Underspecified Scientific Claims in
Nanopublications
Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer
Department of Pathology
Yale Univer...
Introduction
Nanopublications are minimal portions of scientific results in RDF
format.
Nanopublications have been proposed...
Vision: Changing Scholarly Communication
Now
Narrative articles at the center
Future
Nanopublications at the center
Images...
Broadening the Scope
Assertions
• “Classical nanopublications”: Scientific claims in formal notation,
e.g. transmits(mosqui...
Ocean of Nanopublications
Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopubli...
Levels of Formalization
• Informal (only an AIDA sentence)
• Underspecified (formal representation for part of the sentence...
AIDA Sentences
The sentences of our approach should be AIDA:
• Atomic: a sentence describing one thought that cannot be
fu...
But wait a moment...
... isn’t that just “returning back to the Web as it was before RDF,
OWL and Linked Data”? (anonymous...
Linking Scientific Claims
ns1:mosquito
Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes.
ns2:malaria
ns3:transmission
Possible relation...
Nanobrowser:
“Scientific/Social/Distributed/Semantic Wiki”
Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecifi...
Evaluation (ongoing...)
There are a number of issues that need to be evaluated:
• What amount of scientific results that ca...
Thank you for your Attention!
Questions?
Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Clai...
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Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications

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Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications

  1. 1. Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer Department of Pathology Yale University School of Medicine Workshop on Web of Linked Entities (WoLE) at ISWC Boston 11 November 2012
  2. 2. Introduction Nanopublications are minimal portions of scientific results in RDF format. Nanopublications have been proposed to ... ... make it easier to find, connect and curate core scientific statements ... determine the attribution, quality and provenance of scientific statements See http://nanopub.org for more information on nanopublications Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 2 / 12
  3. 3. Vision: Changing Scholarly Communication Now Narrative articles at the center Future Nanopublications at the center Images from Mons et al. The value of data. Nature genetics, 43(4):281–283, 2011 Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 3 / 12
  4. 4. Broadening the Scope Assertions • “Classical nanopublications”: Scientific claims in formal notation, e.g. transmits(mosquito, malaria) • Extension 1: Support for informal and underspecified claims, e.g. “Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes.” • Extension 2: Include non-scientific assertions, e.g. disagrees(tkuhn, “Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes.”) Image from The Open PHACTS Nanopublication Guidelines, V1.81, 2012 Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 4 / 12
  5. 5. Ocean of Nanopublications Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 5 / 12
  6. 6. Levels of Formalization • Informal (only an AIDA sentence) • Underspecified (formal representation for part of the sentence) • Fully formal (formal representation for the complete sentence) Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. ns1:mosquito ns3:transmission ns1:mosquito Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. ns2:malaria ns3:transmission Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 6 / 12
  7. 7. AIDA Sentences The sentences of our approach should be AIDA: • Atomic: a sentence describing one thought that cannot be further broken down (in a practical way) • Independent: a sentence that can stand on its own, without external references like “this effect” or “we” • Declarative: a complete sentence ending with a full stop that could (in theory) be either true or false • Absolute: a sentence describing the core of a claim ignoring the (un)certainty about its truth (no “may” or “probably”) and ignoring how it was discovered (no “evaluation showed that”) Example: “The majority of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder who develop a neurodegenerative disease develop Parkinson disease and Lewy body dementia.” Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 7 / 12
  8. 8. But wait a moment... ... isn’t that just “returning back to the Web as it was before RDF, OWL and Linked Data”? (anonymous reviewer) That is a very good question, and the answer is no. AIDA sentences can be interlinked and related to other entities and become part of the formal Semantic Web. We can be formal on a higher level even if we are forced to be informal on the lower level! Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 8 / 12
  9. 9. Linking Scientific Claims ns1:mosquito Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. ns2:malaria ns3:transmission Possible relations: • [CLAIM] is equivalent to / contradicts / is similar to [CLAIM] • [PERSON] agrees with / disagrees with / challenges [CLAIM] • [STUDY] provides (counter-)evidence for [CLAIM] These relations can be published as nanopublications too! Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 9 / 12
  10. 10. Nanobrowser: “Scientific/Social/Distributed/Semantic Wiki” Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 10 / 12
  11. 11. Evaluation (ongoing...) There are a number of issues that need to be evaluated: • What amount of scientific results that can be represented as AIDA-style nanopublications but not as classical ones? • How easy or hard is it for authors/curators to write AIDA sentences for scientific results? • Can we automatically extract AIDA-style nanopublications from existing articles at a satisfactory level of quality? • Can we automatically cluster similar AIDA sentences? • Do AIDA sentences make it easier to collaborate on scientific results? • ... Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 11 / 12
  12. 12. Thank you for your Attention! Questions? Tobias Kuhn and Michael Krauthammer, Yale University Underspecified Scientific Claims in Nanopublications 12 / 12

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