • QNX, 2012. QNX CAR 2 all about infotainment system personalization [online]. SAE. Available from: http://www.sae.org/mags/AEI/11353 [Accessed 18 Sept 2012]. • Stanton, N., Salmon, P., Walker, G., Baber, C., and Jenkins, D., 2005. Human Factors Methods: A Practical Guide for Engineering and Design, Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing Ltd. • Wellings, T., 2012. Designing the Interface. In: Tovey, M. ed. Design for Transport. Farnham: Gower, 317-334. UX Camp 2012 | Brighton tom@emotivesystems.co.uk
  • 22. Measurement Scales 9 point Hedonic scale 7 point rating scale 5 point Likert scale Describe what scale anchors mean Criteria Rattling sound Effort Solidity Definition Scale anchors The sound made by parts of the dial knocking against each other when it is grasped and wobbled The overall force required to turn the dial Having a strong and substantial quality Not rattly – very rattly UX Camp 2012 | Brighton Low effort – high effort Flimsy - solid tom@emotivesystems.co.uk