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How Consumers Buy Today - Harnessing the Buying Journey to Get More Customers


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It’s not debatable that the Internet and social media have changed the way we communicate, learn, work, play, and buy. So, have you taken the time to really think about the process your customers take …

It’s not debatable that the Internet and social media have changed the way we communicate, learn, work, play, and buy. So, have you taken the time to really think about the process your customers take to find you, research you, compare you to competitors, and ultimately choose you? We call that process the consumer buying journey, and this ebook explains how to apply it to your marketing strategy in order to get more customers.

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  • 1. Marketing Your Business Online Understanding the Consumer Buying | 888.861.6378© 2012 ReachLocal. All Rights Reserved. No reproduction without permission.By Todd Ebert, Chief Marketing OfficerHow ConsumersBuy TodayHarnessing the Buying Journeyto Get More Customers
  • 2. Marketing Your Business Online Understanding the Consumer Buying JourneyIt’s not debatable that theInternet and social mediahave changed the way wecommunicate, learn, work,play, and buy.So, have you taken the time to really think aboutthe process your customers take to find you,research you, compare you to competitors, andultimately choose you? We call that processthe consumer buying journey, and this ebookexplains how to apply it to your marketingstrategy in order to get more customers.
  • 3. How Do You Buy? 3Table of ContentsHow Do You Buy?Power to the PeopleThe Evolution of Consumer BuyingApply the Buying Journey to Your MarketingCase StudyExample Buying JourneysWhat Influences Your Customers?
  • 4. How Do You Buy? 4How Do You Buy?wwwYou’re not just a business owner or marketer; you’re a consumer,too. Have you thought about how you’ve changed the way you buythings today compared to a decade ago? Consider the last timeyou needed a new car, braces for your kids, or even something assimple as a restaurant for date night. Did you:(Check all that apply)Search on Google or Bing to see which businesses showed up?Ask for a recommendation on Facebook?Check reviews on Yelp, Google+ Local, or another local directory site?“Like” or follow a business on social media that you were considering?Compare the websites of a few different businesses to help makeyour choice?See a display ad that jogged your memory about a brand youwere considering?Use your mobile phone to search for a phone number or directionsto a business while out and about?Chances are that you did some or all of these, so you know firsthand justhow big an impact the Web and mobile have on the way we buy.
  • 5. How Do You Buy? 5Zero Moment of TruthGoogle has done extensive research on this huge shift in consumerbuying behavior and explains it all in their ebook Winning at theZero Moment of Truth.Simply put, the Zero Moment of Truth, or ZMOT, is the decision-making process in which a consumer goesonline to conduct research, learn about alternatives, read reviews, look for coupons or discounts, and more,for a product or service they are thinking about buying — all before ever calling or going to the store. That’swhy your business needs to be present during a consumer’s Zero Moment of Truth.Zero Moment of Truth: The moment when you grab your laptopor phone and start learning about a product or service you’rethinking about buying before you call or go to the store. For abusiness it is the difference between winning and losing the battlefor customers.Google, 2012
  • 6. Power to the People 6Consumers online are searching for products and services, surfingacross websites, and socializing on the top social networks.Youneed to be everywhere your prospects are, so they can find you,learn more about you, and ultimately buy from you. Consider this:Have you ever seen a product or service mentioned in a Facebook post, featured on a TV commercial, orreviewed in a news article online and thought, “I’d like to know more about that,” and then turned to theWeb to get more information? Picture this: You andyour spouse want go out for dinner, but you’re not surewhere you’d like to go. While you are visiting yourfavorite local news site, you see a display ad for anItalian restaurant in your area called Little Italy. You’vealways eaten at the same place, but recently, youremember seeing some friends recommending Little Italyon Facebook. So, you search for “Little Italy reviews.”After reading a few reviews on Yelp and getting recommendations on what dishes to order, you visit Little Italy’swebsite, where you check out photos of the food and dining room, watch a video message from the chef, andread customer testimonials. You also see that they are offering a 30% discount for first time customers. Now, youknow exactly where you will eat dinner tonight, and what you are going to order.Power to the People“If you’re not visible onlinewhen people are doing theirhomework, believe me, they’llfind others who are.”~ Jim Lecinski, Managing Director, GoogleWe use the Web andmobile to instantlyresearch a productor service anywhere,anytime.We form powerfulimpressions of businessesafter seeing pictures,posts, and reviews.We actively shareour own experienceswith hundreds, eventhousands, of othersin an instant.Search Surf Socialize
  • 7. Power to the People 7The Impact on Your BusinessToday, the average consumer uses over 10 sources of informationto make a purchase decision, up from just five sources in 2010.1Turning these highly educated consumers into buyers is definitelymore complex than it used to be. In fact, it requires you to be inthe right place at the right time in order to give consumers theinformation and confidence they need to make the decision to buyfrom you instead of a competitor.To reach these consumers at the exact time they are considering your products or services, you need to createa strong Web presence that influences consumers at every stage along their buying journey. You need toprovide both helpful content (that you build) and engaging advertising (that you buy) across the many placesconsumers search, surf, and socialize. And, to anchor it all, you need a robust website with fresh content thatrises to the top of search results, creates a great first impression with visitors, and compels them to contact you.Since consumers are influenced all along their buying journey, you can’t just market to them at the beginningand expect to win their business.You need a total Web presence to reach consumers throughout their buying journey.1Google, 2012“When consumers hear about a product today, their firstreaction is ‘Let me search online for it.’ And so they go on ajourney of discovery: about a product, a service, an issue,an opportunity.Today you are not behind your competition.You are behind your consumer.”~ Rishad Tobaccowala, Chief Strategy Innovation Officer, Viraki
  • 8. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 8Historically, marketers have used a simple framework called the“buying funnel” to describe the process that consumers go throughto buy products and services.Then, they use that framework todetermine the right strategy for reaching consumers at eachstage of that process.There are much more complex frameworksto describe consumer buying, but for this ebook we’ll stick to thesimple funnel and its four primary stages: Discover, Consider, Buy,and Repeat.Many consumers start at the top of the funnel, wherethey discover local businesses via advertising, socialmedia, or even word of mouth. As they continue throughthe marketing funnel, they will see information aboutyou on social media pages, customer review sites, andyour website or blog that help them determine whetheror not to buy from you. It’s your job to use multipletactics throughout this entire process to help consumersdiscover, contact, and choose to buy from you.The Evolution ofConsumer BuyingContactDiscoverChooseReview & Repeat
  • 9. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 9The Buying Journey Then (Before the Web)Twenty years ago, we had limited ways to discover new businesses,so our path to purchase was pretty straightforward.Businesses informed us of ourchoices by advertising in the relatively few places where we got our news and entertainment, like newspapers,magazines, TV, and radio. Once we began to actively consider buying, we asked friends and family about theirexperiences with local companies, we checked the Yellow Pages, and then we called several businesses forestimates. After the purchase was completed, some of us would tell a handful of others about the experience.Then, we waited to see a sale in the newspaper or coupon in the mail before going back to the business.Discovered a product orservice via offline advertising,signage, print directories, andword-of-mouthChecked with friends forrecommendations, visitedstore, or called for infoBought the product or service,often after shopping prices orgetting several estimatesTold a few people about yourexperience and checked the mailand newspapers for new salesand offersContactDiscoverChooseReview & Repeat
  • 10. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 10The Buying Journey NowAs news, entertainment, and communication shifted online, so didthe way we buy. Checking the newspaper for auto dealer specialsmoved to websites. Searching theYellow Pages for a plumber movedto Google. Asking friends to recommend a dentist moved to Facebook.Now, nearly every step of our buying journey takes place online.Discover businesses as wesearch, surf and socialize online(with some offline ads in the mix)Check out several businesswebsites, review sites, and socialpages and contact via phone andemailShare our purchase experienceon directories, review sites andsocial media.“Like” the businessor subscribe to email newsletterto get updates on sales and offersBook appointments and buyoffline, though some businessesnow enable this on their websitesContactDiscoverChooseReview & Repeat
  • 11. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 11This shift online has made it much harder for businesses to reachus with mass marketing tactics; we’re bombarded with so manymessages that we often ignore them. We’ve taken control of the purchase process byactively looking for new businesses and instantaneously researching them online. And, increasingly, we bookappointments and buy online, immediately share our opinions via our mobile phones, and “like” our favoritebusinesses on social media to get updates and offers that entice us to buy from them again. Interestingly,we have so much information at our disposal that buying is not easier, but more complex than ever before.Even a simple search for a dentist results in pages and pages of listings, including directories, blogs, videosand websites. And then, we have to read dozens of reviews, sort through recommendations on social media,evaluate a bunch of business websites, and process (or tune out) hundreds of ads.TopDownViewintoFunnelContactDiscoverChooseReview & RepeatDiscoverContactChooseCo n t en t Sit esSearchEnginesBusinessWebsitesDealSitesReviewSitesSocialMediaOfflineMediaOn l in e MediaConsumers seek and engage with many sources at each stage of the funnel,so you need more than just one tactic to reach them.
  • 12. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 12“Consumers arrive online24/7 ready to engage.They’reanybody’s to win or lose.”~ Jim Lecinski, Managing Director, GoogleThe Impact on Your Business1234567All the information available online enables consumers to makemore informed decisions on what to buy and who to buy from. But atthe same time, it creates a whole lot of work for the businesses likeyou that are trying to reach them.Gone are the days when you could place an ad inthe Yellow Pages and wait for the phone to ring. Now,you need to make sure you’re giving consumers theinformation they want at each stage of the buyingjourney. To do that, you need a comprehensive Webpresence everywhere consumers search, surf, andsocialize. That involves claiming key sites on the Web,buying targeted advertising, and creating a steady stream of fresh, authentic, and engaging content that:Creates awareness as consumers surf the WebIncreases your likelihood to be seen when they search for your types of products or servicesStands out from your competition when consumers research and evaluate youReminds them of your business as they consider buying from youMakes a good impression when they visit your website, listings, and social profilesSparks their interest so they contact you and learn more about youEngages and entertains them so they share it with their friends
  • 13. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 13Consumers can potentially seeyour content and advertising ateach stage of their buying journey.Everything you do influences the other marketingtactics and ultimately impacts the total performanceof your marketing.Here’s how it all works:YOUR BLOGConsumerBecomes awareof brands throughoffline adsNotices display ads whilesurfing favorite sitesSees businessvideos and picturesGets dailydealsComparesseveral businesswebsitesDiscovers businesseson search enginesSees and sharessocial postsChecksreviewson localdirectoriesSITEWEBSITEAll your marketing workstogether for maximum impactwhen a consumer is thinkingabout making a purchase.BLOG
  • 14. The Evolution of the Buying Journey 1410 Remodeling Jan via ReachCast Favorite Retweet ReplyLet’s take a look at how these tactics work togetherto influence consumers:Search engines take social signals and online reviews into account when determining how you rankon the search results page so consumers can find you online.Your brand advertising campaigns, both offline and online, help consumers remember you and increase their likelihood of clicking your text ad when it shows up during a search.Your Facebook posts and tweets drive repeat purchases by current customers, and when shared,draw in other potential customers who then research you online.When you understand the buying journey and direct your marketing across themoments of maximum influence, you greatly increase your chance of winning customers.NEWS SITEServing the CommunityYOURADFACEBOOK20% off Refer a friend!Like Comment Share122 People Reached 13 People Talking About ThisKevin Smith, Jason Jones, Rachael O’Niell and 3 others like thisKevin Smith Thanks! I sent over a friend that is thinkingabout redoing his kitchen!View all 6 commentsLike Comment Share122 People Reached 13 People TalkingKevin Smith, Jason Jones, Rachael O’Niell and 3 oView all6 commentsSEARCH ENGINEReady to ConstructReliable contractors in your city.SEARCH ENGINEReady toConstructReliable contractorsin your city.Ready toConstructReliable contractorsin your city.Best Contractors“Ready to Construct did a fantasticjob remodelling my kitchen. Theywere quick, clean, and professional.”REVIEW SITEREADY TOCONSTRUCTWEBSITE555.3333 FACEBOOKReady to ConstructReady to Construct10 Remodeling TipsLike MessageFACEBOOK20% off Refer a friend!Like Comment Share122 People Reached 13 People Talking About ThisKevin Smith, Jason Jones, Rachael O’Niell and 3 others like thisKevin Smith Thanks! I sent over a friend that is thinkingabout redoing his kitchen!View all 6 comments
  • 15. Applying the Buying Journey to Your Marketing 15Now that we’ve covered the consumer buying journey, we can applythat knowledge to your business so you can develop a marketingplan that gets you more customers.First, you need to define your target consumer, and then identify how they buy your products or services.Having this key information will help you develop a marketing plan that influences the right people at theright time with the right information and messages. Because not all consumers are created equal, you want toidentify those consumers that have the highest value for your business.To get started, there are two important questions to ask yourself:1. Who is my primary target consumer?•What is their gender, age, and income level?•Where do they live: what towns, zip codes, and radius from my location?•What other defining characteristics do they have (hobbies, sports, etc.)?2. What does my target consumer think aboutmy types of products or services?•Do they think of it as a need or a want?•Do they see it as a high cost or low cost purchase?•Do they buy it quickly (over a few days) or slowly(over a few months)?Applying the BuyingJourney to Your MarketingLow CostNeedWantHigh CostGender & AgeGeographicLocationEducation &IncomeHobbies
  • 16. Applying the Buying Journey to Your Marketing 16Now, applying the funnel framework, ask yourself the followingquestions to determine what influences consumers to discover,consider, and buy from you, and then return to your business.While this approach oversimplifies a complex consumer mindset, it provides a quick way for you to get startedmapping out the buying journey of your target consumers. Every consumer journey is different, but this exercisegives you a pretty good idea of what influences the buying journey for the majority of your target customers.To illustrate this buying process, we mapped out a real world casestudy and sample consumer buying journeys.Discover1. Where do they search online for my types of products or services?2. What words and phrases do they enter into the search bar?3. How can I get in front of them as they surf and socialize online?4. Do they see me or my competitors when they’re surfing, searching and socializing?How consumers discover my businessDiscoverReview & Repeat1. How do I get more customers to write a good review about me?2. How do they stay in touch with businesses like mine?3. What types of information and offers will bring them back?4. How do I keep them loyal?WhatinfluencesconsumerstospreadthewordandbuyagainReview& RepeatConsiderBuy1. Which competitors are they likely to consider?2. Where are they going online to check us out?3. What information do they find about me on those places?4. How differentiated am I from my competitors?5. Does my website and online content impress them enough to contact me?6. How well does my staff answer their questions and follow up with them?7. How can I continue to stay in front of them until they are ready to buy?How consumers research and choose me over competitorsContact& Choose
  • 17. Case StudyMy Landscaper Buying JourneyRecently, I needed a landscaper for a project at my home. Although I recalledthe name of one company whose truck I had seen in my neighborhood, I stillneeded to find other companies in the area, research their Web presence, andcontact them for quotes. Here’s how my journey went.DiscoverMy buying journey started online when I asked forrecommendations from my Facebook friends andsearched on Google for “landscaper in Frisco, TX”to identify a few potential contractors aside fromthe one I already knew about. That same week, Ialso saw offline brand advertising in the forms of apostcard in the mail from a local landscaper andprint ads in our city magazine.Customer: Todd EbertNeed: LandscaperPurchase Type: High CostWantPrimary Influence: Photos, videos,local directories, review sites,and recommendations
  • 18. ContactOnce I had gathered a few names of local landscapers, I decided to check them all out online. Ireviewed each of their websites, Google+ Local profiles, and their Facebook pages to get an idea ofwhat they had to offer. Here are some of the things I considered:· Had I heard of them before (via radio, magazine, friends, etc.)?· Did they showcase their work in pictures or videos so I could evaluate their quality?· Did they have a lot of positive reviews and relatively few negative reviews?· Did they provide helpful tips that showed they understood the local soil and weather?· Did they share stories about their community service?I ruled out landscapers with poor websites or a negative online reputation and after furtherinvestigating their online presences, I narrowed it down to two landscapers that had the bestpresentations across all the places I looked online. This whole process took roughly three weeks dueto my busy schedule. I contacted several top choices via phone to get estimates.ChooseI chose a landscaper based not just on their price, but alsoon their quick response and scheduling availability, whichinfluenced me to choose them over their competition. After thework was completed, I left a positive review on their Google+Local page and posted a Facebook review of my experiencethat was shared with my network of friends and family.I think I’m representative of a typical consumer. It’s clear that mybuying journey was not simple, and the marketing tactics I saw alongthe way included both online and offline advertising, website contentlike photos and videos, local directories and review sites, and friends’recommendations on Facebook. All of this influenced my decision as Imoved closer to purchase.This is just one example, and the buying journeyfor your customers depends on the type of business you’re in.
  • 19. Example Buying Journeys 1919JourneysTo get an idea of an average consumer’sbuying journey for your business,let’s look at a few examples. 
  • 20. Example Buying Journeys 20Journey 1Low Cost NeedWater Heater RepairCindy’s hot water heater is broken so she has tofind a good plumber fast. She does a quick searchon Google and checks out several plumberwebsites that she found via the local listingsand paid search ads that appeared on the searchresults page. She checks their reviews and thencalls to check availability and price.
  • 21. Example Buying Journeys 21PreviousInfluenceDay 1Day 2ContactDiscover Choose Review/RepeatRadio adsBillboards &truck signageDisplay ads onlocal news sitesVisits websitesof 2 plumbersChecks several Google+Local Pages to see photos,info & reviewsCalls to checktimes & costPlumber arrives2 hours lateSelects plumber &books appointmentLeaves reviewson Google+Local page &YelpSearches for “Dallasplumber”Comments onFacebook aboutlate arrivalClicks on paidsearch ads & organiclinksJourney 1 Low Cost Need Water Heater Repair
  • 22. Example Buying Journeys 22Journey 2Low Cost WantSpa DayLinda wants to treat herself to a spa day. She’sseen several ads for spas and recalls someposts by friends on Facebook, but decides tosearch online for top spas in town. She wantsa great experience, so she checks out severaldifferent spa websites, Facebook pages andYelp profiles in order to choose the best one.
  • 23. Example Buying Journeys 23PreviousInfluenceDay 1Day 31 MonthLaterContactDiscover Choose Review/RepeatLocal magazine adsFriends’ postson FacebookDisplay ads onlifestyle sitesChecks reviewsonYelpChecks FacebookpagesVisits websites andcalls for pricesBooks anappointmentVisits Spa“Likes” on Facebookfor discountsBooks anotherappointmentHas a greatexperience soposts a review onYelp with photosSearches“top spas inChicago”Journey 2 Low Cost Want Spa Day
  • 24. Example Buying Journeys 24Journey 3High Cost NeedNew Car PurchaseDan’s car keeps breaking down and the repairsare getting costly. He needs to buy a morereliable ride and has an idea of the make andmodel car he wants to buy after seeing lotsof TV ads, magazine ads, and social mediacampaigns. But before making such anexpensive purchase, Dan wants to thoroughlyresearch car prices and local dealershipsonline to make sure he’s getting the best deal.
  • 25. Example Buying Journeys 25Journey 3 High Cost Need New Car PurchasePreviousInfluenceDay 1Day 7Day 10Day 13Day 17Day 18Day 19ContactDiscover Choose Review/RepeatSocial mediacampaignsTV & magazineadsFriends’recommendationsVisits severalcompetitor sitesto check pricesResearches priceson Kelley Blue BookSees local car dealer’sbanner ad on KBB & clicksVisits car dealer’ssite & fills out formSees dealer’sretargeting adChecks reviewsfor dealers onGoogle + LocalVisitsdealershipand buys“Likes” dealeron FacebookWrites a reviewon Google+ LocalDealer posts“Another happycustomer” pic onFacebook
  • 26. Example Buying Journeys 26Journey 4High Cost WantKitchen RemodelMary has dreamed of remodeling her kitchenfor nearly a year while waiting for her bonus.During that time she has seen many ads forlocal remodelers while casually surfing homeimprovement sites and magazines. Now sheis ready to find a remodeler to do the job butwants to make sure she gets a high-qualitybuilder who will do the job right.
  • 27. Example Buying Journeys 27Journey 4 High Cost Want Kitchen RemodelPreviousInfluenceMonth 1Month 2Month 3Month 4ContactDiscover Choose Review/RepeatPinterest boardsfeaturing localremodelersAds in localmagazineVisits homedecor websitesSees banner adsfor local remodelersVisits remodeler’sFacebook pagesPhotos featuredon remodeler’ssiteLeaves a positivereview onYelpBanner ads on homeimprovement sitesADADWork beginsChronicles workon Facebookwith photosSees retargeting adfrom remodeler asshe surfs the WebChecks reviewsonYelpVisits website forremodeler to getquoteReturns to vendorsite and booksappointment
  • 28. What Influences Your Customers? 28Think about customers that recently bought from you. Which of yourads and parts of your online presence drove them to buy from you?The bottom line is that new customers come from all of these places, which work together to influence theirdecisions to choose you. It’s exactly why big brands like Apple, Chevy, and Verizon use integrated marketingcampaigns across print, TV, radio, billboards, banner ads, search engines, social media, mobile ads, and email.They know that if they aren’t there to influence consumers and grab their mindshare when they are consideringa purchase, then they will lose them to competitors who are.While this type of integrated marketing used to be beyond the reach and affordability of local business owners,it isn’t any longer. Companies that specialize in online marketing, like ReachLocal, can help you create a totalWeb presence with content and ads in all the places that consumers are searching, surfing and socializingonline. All so that you can influence more consumers along their buying journeys and turn them into customers. Billboard on the highway? Banner ads on their favorite websites? Posts on Facebook? Google+ Local listing? Reviews on Yelp? Videos on YouTube? Product or service on your site? Community service photos on your blog?Email offer or coupon?Did they see your...What Influences YourCustomers?Top Down View into FunnelDiscoverContactChooseCo n t en t Sit esSearchEnginesBusinessWebsitesDealSitesReviewSitesSocialMediaOfflineMediaOn l in e MediaContactDiscoverChooseReview & Repeat
  • 29. How Do YouMeasure Up?Get YourReachScore!888.861.6378You need a totalWeb presence to make surepotential customers are discovering you,learning about you, engaging with you, anddeciding to buy from you — before theyever contact or visit your business.Contact us today to get your freeWeb presence evaluation andcustom online marketing plan.
  • 30. Marketing Your Business Online Understanding the Consumer Buying | 888.861.6378© 2012 ReachLocal. All Rights Reserved. No reproduction without permission.About the AuthorTodd Ebert, Chief Marketing OfficerAs CMO of ReachLocal, I lead the team responsiblefor all customer-facing marketing. I have 20 years ofexperience in brand strategy, product marketing, content marketing, andcommunications at technology startups and Fortune 100 enterprises. Prior toReachLocal, I held senior marketing positions at Entrust, 3M, Sprint, and Pfizer. Inmy spare time, I’m a volleyball dad, social media junkie, and loud Longhorn fan.You can connect with me on Twitter and my blogThis ebook would not have been possible without the outstanding efforts of two members of my team whohave suffered through so many meetings about the buying journey that they now see funnels in their dreams.My most humble and sincere thanks to both Tamara and Lauren!TamaraWeintraub, Content Marketing ManagerAs a blogger, social media marketer, and content manager, I feed ReachLocal’s Web presencewhile educating small businesses about online marketing. When I’m not writing, you can findme catching up on my DVR, reading the latest Jodi Picoult novel, or rescuing homeless dogs.Lauren Caiafa, Art DirectorFrom ebooks and posters to web sites and interactive, I love bringing concepts to life. In myfree time, I’m a traveler, photographer, treasure finder, and upcycler. I also enjoy going to artmuseums and naming untitled art.
  • 31. Marketing Your Business Online Understanding the Consumer Buying JourneyAbout UsA global leader in online marketing,ReachLocal’s (NASDAQ: RLOC) mission isto help local businesses all over the worldreach more local consumers online.Througha combination of our smart technology andsmart professionals, we deliver the onlinemarketing services that help you acquire,manage and retain customers online so youcan grow your | 888.861.6378© 2012 ReachLocal. All Rights Reserved. No reproduction without permission.WANT MORE?Check out