Understanding radio

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  • 1. Understanding Radio Ben Walker
  • 2. Commercial RadioCommercial radio generally speaking is mainlybroadcasted by regional based stations, commercial radiois a business like any other, but in radio. Commercial radiostations are usually in the radio business for the money,and they gain money by hiring quality presenters, qualitywriters, quality producers and others to create qualityshows, sadly these shows are often just a side product ofa money making scheme. They then rake in the moneyfrom the advertising slots sold off to the highest bidder.News segments in the commercial radio industry are oftenjust re-organised stories published by Sky News.
  • 3. Commercial Radio In Yorkshire Capital, Real Radio and Radio Aire are the most common of the commercial radio stations. Capital (formally known as Galaxy) is a commercial broadcaster that provides pop music to the masses of South and West Yorkshire. Capital is owned by Global Radio a radio conglomerate who also run the Heart and Gold radio stations. Capital receives 1,080,000 listeners on average each day throughout Yorkshire. Real Radio is another commercial broadcaster located in Leeds, the difference between Real and the likes of Capital is the older target audience. Real Radio is owned by the Guardian Media Group, who believe it or not also run the Guardian newspaper and the likes of the Auto Trader magazine. Real Radio receive a lesser amount of 368,000 listeners everyday. Radio Aire is another commercial broadcaster based in the center of Leeds, it is owned by Bauer Radio who own and run various stations much like Radio Aire throughout England. Also run from the same site is Aire’s sister AM station Magic 828 who target the older side of the market leaving the younger audience for Radio Aire. Radio Aire receives 145,000 listeners on average each day.
  • 4. Public Service BroadcastsPublic Service Broadcasts in the UK consist of The BBC only. Their remit is to educate, inform andentertain each of their audiences. The BBC have a multitude of Radio stations appealing to asmany target audiences as realistically possible.BBC Radio One is the BBC station that appeals to younger audiences of about 15-30 years, andthe main style of presentation is informal yet professional. The shows during the day consist ofmost just chart music but on an evening on shows like Daniel P. Carter’s Rock Show and Skreamand Benga’s show, the genres show cased become a little bit more underground compared to thebreakfast show and drive time etc. Some of the most notable presenters include Chris Moyles,Fearne Cotton and Scott Mills who host various shows throughout the radio one day. Radio One isvery much a station for personality lead shows which make Chris Moyles and co perfectly fitting.On average BBC Radio One receive 11,665,000 listeners throughout the day.BBC Radio Two is the Flagship of the BBC stations with audience figure of around 14,267,000daily. Radio Two much like Magic to Radio Aire is targeted at the older end of the market of around35+. Radio Two is the most popular radios station in the UK and Chris Evan’s Breakfast show is atthe peak of it. Other notable presenters include Steve Wright who hosts the drive time show. RadioTwo offers various styles of show including news and current affairs during popular shows and withdocumentaries and comedy shows in the evenings. Much like The BBC’s Radio One, Radio Two isvery much a personality lead station also as any Chris Evan’s fan would tell you.
  • 5. Public Service BroadcastsBBC Radio Three is where the stations begin to fork in the road in terms of listening figures. Thisbecause BBC Radio Three is a dedicated station for classical, jazz and world music, very much thepublic service rival to Classical FM with its average of 2,097,000 listeners per day. Some notablepresenters include Sara Mohr-Pietsch who presents the breakfast show and Penny Gore who is incharge of the drive time slot.BBC Radio Four is a speech based radio station offering radio dramas, speech packages anddocumentaries aimed at a higher class of audience. Kirsty Young is a notable presenter for BBCRadio Four she hosts a show titled Desert Island Discs which is an interview based show where achosen celebrity chooses various pieces of music to sum up various parts of their life anddiscusses why these songs are important to them. BBC Radio Four has an average listener countof 10,834,000 per day. BBC Radio Four Extra (Formerly BBC Radio Seven) is very similar to Radio Four in the mixedspeech service that it offers, with the main difference being that such speech services haveyounger audiences showing the varied genres of speech based segments which Radio Sevenoffers. This is clearly why they have merged it with the Radio Four title.BBC Radio Five Live is also a very speech based BBC radio station, but for the soul purpose ofsport coverage. Radio Five Live therefore has the target audience of sport fans and achieves it’shighest figures during the football matches on a Saturday afternoon. Analysis shows where theyspend particularly long amounts of time talking about the same 5 minutes of a game extend on intothe evening for the more involved sports fans.
  • 6. New TechnologiesIn the past the biggest market in the radio industry is the car driver,the folk who listen to the breakfast on the way to work and cominghome later on at drive time but as time moves on so doestechnology and now more newer methods of listening to radio areapparent. To begin a vast amount of the digital television systemsout currently provide a radio service also, at least for most of The BBCstations and digital only station such as Kerrang Radio and NME.Above that the internet is taking a huge share of radio listeners aspeople listen to their favourite stations whilst finishing theirdissertations or the last report for their boss, the internet also offerssomething that was never really before possible, the chance foranyone to broadcast and anyone to listen meaning that everyinternet radio station in an international one, not to mention with theadded features of Iplayer you can now listen back to the show thatwas on in the car in order to figure out what that particular song wasor to listen again to a particular news story.
  • 7. Non-For-Profit RadioNon-For-Profit radio is as it say on the tin. A Non-For-Profit radio station is a station that runs without an aim toprofit from the station in monetary terms, instead they runto provide a service for a community or for a school orsimilar. One example of a Non-For-Profit station is PGFMstation based at Pudsey Grangefield School which givesinterested students the opportunity to learn how a radiostudio works and eventually present and run a show oftheir own on the 2 week annual period that the stationgoes on air. Other examples of Non-For-Profit radioinclude hospital radio stations at various hospitalsthroughout the UK, they often take on volunteers andprovide entertainment for the patients.
  • 8. Professional BodiesNAB (The National Association of Broadcasters) – The NABare responsible for pointing out key issues facing UK radiostations such as consumer advertising and limiting contentregulations. They also provide professional developmentopportunities for local radio stations, as well as cost-savinginitiatives.CRCA (Commercial Radio Companies Association) – TheCRCA are an organisation that represent commercial radiocompanies to the government and companies like Ofcom in away similar to how lawyers represent their clients. They alsohave joint ownership of RAJAR with the BBC.CMA (Community Media Association) – They are very muchthe same as the CRCA, only having no ownership shares inRAJAR and representing non-for-profit radio instead ofcommercial radio.
  • 9. Professional BodiesOfcom – Ofcom are in charge of regulating what isbroadcast through all varieties of media ensuringeverything is applying to their codes of co-operation.ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) – to theadvertising CAP Codes taking whatever actions theysee deserving, more often than not the banning ofsuch breaching advertisements.PRS (Performing Rights Society Alliance) – Theyensure that all who are due compensation for use ofmusic on radio or television broadcasts are paid.
  • 10. Employment in the RadioOrganisation Industry % of all employment in Number Employed the radio industryBBC 10,800 48Commercial Radio 9,600 43Community & Voluntary 2,000 9RadioTOTAL 22,400 100 • In the radio industry, there are around 6320 employed in the broadcasting section, around 2320 on the production side and around 4910 in journalism. To work freelance simply means to work on any aspect in radio, around 25% of workers in the radio industry work freelance meaning they can float between companies, this is usually better for them in terms of money. • Geographically, the main place for work in the radio industry is London, with 39% or radio jobs based here, 58% of which are involvement with BBC radio stations, this is because London holds the BBC Headquarters despite that a lot of the production and technical side are now done in Media City UK, Salford. Northern England on the other hand has the most jobs in commercial radio. • Statistics show that it is not essential to have a degree in Media Studies to gain a job in the radio industry as only 69% of radio industry employees have such qualifications. This proves that work experience is very useful in the creative industries.