Some history on eye tracking
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Some history on eye tracking



Presentation by Tomas Nilsson at Beyond AdAsia2007, Jeju Island, Korea

Presentation by Tomas Nilsson at Beyond AdAsia2007, Jeju Island, Korea



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Some history on eye tracking Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A Tobii Technology Introduction & Presentation Beyond AdAsia2007, Jeju Island, Korea “ and How Tobii Eye Tracking could be used in Advertising” By Tomas E. Nilsson Area Manager – Asia / Pacific
  • 2. Eye tracking started over 100 years ago Raymond Dodge’s Photochronograph (1871-1942) Delabarre’s Eye Tracker (1898) Edmund Huey’s Eye Tracker (1898)
  • 3. Eye tracking has come a long way.... And has often been very difficult to use….
  • 4.  
  • 5. From being VERY intrusive and complicated ... (examples of other Eye Trackers used even today ! )
  • 6. Tobii:ing VERY Simple and Easy!!! (And also with a very modern, sleek and nice Design!)
  • 7. Tobii made - Eye Tracking almost as easy as a child’s play!
    • Typical features of the Tobii Eye Trackers;
    • Truly Non-intrusive
    • Plug&Play Eye Tracking
    • Quick and Easy to Calibrate
    • Allows for large head movements
    • All of this Without compromising on High Quality Tracking and Robustness
  • 8. Why eye tracking?
    • With an Eye Tracker we know exactly where a person is looking
    • Primarily used for research, design testing and diagnostics etc.
    • We get clear additional insights into behavior
    • Measurable reactions
    • Objective results
    • Hard deliverables
  • 9. With Eye Tracking we can actually see what a person is thinking!
  • 10. Why Eye tracking?
    • With Eye tracking , a computer knows exactly where a user is looking
    • To interact with computers and machines
    • Control machines when hands and voice are not an option
    • As a vital element in multi-modal user interfaces of the future
  • 11. First eye control computer MyTobii P10 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 Tobii founded First sold system First product, Tobii ET-17 Product launch of Tobii 1750 First Assistive Tech product, MyTobii D10 US office, Tobii Inc Acquisition of Viking Software German office, Tobii GmbH 2002 2007 Product launch T60, T120 and X120 & Tobii Studio The Tobii History
    • Founded in 2001 with HQ Based in Stockholm, Sweden
    • Offices also in the US (Virginia D.C) , Germany (Frankfurt) and Norway (Bergen)
    • Early focus on real products – simply to use and with high quality…. Which has made
    • Tobii the World Leader in solutions for Eye Tracking and Eye Control today
  • 12. Tobii T/X Series Newly Launched Eye Trackers from Tobii Tobii T120 Tobii X120 Tobii T60
  • 13. Current Market Segments
    • Assistive Technology
    • Eye control for people with disabilities
    • Scientific Research
    • Psychology and Cognitive
    • Vision
    • Neurology
    • Reading
    • Computer interaction
    • Design
    • Commercial Testing
    • User Experience Testing
    • Marketing Research
    • Advertising
    • Consumer Testing
    • Packaging Deisgn etc.
    • Customized Solutions
    • OEM Components
    • Custom hardware development
    • Custom analysis and
    • Eye control application Dev.
  • 14. Eye Tracking is Applicable in many different Areas and Tobii is leading the way and will continue to do so
  • 15. Client List – Academic and Commercial Customers using Tobii
    • Uppsala University, Prof C Hofsten
    • University of Derby, Prof A Gale
    • Clemson University, Prof A Duchowski
    • Oxford University, Prof J Stein
    • Fraunhofer Institute
    • Max Planck Institute Munich
    • Imperial College, Prof G.Z. Yang
    • Rome University, La Sapienza
    • University of Tampere, Prof K-J Räihä
    • Karolinska Institutet, Prof J Ygge
    • Queens University, Prof R Vertegaal
    • Japan Market Research Institute
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    • Singapore University
    • Stanford University
    • New York University
    • Microsoft
    • IBM
    • Symantec
    • Procter & Gamble
    • Unilever
    • AOL
    • Google
    • Yahoo!
    • Nestlé
    • GfK
    • Infosys
    • Sprint
    • Mediascore
    • Psyma Online Research
    • Eye Square
    • TNO Human Factors
    • ... and many many more ...
  • 16. Underlying Technology Corneal reflection system, basic operating principles
    • Tobii eye trackers use near infrared diodes to generate reflection patterns on the corneas of the eyes of the user.
    • These reflection patterns, together with other visual information about the person, are collected by image sensors.
    • Together with very sophisticated image analysis and mathematics a gaze point on the screen can be calculated, i.e. where the user is looking
    Pupil Corneal reflection
  • 17. Tobii T/X Series
    • Why Eye Tracking?
    • What can we learn from eye tracking?
    • Eye Tracking Metrics
    • How and in which areas is Tobii Eye Tracking used today
    • How can it be applied for Advertising
    • A type of Demo
    • Tobii ForSight – a Pay-per-use Concept
    • The Products etc.more in detail if we have time
  • 18. Tobii T/X Series
    • History & Introduction of the Tobii Technology Company
    • Underlying Technology – How Tobii’s Eye Tracking Works
  • 19. Eye Tracking Metrics
    • First fixation
    • Most fixations
    • Gaze time
    • Fixation order
    • Movement between fixations (saccade)
  • 20. First fixation
  • 21. Fixations and saccades
  • 22. Fixation order
  • 23. Time to first fixation
  • 24. Most fixations
  • 25. Gaze Time
  • 26. Psychology Research
    • Psychology and physiological experiments, such as:
      • Studies of autism, ADHD, schizophrenia
      • General psychological response studies
      • Infant research
      • Reading studies
      • Studies of ocular-motor behavior and vision deficiencies
    Autism prediction Left: normal Right: autistic
  • 27. User experience and usability testing
    • Usability and HCI research on
      • Web pages
      • Software
      • Handheld devices
      • Physical products
      • Interactive TV
      • Computer games
  • 28. A typical example of a Gaze Replay from a Web Study
  • 29. Market Research
    • Advertising Design Testing on a variety of media:
      • TV commercials
      • Print advertising
      • In street advertising
      • Web advertising
      • Packaging
      • Product placement
      • Etc…
  • 30. Simulated Environments for Behavioural Studies
  • 31. So can Eye Tracking then really be applied to Advertising and the Dimension of Advertising effectiveness ?
    • YES - We believe it can and others do to;
    • Print advertisements is affirmed by several studies
    • (e.g., Janiszewski and Warlop; Krugman et al.;
    • Lohse; Pieters et al.; Wedel and Pieters;
    • Rosbergen et al. and many more . . .
    • Awareness => YES !
    • Interest => YES!
    • Retention = YES!
    • Persuasion
    • Motivation
                                                                                                      The AIDA Model
  • 32. Why Eye Tracking matters also for Advertising
    • When asking respondents what they think of an ad you’re asking them to rationally describe their feelings and emotions.
    • It has little to do with what actually drives them.
    • Verbal response is a rather crude way of measuring emotion or motivation
    • “ A picture says more than a thousand word!”
    • A good pre-testing system is based on a model of human response to communication
      • the reception of a stimulus
      • the comprehension of the stimulus
      • the response to the stimulus
    • Eye Tracking can be applied to all three of them!
  • 34. The brain’s hardwiring makes us more primitive than we think…. The three parts of the brain are;
    • Original Brain (Visual)
    • Processing Mode – Gut reaction
    • Processing Level – Subconscious
    • Function – Matches Patters
    • Results – Fight or Flight
    • Limbic System (Emotional)
    • Processing Mode – Behavioral
    • Processing Level – Subconscious
    • Function – Assigns Value
    • Results – Adjusts Actions
    • Neocortex (Rational)
    • Processing Mode – Reflective
    • Processing Level – Concious
    • Function – Gives meaning
    • Results – Provides Reason
    NOTE THAT; 2/3 of stimuli that reach the brain are visual Over 50% of the brain is devoted to processing visuals 80% of learning is visually based
  • 35. Why Eye Tracking matters
    • Emotion drives reason more
    • than reason drives emotion
    • Feelings happen before thought, and at great speed
    • In general a print ad receives less than 2 seconds of attention
    • Recall is emotion based
    • Visual imagery and other non-verbal forms of communication predominate
    • Two-thirds of the stimuli reaching the brain are visual (Zaltman 1996)
    • Over 50% of the brain is devoted to processing visual images (Cleese)
    • As a result, 80% of learning is visually based.
    “ The essential difference between emotion and reason is that emotion leads to action while reason leads to conclusion” Dr. Donald Calne Courtesy of Sensory Logic – from one of Dan Hill’s presentations
  • 36. What can we see from Eye Tracking Data?
    • You might be told what a respondent likes but Eye Tracking reveals exactly what they looked at when they decided to like or dislike your message.
    • How do people view an ad after repetition?
    • How do people view an ad when they have been exposed to the campaign across other media?
  • 37. Measure Facial Expressions and Emotions
    • The research area of facial expressions and emotions has a long history;
    • Already back In 1872 Darwin argued that certain emotional expressions are innate and the same for all people.
    • All researchers today acknowledge a certain link between affective states and facial expression.
    • FACS stands for Facial Action Coding System and is a detailed description for facial behavior and is a scientific, globally applicable method of facial coding which allows researchers to measure how consumers feel their feelings by quantifying facial muscle activity - as explained in Malcom Gladwell’s bestselling Blink . Dan Hill of Sensory Logic codified his finding into FACS
  • 38. Why Facial Coding Works …. Courtesy of Sensory Logic – from one of Dan Hill’s presentations
  • 39. Combining Eye Tracking with Facial Coding can be a very powerful tool! Courtesy of Sensory Logic – from one of Dan Hill’s presentations
  • 40. Tobii Studio Tobii Demo
  • 41. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder Here’s What Eye Tracking can show you
  • 42. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder First we record where and how people look at the Ad or the Commercial
  • 43. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder We can then Replay the way people looked at the Ad in a Gaze Replay
  • 44. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder You can even capture the persons facial expressions and combine it with the Gaze Replay
  • 45. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder Visualize where people looked at the Ad through Gaze Plots
  • 46. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder Visualizing it through Heat Maps
  • 47. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder Visualizing it through Gaze Opacity
  • 48. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder Visualizing it with the Bee Swarm effect Shows where everyone looked at the same time!
  • 49. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder
  • 50. Seeing it through the eyes of the beholder Auto Cluster AOIs Areas of Interests
  • 51. Tobii T/X Series A complete Eye Tracking Offering with a Pay-per-Use Concept
  • 52.
    • Hardware
    • Tobii T60, X120, etc
    • Software
    • Tobii Studio
    Methodologies & tests
    • Service
    • Training/Support
    • Seminars
    Eyetracking Data Collection Handled by Tobii Handled by Tobii ForSight Partners Consultation
  • 53. ForSight: Pay per use
  • 54. Consulting: example – Sensoresearch
    • Teach companies to use eye-tracking to do shelf testing
  • 55. Data collection: Example – RealEyes
    • Provide/sell eye-tracking data through partners
    Eye-tracking data collected in Russell Square , UK
  • 56. Methodologies: example – Sensory Logic
    • Combine eye-tracking with emotional data from facial coding
  • 57. Output from the eye tracker Text Export (left eye) 0 3,418 511,034 0,498 0,876 90 797 3 60 0 3,46 511,788 0,498 0,876 84 789 2 40 0 3,375 512,857 0,499 0,876 74 796 1 20 Validity (L) Pupil (L) Distance (L) CamY (L) CamX (L) GazepointY (L) GazepointX (L) Number Timestamp
  • 58. Tobii T/X Series
    • A New Generation of Eye Trackers from Tobii
    • Tobii T60
    • Tobii T120
    • Tobii X120
    Tobii T/X series
  • 59. Tobii T60 Eye Tracker (New!)
    • Compared to Tobii 1750
      • Twice as much tolerance to head motion
      • Twice as accurate (much improved head movement and drift compensation)
      • Much lower noise
      • Embedded eye tracker server
      • Master/Slave – enables multiple eye trackers to be used together
      • Integrated user camera and speakers
      • New design
    • Advantages
      • Do eye tracking even more non-intrusively
      • Track with more reliability and precision where users are looking
      • Reduce complexity of complete lab solution
  • 60. Tobii T60 Eye Tracker (New!) User camera built-in to screen
  • 61. Tobii T120 Eye Tracker (New!)
    • Similar to Tobii T60 Eye Tracker
    • Twice as fast - 120 hz data rate
    • Runs in both 60 hz and 120 hz mode
    • Slightly smaller tolerance to head motion when in 120 hz mode
    • Slightly more noise in the eye tracking data when in 120 hz mode
  • 62. Tobii X120 Eye Tracker (New!)
    • Same performance as Tobii T120
    • Performs eye tracking relative to (projection screens) and physical scenes
  • 63. Tobii X120 accessories
    • Will be available with different packaged setups
      • Shelf setup
      • Table setup
      • ... and several more coming ...
  • 64. Characteristics overview T60, T120 and X120
  • 65. Tobii Studio
    • A New Software for Eye Tracking Analysis
    Tobii Studio
  • 66. Comes in three (3) different Editions with a lot of nice features……
  • 67. Simple and Basic Workflow – mixing various stimuli in one study
  • 68. Great Replay functions and tools ……
  • 69. Replay tools cont…. Timeline, Event Logging, Segment and Scene Tools and Filters
  • 70. Highly Improved Visualization Tools; Gaze Plots, Heat Maps, Bee Swarm with various Filtering and….
  • 71. Any shape of AOIs with automatic clustering
  • 72. Statistics in Tabel Format or Nice Graphs
  • 73. Remote Viewer over IP
    • Enables you to;
    • Start & stop recordings from another computer
    • View the session, including screen, eye movements, video, sound
  • 74. Tobii Studio THANK YOU for your attention! & Welcome to stand C-16 for a personal Tobii Demo!