A Multilingual Semantic Wiki based on
Attempto Controlled English and
Grammatical Framework
Tobias Kuhn
Chair of Sociology...
About This Talk

This talk is mainly based on the following paper:
Kaarel Kaljurand and Tobias Kuhn. A Multilingual Semant...
Imagine ...

... that Wikipedia can check consistency and
answer questions about the contained
knowledge, and
...that all ...
• AceWiki is a semantic wiki
• Articles are written in Attempto Controlled English (ACE)
• These sentences are internally ...
Monolingual AceWiki: Screenshot

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

5 / 31
Attempto Controlled English (ACE)
Subset of natural English:
• Conjunction, disjunction, negation, if-then, ...
• Anaphori...
Predictive Editor

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

7 / 31
Consistency Checking

Consistency of the knowledge base is very important, because it is a
prerequisite for all other reas...
Question Answering

AceWiki supports simple wh-questions:

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

9 / 31
Monolingual AceWiki: Demo

http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki/

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

10 ...
ACE Reasoning via Translation to OWL
Every country that does not border a sea is a landlocked-country.
SubClassOf(
ObjectI...
Expressiveness versus Efficiency
Trade-off: Expressiveness/Complexity ⇔ Decidability/Efficiency
• First-order logic: expressive...
Evaluation
Two small usability experiments with earlier versions of AceWiki:
• Altogether 26 untrained participants
• Task...
Multilingual AceWiki: AceWiki-GF

General ideas:
• Make wiki content available in different languages
• Automatically trans...
Grammatical Framework (GF)

GF is a framework for multilingual grammar engineering:
• Rule-based (i.e. not statistical)
• ...
GF grammars and translations
GF grammars consist of:
• One language-neutral abstract syntax
• Multiple concrete syntaxes t...
Multilingual AceWiki: Screenshot

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

17 / 31
GF Resource Grammar Library (RGL)
• Morphology and syntax for ∼30 languages via language-neutral

API
• Developers do not ...
Implementation of AceWiki-GF
Integration of ACE with GF (ACE-in-GF):
• Implemented a multilingual grammar of ACE in the GF...
Multilingual AceWiki: Demo

http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki-gf/

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki
...
ACE-in-GF
An ACE grammar implemented in GF adds multiple natural languages
as front-ends to ACE. As a result, these langua...
ACE-in-GF: Example
German: Jedes Land, das nicht an ein Meer grenzt, ist ein
Binnenland.
ACE-in-GF tree:
baseText (sText (...
ACE-in-GF: Implementation
Implementation of the ACE syntax:
• Extension of Angelov and Ranta (CNL 2009)
• Focus on the sub...
Ambiguity Resolution

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

24 / 31
Evaluation of ACE-in-GF
Design
• Generated ∼100 ACE sentences/questions and automatically
translated them to all the langu...
Evaluation of ACE-in-GF: Results

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

26 / 31
Evaluation of AceWiki-GF
Hypothesis: A group of users reaches almost the same level of agreement
on the content of an arti...
Evaluation of AceWiki-GF: Results
• 30 participants spent on average 37 minutes using AceWiki-GF,

creating in total 316 s...
Evaluation of AceWiki-GF: Feedback
Questionnaire for the participants contained these questions:
1

Was AceWiki Geography ...
Links
ACE parser (APE) source code: https://github.com/Attempto/APE
ACE-in-GF source code: http://github.com/Attempto/ACE-...
Thank you for your Attention!

Questions?

Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich

A Multilingual Semantic Wiki

31 / 31
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A Multilingual Semantic Wiki based on Attempto Controlled English and Grammatical Framework

  1. 1. A Multilingual Semantic Wiki based on Attempto Controlled English and Grammatical Framework Tobias Kuhn Chair of Sociology, in particular of Modeling and Simulation, ETH Zurich, Switzerland UNISA, Pretoria (South Africa) 5 June 2013
  2. 2. About This Talk This talk is mainly based on the following paper: Kaarel Kaljurand and Tobias Kuhn. A Multilingual Semantic Wiki Based on Attempto Controlled English and Grammatical Framework. In Proceedings of the 10th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC). 2013. It can be downloaded here: http://purl.org/tkuhn/eswc2013acewikigf Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 2 / 31
  3. 3. Imagine ... ... that Wikipedia can check consistency and answer questions about the contained knowledge, and ...that all content is instantly available in all languages! Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 3 / 31
  4. 4. • AceWiki is a semantic wiki • Articles are written in Attempto Controlled English (ACE) • These sentences are internally translated into the Semantic Web language OWL • An OWL reasoner is built in to answer questions and detect inconsistencies • Special editor for writing ACE statements • Has been extended to support multilinguality Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 4 / 31
  5. 5. Monolingual AceWiki: Screenshot Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 5 / 31
  6. 6. Attempto Controlled English (ACE) Subset of natural English: • Conjunction, disjunction, negation, if-then, ... • Anaphoric references: pronouns, definite noun phrases, variables • Quantifiers: every, no, at least 3, ... • Content words: proper names, nouns, verbs, adjectives, ... Grammar is fixed, but users can change content words. Deterministic ambiguity handling: • Anaphora resolution (France borders Spain and it borders Portugal.) • Quantifier scope (Every country borders a country.) • Attachment (Every EU-country borders a country that is a EU-country and is a NATO-country.) Well-defined translations to and from first-order logic, OWL, ... Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 6 / 31
  7. 7. Predictive Editor Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 7 / 31
  8. 8. Consistency Checking Consistency of the knowledge base is very important, because it is a prerequisite for all other reasoning tasks. AceWiki ensures consistency by checking every new statement: Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 8 / 31
  9. 9. Question Answering AceWiki supports simple wh-questions: Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 9 / 31
  10. 10. Monolingual AceWiki: Demo http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki/ Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 10 / 31
  11. 11. ACE Reasoning via Translation to OWL Every country that does not border a sea is a landlocked-country. SubClassOf( ObjectIntersectionOf( :country ObjectComplementOf( ObjectSomeValuesFrom( :border :sea ) ) ) :landlocked-country ) Which country is a landlocked-country? ObjectIntersectionOf( :country :landlocked-country ) Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 11 / 31
  12. 12. Expressiveness versus Efficiency Trade-off: Expressiveness/Complexity ⇔ Decidability/Efficiency • First-order logic: expressive, undecidable, very inefficient • Description Logics, OWL: less expressive, decidable, inefficient • OWL Profiles: even less expressive, decidable, efficient AceWiki can use full OWL or an OWL profile for reasoning. Sentences that are more complex get a red triangle and are ignored for reasoning: Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 12 / 31
  13. 13. Evaluation Two small usability experiments with earlier versions of AceWiki: • Altogether 26 untrained participants • Task: Collaborative creation of a knowledge base Results: • 78%-81% of the sentences were correct and sensible • 61%-70% of them were complex (containing negations, implications, disjunctions or number restrictions) • Creation of a correct sentence every 5–6 minutes • Definition of a new word every 5–7 minutes → Even untrained users can effectively use AceWiki Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 13 / 31
  14. 14. Multilingual AceWiki: AceWiki-GF General ideas: • Make wiki content available in different languages • Automatically translated content using rule-based machine translation: Grammatical Framework (GF) • Language switching like in Wikipedia • Localization of the user interface Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 14 / 31
  15. 15. Grammatical Framework (GF) GF is a framework for multilingual grammar engineering: • Rule-based (i.e. not statistical) • Functional programming language optimized to handle natural language • Resource Grammar Library implementing common morphological and syntactic structures • Mildly context sensitive • Bidirectional translations: concrete language ⇔ abstract syntax Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 15 / 31
  16. 16. GF grammars and translations GF grammars consist of: • One language-neutral abstract syntax • Multiple concrete syntaxes that implement the given abstract categories, specifying words, word order, agreement, etc. Example border : Country -> Country -> Relation English: border x y = x!Nom + "borders" + y!Nom Estonian: border x y = x!Gen + "naaber on" + y!Nom GF translations consist of: • First, parse a string in the original language to a tree (or trees) in the abstract syntax • Then, linearize these trees as strings in the target language Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 16 / 31
  17. 17. Multilingual AceWiki: Screenshot Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 17 / 31
  18. 18. GF Resource Grammar Library (RGL) • Morphology and syntax for ∼30 languages via language-neutral API • Developers do not need detailed knowledge of the languages that they want to support in their application Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 18 / 31
  19. 19. Implementation of AceWiki-GF Integration of ACE with GF (ACE-in-GF): • Implemented a multilingual grammar of ACE in the GF framework • Covered the languages supported by the GF resource grammar • Not fine-tuned to any particular language (apart from ACE) Integration of AceWiki with GF (AceWiki-GF): • Implemented connection to GF tools (GF Webservice / Cloud Service) • Added support for the management of multilinguality, ambiguity, grammar Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 19 / 31
  20. 20. Multilingual AceWiki: Demo http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki-gf/ Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 20 / 31
  21. 21. ACE-in-GF An ACE grammar implemented in GF adds multiple natural languages as front-ends to ACE. As a result, these languages can be mapped to and from various formal languages already supported by ACE. Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 21 / 31
  22. 22. ACE-in-GF: Example German: Jedes Land, das nicht an ein Meer grenzt, ist ein Binnenland. ACE-in-GF tree: baseText (sText (s (vpS (everyNP (relCN (cn_as_VarCN country_CN) (neg_predRS which_RP (v2VP border_V2 (thereNP_as_NP (aNP (cn_as_VarCN sea_CN))))))) (npVP (thereNP_as_NP (aNP (cn_as_VarCN landlocked_country_CN))))))) ACE: Every country that does not border a sea is a landlocked-country. OWL: SubClassOf( ObjectIntersectionOf( :country ObjectComplementOf( ObjectSomeValuesFrom( :border :sea ) ) ) :landlocked-country ) Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 22 / 31
  23. 23. ACE-in-GF: Implementation Implementation of the ACE syntax: • Extension of Angelov and Ranta (CNL 2009) • Focus on the subset of ACE that can be mapped to OWL • Almost 100% coverage at almost 0% ambiguity Support most RGL languages: • Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Latvian, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Urdu • RGL-based design provides automatic increase in quality and language-coverage over time Status • Some precision problems, e.g. with anaphoric references • Ambiguity and coverage problems in some languages Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 23 / 31
  24. 24. Ambiguity Resolution Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 24 / 31
  25. 25. Evaluation of ACE-in-GF Design • Generated ∼100 ACE sentences/questions and automatically translated them to all the languages • Full coverage of all the grammar functions • Large coverage of OWL axiom structures (subclass, range, domain, transitivity, ...) • Measured translation accuracy from ACE to other languages • Used Google Translate as the baseline • 20 human evaluators (2 per language) as the gold standard Results • Participants preferred ACE-in-GF translations to Google translations and post-edited them less • Many edits were stylistic Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 25 / 31
  26. 26. Evaluation of ACE-in-GF: Results Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 26 / 31
  27. 27. Evaluation of AceWiki-GF Hypothesis: A group of users reaches almost the same level of agreement on the content of an article presented to them in different languages as when the article is presented to all of them in the same language. Design • Based on a 500-word lexicon on European geography in three languages: English, German and Spanish • 30 participants accessed AceWiki-GF and wrote sentences in their language (10 participants for each language) • They had to enter true and false sentences and tag them as such • In a post-editing task, each participant checked the output of two other participants: one translated from another language and one written in the same language (true/false tags were removed and sentences shuffled) Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 27 / 31
  28. 28. Evaluation of AceWiki-GF: Results • 30 participants spent on average 37 minutes using AceWiki-GF, creating in total 316 sentences • Definition of agreement level: (Tk + Fd )/S S is the total number of sentences, Tk the number of sentences marked as true and kept, and Fd the ones marked as false and deleted • Agreement level with and without translation: 84.0% and 82.2% (difference is not significant) • Assumption: translation introduces a constant translation error rate r that has the effect that the agreement level is (1 − r ) × a instead of a • New hypothesis: The translation error rate is less than 5%. • p-value with one-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test: 0.046 • With AceWiki-GF, translation error rate is less than 5%! Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 28 / 31
  29. 29. Evaluation of AceWiki-GF: Feedback Questionnaire for the participants contained these questions: 1 Was AceWiki Geography easy or difficult to use in general? 2 Was the sentence editor easy or difficult to use? 3 Was creating true and false statements easy or difficult to perform? Possible answers: “very difficult” (0), “difficult” (1), “medium” (2), “easy” (3), and “very easy” (4) Results: 1 Average: 2.93 (∼“easy”) 2 Average: 2.77 (∼“easy”) 3 Average: 2.70 (∼“easy”) Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 29 / 31
  30. 30. Links ACE parser (APE) source code: https://github.com/Attempto/APE ACE-in-GF source code: http://github.com/Attempto/ACE-in-GF AceWiki and AceWikiGF • Source code: http://github.com/AceWiki/AceWiki • Demos (non-GF): http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki/ • Demos (GF): http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki-gf/ MOLTO project web site: http://www.molto-project.eu Attempto project web site: http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch Grammatical Framework project • Web site: http://www.grammaticalframework.org • GF Summer School, August 2013 in Germany: http://school.grammaticalframework.org/2013/ Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 30 / 31
  31. 31. Thank you for your Attention! Questions? Tobias Kuhn, ETH Zurich A Multilingual Semantic Wiki 31 / 31

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