Motivation!

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Motivation!

  1. 1. Basic MotivationConcepts
  2. 2. Key Elements1. Intensity: how hard a person tries2. Direction: toward beneficial goal3. Persistence: how long a person triesKey Elements1. Intensity: how hard a person tries2. Direction: toward beneficial goal3. Persistence: how long a person triesMotivationThe processes that account for an individual’sintensity, direction, and persistence of effort towardattaining a goal.Happy Club:-)
  3. 3. Happy Club:-)Hierarchy of Needs TheoryThere is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological,safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; aseach need is substantially satisfied, the next needbecomes dominant.Self-ActualizationThe drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
  4. 4. Happy Club:-)Theory XAssumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoidresponsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform.Theory YAssumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, arecapable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction andself-control when committed to a goal.
  5. 5. Happy Club:-)Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) TheoryIntrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, whileextrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.Hygiene FactorsFactors—such as company policy andadministration, supervision, and salary—that, whenadequate in a job, placate workers. When factors areadequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
  6. 6. Happy Club:-)Core NeedsExistence: provision ofbasic materialrequirements.Relatedness: desire forrelationships.Growth: desire forpersonal development.Core NeedsExistence: provision ofbasic materialrequirements.Relatedness: desire forrelationships.Growth: desire forpersonal development.Concepts:More than one need canbe operative at the sametime.If a higher-level needcannot be fulfilled, thedesire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.Concepts:More than one need canbe operative at the sametime.If a higher-level needcannot be fulfilled, thedesire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.ERG TheoryThere are three groups of core needs: existence,relatedness, and growth.
  7. 7. Happy Club:-)nAchnPownAffNeed for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achievein relation to a set ofstandards, to strive tosucceed.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendlyand close personalrelationships.Need for PowerThe need to make othersbehave in a way that theywould not have behavedotherwise.
  8. 8. Happy Club:-)Cognitive Evaluation TheoryProviding an extrinsic reward for behavior thathad been previously only intrinsically rewardingtends to decrease the overall level of motivation.The theory may only be relevant to jobs that areneither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.
  9. 9. Happy Club:-)Goal-Setting TheoryThe theory that specific and difficult goals, withfeedback, lead to higher performance.Self-EfficacyThe individual’s belief that he or she is capable ofperforming a task.Factors influencing the goals–performancerelationship:Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, taskcharacteristics, and national culture.
  10. 10. Happy Club:-)Concepts:Behavior is environmentally caused.Behavior can be modified (reinforced) byproviding (controlling) consequences.Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.Concepts:Behavior is environmentally caused.Behavior can be modified (reinforced) byproviding (controlling) consequences.Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.The assumption that behavior is a function of itsconsequences.
  11. 11. It blends planning and control function.It emphasizes result rather than goodintensive.It encourages self-management and controlthrough participation and commitment.Happy Club:-)
  12. 12. Happy Club:-)

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