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### 105996292 electrical-control-automation-studio

1. 1. Electrical Control Workshop User’s Guide
2. 2.  FAMIC Technologies 2000 Inc. All rights reserved. User’s Guide for the Automation Studio, Electrical Control workshop. Document Number: FT-DOC-85103, version 3.0 REPRODUCTION Reproduction of this manual or software, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited without the express written consent of FAMICTechnologies 2000 Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of IBM Corp. WINDOWS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. PNEUSIM is a registered trademark of FAMIC Inc. AUTOMATION STUDIO is a registered trademark of FAMIC Technologies 2000 Inc.
3. 3. i Table of Contents Introduction.......................................................................................................................3 About the Electrical Control workshop ....................................................................4 1 Building a First Electrical Control circuit ...........................................................5 1.1 Inserting Components....................................................................................7 1.2 Inserting Links between Components..........................................................11 1.3 Saving the Project........................................................................................12 1.4 Electrical Control circuit Simulation ...........................................................14 2 Component Properties .........................................................................................19 2.1 Electrical Control workshop List of Components........................................19 2.2 Definition of Properties for Electrical Control Components .......................20 3 Electrical Control Exercises ................................................................................25 3.1 Exercise 1 - Circuit with Coils.....................................................................26 3.2 Exercise 2 - Jog Command Control Circuit for a Single-phase Motor...........................................................................................................31 3.3 Exercise 3 - Stop and go Control Circuit for Single-phase Motors..............33 4 Multi-Workshop Exercises ..................................................................................39 4.1 Exercise 1 - Simple Electropneumatic Circuit.............................................39 4.2 Exercise 2 - Control Circuit of a Drill Press................................................45 4.3 Exercise 3 - Control Circuit of a Metering System......................................51 4.4 Exercise 4 - Control Circuit of a Stamping System .....................................59 A. Technical Specifications.......................................................................................67 A.1 Lines ............................................................................................................67 A.2 Power Sources .............................................................................................71 A.3 Output Components.....................................................................................81 A.4 Contacts.......................................................................................................90
4. 4. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide ii A.5 Switches...................................................................................................... 95 A.6 Counters.................................................................................................... 103 B. Glossary.............................................................................................................. 107 C. Index ................................................................................................................... 113
5. 5. 3 Introduction This Electrical Control workshop User's Guide provides the information required to install and use this workshop with the Automation Studio Core System. This includes technical specifications for components, procedures for defining properties, the building and simulation of a circuit and examples of Electrical Control applications. Automation Studio is a modular simulation software package composed of a Core System to which various simulation modules can be plugged in. Each module, called a workshop, is a library from which you can draw components to create different types of circuits - hydraulic, pneumatic, digital electronic etc. either alone or combined together. The Core System handles the following functions: editing, simulation, file and diagram management, printing and display.
6. 6. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 4 About the Electrical Control workshop The Electrical Control workshop is an optional module of the Automation Studio application. This workshop allows you to create Electrical Controls or add Electrical Control components to circuits you designed using other workshops (Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Digital Electronics or other workshops). The Electrical Control library contains components classified in different categories: The symbols used comply with two standards: • American symbols; • European symbols. When this workshop is installed, both symbol libraries are added to the library. They are identified as Electrical Control (US) and Electrical Control (Europe). Appendix A on page 67 contains the technical specifications of all the components included with the Electrical Control workshop.
7. 7. 5 1 Building a First Electrical Control circuit This exercise will familiarize you with the software commands. You will create an Electrical Control circuit by following a step by step method.
8. 8. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 6 Description of the circuit to build L1 N Control circuit NL1 Functional portion of circuit L1C N BP-1 BP-1 B1 B1 L1 Led MOT1 B1 This circuit allows you to control a single-phase motor. When you activate push button BP-1, it closes toggle switch BP-1 that in turn activates coil B1. Two NO contacts are associated to this coil. The first contact closes the supply circuit of single-phase motor MOT1; the second contact closes the circuit with the LED that indicates the status of the motor. List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagname 1 NO push button BP-1 1 NO toggle switch BP-1 1 Coil B1 2 NO Contact B1 1 Indicator light (LED type) L1 1 Single-phase motor (Power: 500 W, Rotation speed: 1800 turns/min.) MOT1
9. 9. Building a First Electrical Control Circuit 7 Qty Component Identifier Tagname 2 L1 power supply (Voltage: 24 V) L1C, L1P 2 Neutral N File ELEC00.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application. 1.1 Inserting Components Follow these steps to construct this circuit: 1. Start the software. 2. Create a new project. 3. Create a new diagram. 4. Maximize the diagram window. Power Supply - L1C 1. Open the library. 2. From the library’s toolbar, click on the Electrical Control (US) or (Europe) workshop button. or Double-click on the Electrical Control (US) or Electrical Control (Europe) workshop labels. 3. Click on the Power Sources category and on the Power Supply L1. The Power Supply L1 appears at the bottom of the library.
10. 10. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 8 Figure 1-1 : L1 power supply US symbol 3. Click on the diagram to insert the power supply. 4. In order to display its Properties dialog box, choose the Properties command from the Edit menu. or Click on the Properties button on the Edit toolbar. or Double-click on the component. or Press ALT+ENTER. The Properties dialog box for the power supply appears.
11. 11. Building a First Electrical Control Circuit 9 5. Click on the Catalog tab. 6. In the Identifier field, type in L1C. 7. Click on OK. Power Supply – L1P 1. Select the power supply L1. 2. Choose the Copy command, then choose the Paste command from the Edit menu. or Click on the Copy, then the Paste buttons on the Edit toolbar. or Type CTRL+R to re-insert the last component. A second power supply appears. 3. Display its dialog box and type L1P in the Item Identifier field of the Catalog tab. 4. Click on OK. Pushbutton – BP-1 1. From the Switches category, select and insert the Pushbutton NO.. Figure 1-2 : NO push button US symbol 2. Open its Properties dialog box. 3. In the Tagname field of the Simulation tab, type in BP-1. 4. Click on OK. NO Toggle Switch – BP-1 1. From the Switches category, select and insert the Toggle Switch NO.1.
12. 12. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 10 Figure 1-3 : NO toggle switch US symbol 2. Open its Properties dialog box 3. In the Tagname field of the Simulation tab, type in BP-1. or Select BP-1 from the dropdown list. 4. Click on OK. Two components that have the same tagname will have the same behavior. If one of them changes state, the other will change state too. See chapter 2 Component Properties on page 19 for more information. NO Contact – B1 1. In the Contacts category, select and insert Contact NO. Figure.1-4 : NO contact US symbol 2. Open its Properties dialog box. 3. In the Tagname field of the Simulation tab, type in B1. 4. Click on OK. Duplicating Contact – B1 The Duplicate command allows you to copy an element without having to use the Clipboard. 1. Select previously inserted contact B1 by placing the mouse pointer on it and clicking on the left mouse button. 2. Choose the Duplicate command from the Edit menu. 3. Insert the duplicated contact by clicking on the diagram.. 4. Select the newly inserted B1 contact.
14. 14. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 12 5. Click and release the left mouse button. The link is now established-B1. 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4 for each of the remaining connections. 6. To stop linking components, click the right button of the mouse. The mouse pointer reverts to its original shape. Verify Connections At all times, you can verify the links to see if the connections are made correctly. For any given diagram, the Verify Connections command from the Tools menu will give you the number of free connections for lines and components. If components are not properly connected, they will be displayed with a different color from the others, allowing you to easily identify them. (For more details, see section Inserting Links in the Core System User’s Guide.) 1.3 Saving the Project 1. Choose the Save command from the File menu. The first time you save a project, the Save as dialog box appears.
15. 15. Building a First Electrical Control Circuit 13 Figure 1-5 : Save As dialog box 2. Select the drive and directory you want the project to be saved in by choosing them in the Drives and Directories fields. The path you choose is displayed above the lists. 3. In the File Name field, type the name of the project in front of the default .PRO extension. Automation Studio generates files with the .PRO extension. 4. Click on OK. The complete path and the name of the file identify the project.
16. 16. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 14 1.4 Electrical Control circuit Simulation 1.4.1 Project Simulation To simulate your first project: 1. Choose the Start Project command from the Simulation menu or Click on the Simulate button on the Simulation toolbar. The Simulation mode is activated. The elements of the diagrams will take on the simulation colors. (You can find a list of the simulation colors assigned by default to Electrical Control components, see section 1.4.3 Display Colors of Components and Links on page 16.) 2. To activate the circuit, point and click on push button BP-1 of the control portion of the circuit. To observe the simulation process for each computation cycle: 3. Choose the Step by Step command from the Simulation menu. A check next to the command indicates that this speed is now in effect. or Click on the Step by Step button on the Simulation toolbar. The simulation will advance a step at a time (one cycle) at each click of the left mouse button. At each cycle, a computation is done to determine the new status of the components. 4. Click on push button BP-1 and release the mouse button. The first computation cycle is done. 5. Move the pointer anywhere on the diagram and click again to perform the second cycle of computation, and the third etc.
17. 17. Building a First Electrical Control Circuit 15 1.4.2 User Modifications When simulating an Electrical Control circuit, you may modify the status of a component by activating it with the mouse. You can activate the following Electrical Control components: • NO and NC toggle switches; • NO and NC push buttons. To activate these components when in the Simulation mode: 1. Place the pointer on the component. The pointer takes the shape of a hand. The hand indicates that you may intervene during simulation. Figure 1-6 : Example demonstrating the position of the pointer when activating a push button 2. Click on the component as indicated in part 1 of the above figure. The Simulation mode will allow the component to respond to the cursor action as indicated in part 2 of the above figure. Depending on which component is activated, you may have to hold down the mouse button on the command if you wish to maintain the status of the component. 3. Release the mouse button and the component will regain its initial status as in part 1.
18. 18. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 16 Description of the Control Portion When push button BP-1 is activated, toggle switch BP-1 closes and coil B1 is activated. When coil B1 is activated, it closes NO contact B1 that supplies indicator light L1 that then lights up. Description of the Functional Portion When push button BP-1 of the control portion of the circuit is activated, toggle switch BP-1 closes and coil B1 is activated. When coil B1 is activated, it closes both NO contact B1, the one in the control portion and the one in the functional portion. Since contact B1 of the functional portion is closed, the single-phase motor is supplied by L1P and starts running. 1.4.3 Display Colors of Components and Links The color changes that components and links undergo during simulation will allow you to identify changes in their status, and animate the simulation. To modify the colors or the configuration parameters of the software: 1. Choose the Configuration command from the File menu. The Configuration dialog box appears. 2. Choose the Electrical Control (US) tab. The Electrical Control (US) tab from the Configuration dialog box appears.
19. 19. Building a First Electrical Control Circuit 17 Figure 1-7 : Electrical Control (US) tab from the Configuration dialog box 3. Modify, according to your preferences, the simulation colors offered in the Electrical Control (US) tab of the Configuration dialog box. Automation Studio immediately modifies the configuration parameters according to your specifications with the exception of the selected Language of the General tab. This modification will be enabled the next time you start Automation Studio.
20. 20. 19 2 Component Properties This chapter covers the following sections: • the Electrical Control workshop list of components; • the simulation parameters for Electrical Control components; • the dialog boxes allowing the modifications of properties for Electrical Control components. 2.1 Electrical Control workshop List of Components The Diagram Editor contains a Library window that groups all the components of active workshops from the Automation Studio software. An active workshop is an installed workshop appearing in the Diagram Editor Library. (For more information on installing or uninstalling a workshop, see the Core System User’s Guide.) American and European Symbols The Electrical Control library contains component categories based on two different symbol libraries: • American symbols (Electrical Control (US)); • European symbols (Electrical Control (Europe)). These two library groups contain exactly the same components, distributed in the same categories, with the same names and properties. Only the symbols used in the diagrams differ.
21. 21. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 20 List of Components Appendix A on page 67 contains all the technical specifications for the components, their symbols (US and European), and the definition of their properties and complementary information. 2.2 Definition of Properties for Electrical Control Components When inserting an Electrical Control component in a diagram, the dialog box for properties usually appears automatically. If it is not the case, you may access the Properties dialog box by double clicking on the component pressing ALT+ENTER The following sections describe each of the dialog boxes. Appendix A on page 67 contains technical specifications explaining the different properties for each of the components. 2.2.1 Standard Dialog Box The Standard dialog box is the most frequently used dialog box for Electrical Control components. The following figure shows a standard dialog box. The Title bar display the name of the selected components.
22. 22. Component Properties 21 Figure 2-1 : Standard dialog box This button allows you to access the External tools list and to execute any of those tools. See the Core system User’s Guide for more information. This button is only activated when the Catalog tab is selected. It allows you to add user-defined fields to a component. This is useful when creating a bill of materials. Some components allow you to enter the same tagname to two or more components in order to bind their behavior. To do so, you can select that particular tagname in the Tagname list. This is the case for the following components: • Coil; • Contacts; • Solenoid; • Jump-to label (input); • Jump-to label (output).
23. 23. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 22 The Suffix field allows a subscript to be added to the Tagname to better differentiate between two jump-to labels. You can add a suffix to the tagname of a component. For example, if you type in –1 as a suffix for coil U2, its complete tagname will become U2-1. Example COIL1 COIL1-1 COIL1-2 Figure 2-2 : Labeling coils and contacts The above figure contains a coil (COIL 1), a NO contact (COIL 1-1) and a NC contact (COIL 1-2). When the coil was inserted in the diagram, tagname COIL 1 was given to the coil. When the coil is activated, it has to activate two contacts, one NO and one NC contact. For the coil to be able to do this task, both contacts need to have the same tagname as the coil, (COIL 1). The Suffix field allows you to add a subscript to the tagname to better differentiate the two contacts (-1 and –2 in this example). To label components with the Tagname and Suffix, follow this procedure: 1. In the Output Components category of the Electrical Control (US) workshop, click on Coil. 2. In the diagram, drag the component to the position where you wish to insert the coil and click. The Properties dialog box for the coil appears. 3. In the Tagname field, type in COIL 1. 4. Click on OK. The tagname is displayed in the diagram. 5. In the Contacts category, click on Contact NO.
24. 24. Component Properties 23 6. In the diagram, drag the component to the position where you wish to insert the contact and click. The Properties dialog box for the contact appears. 7. Click on the arrow on the right of the Tagname field. A scroll list will open showing the coil tagnames already in place. 8. In the list, click on COIL 1. The selected tagname appears in the Tagname field. 9. In the Suffix field, type in –1. 10. Click on OK. The tagname and the suffix appear in the diagram near the contact. 11. For other contacts associated with coil COIL 1, repeat steps 6 to 11 by modifying the suffix according to your numbering system. The insertion order of contacts and the coil can be inverted. The following figure gives an example of a Standard dialog box for a component that has other parameter than Tagname simulation parameter. The Title bars display the name of the selected components. Figure 2-3: Standard dialog box with other fields
25. 25. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 24 2.2.2 Specialized Dialog Boxes Electric Wire Dialog Box Figure 2-4 : Electric Wire dialog box The Color field of this dialog box allows the modification of the color of the component during simulation. The Style and Width fields modify the lines according to your selection. To modify these properties, click on the arrows on the right of the fields and click on the chosen option.
26. 26. 25 3 Electrical Control Exercises This chapter contains various exercises allowing you to edit and simulate Electrical Control circuits. This chapter contains the following three exercises: 1. A circuits with coils. 2. A jog command control circuit for a single-phase motor. 3. A stop and go control circuit for single-phase motors.
27. 27. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 26 3.1 Exercise 1 - Circuit with Coils These three examples will familiarize you with how a coil, a coil latch and a coil unlatch work. Three simple Electrical Control circuits are proposed: 1 – Circuit with a coil This first example illustrates the use of a coil in a simple Electrical Control circuit. It also gives a better understanding an electrical relays functioning. NL1 B1 L1 LED B1BP-1 BP-1 NL1C List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 1 NO push button BP-1 1 NO switch BP-1 1 Coil B1 1 NO contact B1 1 Indicator light (Type : LED) L1 1 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C
28. 28. Electrical Control Exercises 27 Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 1 Neutral N With the components from the Electrical Control library, build the illustrated circuit. Once the circuit is completed, you can go to the Simulation mode to verify that it works correctly. Push button BP-1 is associated with the switch having the same tagname. Furthermore, coil B1 is associated with the contact having the same tagname. When push button BP-1 is pushed, switch BP-1 closes which allows the activation of coil B1. NO contact B1, which is associated to coil B1 closes, which allows the activation of indicator light L1. Indicator light L1 stays lit as long as push button BP-1 is held down. Once push button BP-1 is released, coil B1 is no longer activated since switch BP-1 opens. Consequently, contact B1 also opens and the indicator light, which is no longer activated closes. File ELEC02A.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC.
29. 29. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 28 2 – Circuit with a coil latch This second example allows you to create an Electrical Control circuit that shows how a coil latch works. This example is identical to the previous example except for the type of coil used. NL1 B1 L1 BP-1 BP-1 NL1C B1 List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 1 NO push button BP-1 1 NO switch BP-1 1 Coil latch B1 1 NO contact B1 1 Indicator light (Type : LED) L1 1 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C 1 Neutral N
30. 30. Electrical Control Exercises 29 With the components from the Electrical Control library, build the illustrated circuit. Once the circuit is completed, you can go to the Simulation mode to verify that it works correctly. Activating push button BP-1 closes the switch having the same tagname. This activates coil latch B1 which closes contact B1. Since the indicator light L1 is now activated, it lights up. Releasing push button BP-1 opens the associated switch (same tagname). The coil latch is no longer activated but NO contact B1 stays closed and the indicator light L1 stays lit. File ELEC02B.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application. 3 – Circuit with a coil latch and a coil unlatch This third example allows you to create an Electrical Control circuit with a coil latch and a coil unlatch that both control the indicator light L1. NL1 BP-2 BP-2 B1 B1 L1 BP-1 BP-1 NL1C B1
31. 31. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 30 List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 2 NO push button BP-1 and BP-2 2 NO switch BP-1 and BP-2 1 Coil latch B1 1 Coil unlatch B1 1 NO contact B1 1 Indicator light (Type : LED) L1 1 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C 1 Neutral N With the components from the Electrical Control library, build the illustrated circuit. Once the circuit is completed, you can go to the Simulation mode to verify that it works correctly. As in the preceding example, activating push button BP-1 lights up indicator light L1. It stays lit even after push button BP-1 has been released. In this circuit, push button BP-2 allows the closing of the indicator light. Activating push button BP-2 closes its associated switch (with the same tagname). Coil unlatch B1 is then activated and opens NO contact B1. Since the indicator light L1 is no longer activated, it closes. File ELEC02C.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application.
32. 32. Electrical Control Exercises 31 3.2 Exercise 2 - Jog Command Control Circuit for a Single-phase Motor This exercise allows you to create an Electrical Control circuit with a jog command control for a single-phase motor. This command is used to make a motor turn step by step so that it is possible to precisely set the position of an element. For example, this command is used to set the position of a machine tool carriage. This command allows the start-up and stop of a motor with a simple push button activation. Furthermore, this circuit has an automatic control that gives an alternative to the use of activated and deactivated coils to start and stop a motor. L1 L1 N N BP-1 BP-2 BP-3 F1 10 Amp. L1C L1P N N BP-2BP-1 BP-3 M CTR CTR/1 CTR/2 MOT M List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 3 NO push button BP-1, BP-2 and BP-3 1 NC switch BP-1 2 NO switch BP-2 and BP-3 2 Coil M and CTR
33. 33. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 32 Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 1 L1 power supply (120 Volts) L1P 3 NO contact M CTR (Suffix /1) CTR (Suffix /2) 1 Fuse (Max. Intensity 10 A) F1 1 L1 power supply (24 Volts) L1C 2 Neutral N 1 Single-phase motor (Power: 500 W, Rotation speed: 1800 rpm) MOT With the components from the Electrical Control library, build the illustrated circuit. Once the circuit is completed, you can go to the Simulation mode to verify that it works correctly. This circuit allows the activation of single-phase motor (MOT) in automatic or jog command mode. The jog command mode is available when using push button BP-2. In that mode, activating push button BP-2 closes the associated switch (with the same tagname). Coil M is then activated and closes contact M. Single-phase motor MOT is activated and starts running. Releasing push button BP-2 opens the associated switch. Coil M is no longer activated which opens contact M. Motor M is no longer activated, so it stops running. Activating push button BP-3 closes the associated switch. Coil CTR is
34. 34. Electrical Control Exercises 33 activated so it closes contacts CTR/1 and CTR/2. Contact CTR/1 activates coil M which then closes contact M. The motor is then activated and starts turning. Contact CTR/2 controls coil CTR, so this coil stays activated even if push button BP-3 is released. The only way to stop the motor is by using push button BP-1. Switch BP-1, by opening, opens the circuit deactivating coil CTR. Contacts CTR/1 and CTR/2 will then open. Coil M is no longer activated which opens contact M and the motor stops turning. File ELEC03.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application. 3.3 Exercise 3 - Stop and go Control Circuit for Single-phase Motors This third exercise has two circuits that allow the control of the start and stop of two single-phase motors, in sequence. This type of control circuit can be used in the installation of a conveyer bank. 1 – Start Circuit This first example shows how to start two single-phase motors, MOT1 and MOT2, in sequence. The delay between the two starts is set with a contact with off delay.
35. 35. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 34 L1 N N NL1 L1 L1C N N NL1P L1P BP-1 BP-2 BP-2BP-1 M1-1 M1-2 M2 TR M1 TR M2 MOT1 MOT2 F1 10 Amp. F2 10 Amp. List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 2 NO push button BP-1 and BP-2 1 NC switch BP-1 1 NO switch BP-2 3 Coil M1, M2 and TR 3 NO contact M1 (Suffix – 1) M1 (Suffix – 2) M2 1 NO contact with off delay (Preset: 10 cycles) TR 2 Single-phase motor (Power: 500 W, Rotation speed: 3600 rpm) MOT1 and MOT2 1 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C
36. 36. Electrical Control Exercises 35 Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 2 Fuse (Max. Intensity 10 A) F1, F2 2 L1 power supply (120 V) L1P 3 Neutral N With the components from the Electrical Control library, build the illustrated circuit. Once the circuit is completed, you can go to the Simulation mode to verify that it works correctly. Activating push button BP-2 closes the associated switch (with the same tagname). Coils M1 and TR are then activated and close contacts M1-1, M1-2 and TR. Contact M1-1 allows the activation of the coils even if push button BP-2 is deactivated. Contact M1-2 allows the activation of motor MOT1, which will then start running. Contact TR is a contact with off delay, so it closes 10 simulation cycles after coil TR has been activated. Once closed, it allows the activation of coil M2 which closes contact M2. Motor MOT2 is activated and starts running. Stopping both motors is done simultaneously. It is done by activating push button BP-1 that opens the associated switch. Coils M1 and TR are no longer activated and contacts M1-1, M1-2, M2 and TR open which causes motors MOT1 and MOT2 to stop. File ELEC04A.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application.
37. 37. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 36 2 – Stop Circuit This second example shows how to stop two single-phase motors, MOT1 and MOT2, in sequence. The delay between the two shut off is set with a contact with on delay (this contact is the only different component between this circuit and the preceding one). L1L1 NN NL1 F2 10 Amp. F1 10 Amp. MOT2MOT1 M2 TR M1 M2M1-2 M1-1 BP-1 BP-2 BP-2BP-1 L1PL1P NN NL1C TR List of components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 2 NO push button BP-1 and BP-2 1 NC switch BP-1 1 NO switch BP-2 3 Coil M1, M2 and TR 3 NO contact M1 (Suffix –1) M1 (Suffix –2) M2 1 NO contact with on delay (Preset: 10 cycles) TR
38. 38. Electrical Control Exercises 37 Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 2 Single-phase motor (Power: 500 W, Rotation speed: 3600 rpm) MOT1 and MOT2 2 Fuse (Max. Intensity 10 A) F1, F2 1 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C 2 L1 power supply (120 V) L1P 3 Neutral N With the components from the Electrical Control library, build the illustrated circuit. Once the circuit is completed, you can go to the Simulation mode to verify that it works correctly. Activating push button BP-2 closes the associated switch (with the same tagname). Coils M1 and TR are then activated and close contacts M1-1, M1-2, and TR. Contact M1-1 activates the coils even if push button BP-2 is released. Contact M1-2 activates motor MOT1 who starts running. Contact TR activates coil M2 which closes contact M2. Motor MOT2 is activated and starts running. Activating push button BP-1 opens the associated switch (with the same tagname). Coils M1 and TR are no longer activated which opens contacts M1-1, M1-2 and TR. Motor MOT1 is no longer activated and stops. Contact TR is a contact with on delay, so it opens only 10 simulation cycles after the contact has been activated. Once open, coil M2 is no longer activated which opens contact M2 and consequently stops motor MOT2. File ELEC04B.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application.
39. 39. 39 4 Multi-Workshop Exercises This chapter contains four exercises allowing you to build and simulate more complex electropneumatic circuits. These exercises are circuits built with components from two Automation Studio workshops, the Pneumatic workshop and the Electrical Control workshop. 4.1 Exercise 1 - Simple Electropneumatic Circuit This simple electropneumatic circuit shows how an electropneumatic control circuit works and how you can go from a SFC to an Electrical Control. Description of the functional portion The functional portion of this exercise circuit is composed of a pneumatic cylinder (A) and a double solenoid 5/2 (12) directional valve. PROX-A1PROX-A0 EXT-A RET-A A
40. 40. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 40 List of Pneumatic components Qty Component Properties 1 Double-acting cylinder Identifier: A Opposing force: 100 Rod diameter: 0,5 Piston diameter: 2 Stroke length: 8 1 5/2 (12) directional valve Left command: Solenoid: EXT-A Right command: Solenoid: RET-A 2 Proximity sensor Tagname : PROX-A0 and PROX-A1 2 Exhaust 1 Pneumatic pressure source The properties not mentioned in the list must keep their default values. SFC The working cycle is composed of the extension and retraction of cylinder A's rod.
41. 41. Multi-Workshop Exercises 41 1 1 START 2 2 PROX-A1 3 3 PROX-A0 A+ A- Going from SFC to an Electrical Control Converting a SFC to an Electrical Control is done with Boolean equations. Each step in the SFC has to be converted into a Boolean equation. The Boolean equation has the following form. Note that for the following equations, steps are represented by the letter E and transitions by the letter R. Also, the initial step of a SFC is step number zero. E E R E En n n n n= +− • − • +( )1 1 1 In this equation, En is the active step, En-1 the preceding step and En+1 the following step. Rn-1 is the transition between steps En-1 and En. The SFC of this automatism has two steps (E1 and E2) and an initial step (E0). The Boolean equations of each of these steps are the following: E E PROX A E E0 2 0 0 1= − +• •( ) E E START E E1 0 1 2= +• •( ) E E PROX A E E2 1 1 2 0= − +• •( )
42. 42. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 42 E0, the initial step also has to take into account the initial conditions of the control circuit, i.e. when the circuit is put under voltage. Under these conditions, all steps of the SFC have to be deactivated. That is why coil INIT is used. It will only be activated if all steps are not activated when the circuit is under voltage. Once coil INIT is activated, contact INIT closes and initial step E0 is activated. The activation equation of step E0 then becomes the following. E E PROX A E INIT E0 2 0 0 1= − + +• •( ) Control circuit From the Boolean equations already established, it is now possible to trace the control circuit into an Electrical Control. The figures following the list of Electrical Control components show the control circuits in American and European symbols. List of Electrical Control components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 4 Coil INIT, E0, E1 and E2 1 NO push button BP-1 1 NO switch BP-1 2 NO proximity switch PROX-A0 and PROX-A1 9 NO contact INIT E0 (for two) E1 (for three) E2 (for three) 6 NC contact E0 (for two) E1 (for two) E2 (for two) 2 Solenoid EXT-A and RET- A
43. 43. Multi-Workshop Exercises 43 Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 1 L1 power supply (120 V) L1P 1 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C 2 Neutral N (for two) L1 N NL1 BP-1 L1P N RET-A EXT-AE1 E2 E2 E1 E0 INIT BP-1 PROX-A1 PROX-A0 E0 E2 E1 E2 E1 E0 E0 INIT E1E2 E2E1E0 NL1C Control circuits (American symbols)
44. 44. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 44 L1 N N L1 E1 E2 L1P N RET-AEXT-A E2E1E0INIT PROX-A0 PROX-A1 BP-1 BP-1 E2 E0 E2 E1E1E0 E1 INITE0E2 E2 E1 E0 N L1C Control circuits (European symbols) Description of the control portion The first line of this control circuit allows the initialization of the circuit when it is put under voltage for the first time. Activating coil INIT closes contact INIT and initial step E0 becomes active. It is also possible to activate step E0 by activating proximity switch PROX-A0 when step 2 is active. When push button BP-1 is activated, switch BP-1 closes and step 1 becomes active. Solenoid EXT-A is then put under voltage and controls the extension of cylinders A's rod. Steps 2 becomes active when step 1 is active and proximity switch PROX-A1 is activated. At that time, solenoid RET-A is put under voltage and controls the retraction of cylinder A's rod. File IELPN01.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application.
45. 45. Multi-Workshop Exercises 45 4.2 Exercise 2 - Control Circuit of a Drill Press Description of the functional portion The drill press is composed of a horizontal cylinder (cylinder A). This cylinder is used to hold in place the piece to drill. A second cylinder, (cylinder B) is used to drill the piece. When you start the circuit, cylinder A's rod extends. Then cylinder B's rod extends then retracts. The cycle finishes when cylinder A's rod retracts to its initial position. Each cylinder is controlled by a 5/2 (12) directional valve controlled on both sides by solenoids. Two mechanical position sensors, A0 and A1 detect cylinder A’s rod movement. Two proximity sensors, PROX-B0 and PROX-B1 detect cylinder B’s rod movement. PROX-B1PROX-BO A1A0 EXT-B RET-BEXT-A RET-A BA
46. 46. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 46 List of Pneumatic components Qty Component Properties 2 Double-acting cylinder Identifier : A Opposing force: 0 Return friction: 10 Extend friction: 10 Rod diameter: 1 Piston diameter: 3 Stroke length: 2 Identifier : B Opposing force: 50 Return friction: 10 Extend friction: 10 Rod diameter: 1 Piston diameter: 2 Stroke length: 12 2 5/2 (12) directional valve Left control: Solenoid Control iden.: EXT-A Right control: Solenoid Control iden.: RET-A Left control: Solenoid Control iden.: EXT-B Right control: Solenoid Control iden.: RET-B 2 Mechanical position sensor Tagnames A0 and A1 2 Proximity sensor Tagnames : PROX-B0 and PROX-B1
47. 47. Multi-Workshop Exercises 47 Qty Component Properties 4 Exhaust 2 Pneumatic pressure source List of Electrical Control components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 6 Coil INIT, E0, E1, E2, E3 and E4 1 NO push button BP-1 1 NO switch BP-1 2 NO limit switch A0 and A1 2 NO proximity switch PROX-B0 and PROX-B1 15 NO contact INIT 1 E0 (for two) E1 (for three) E2 (for three) E3 (for three) E4 (for three) 10 NC contact E0 (for two) E1 (for two) E2 (for two) E3 (for two) E4 (for two) 4 Solenoid EXT-A and RET-A EXT-B and RET-B 2 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C and L1P 2 Neutral N (for both)
48. 48. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 48 SFC The following SFC represents the working cycle of the drill press. 1 1 BP-1 2 2 A1 3 3 PROX-B1 A+ B+ 4 4 PROX-B0 5 B- A- 5 A0 Control Circuit Going from the SFC to the Electrical Control gives the following control circuit (shown in both symbols).
49. 49. Multi-Workshop Exercises 49 NL1 NL1 NL1P E3 E4 E2 E1 RET-B RET-A EXT-B EXT-A E4 E3 E2 E1 E0 INIT PROX-BO PROX-B1 A1 A0 BP-1 BP-1 E0 E4 E3 E2 E1 E4 E3 E3 E2 E2 E1 E1 E0 INIT E0 E4 E4E3E2E1E0 NL1C Control circuit of the drill press (American symbols)
50. 50. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 50 N L1 N L1 E4E3E2E0 RET-ARET-BEXT-BEXT-A E4E3E2E1 N L1P E1 E0E4E3E2 BP-1 E3E2 E1 E4 E3 E2 E1 E0 PROX-B1 PROX-BOA1A0 BP-1 E1INITE0E4 INIT E4 E3E2E1E0 N L1C Control circuit of the drill press (European symbols) Description of the control portion The first line of the control circuit allows the activating of coil INIT when the circuit is put under voltage for the first time. This places the SFC at the initial step, step E0. When push button BP-1 is activated, step 1 becomes active and cylinder A's rod extends. Once the rod is extended, switch A1 is activated and allows step E2 to be activated. Step E2 is the step that makes cylinder B's rod extend. This extension is detected by proximity sensor PROX-B1 that activates proximity switch PROX-B1. At that time, step E3 becomes active so cylinder B's rod retracts. Activating step E4 is possible when proximity sensor PROX-B0 is activated, which indicated that cylinder B's rod is completely retracted. When step E4 is active, cylinder A's rod retracts and the automation cycle goes back to initial step E0.
51. 51. Multi-Workshop Exercises 51 For another working cycle, push button BP-1 has to be activated. If this button is kept pressed down permanently, the cycle is continuous. File IELPN02.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application. 4.3 Exercise 3 - Control Circuit of a Metering System Description of the functional portion This system is used to measure material against a fixed volume. It works with two containers whose movements are controlled by two cylinders, A and B. The lower container, controlled by cylinder A is filled with the material supplied by a hopper. When the lower container is filled to the brim, the top container, controlled by cylinder B, will place itself over the lower container, blocking the material. The lower container then moves to unload the measured material. The work cycle ends when the top container takes back its initial position. To simulate this system, we suppose that the volume of material is reached when the lower container has finished its stroke length. Two mechanical position sensors are used to detect the movements of cylinder A and two proximity sensors are used to detect the movements of cylinder B.
52. 52. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 52 EXT-A RET-A EXT-B RET-B PROX-B1PROX-B0 A1A0 B A
53. 53. Multi-Workshop Exercises 53 List of Pneumatic components Qty Component Properties 2 Double-acting cylinder Identifier: A Opposing force: 200 Return friction: 30 Extend friction: 30 Rod diameter: 1,5 Piston diameter: 4 Stroke length: 18 Identifier: B same properties as cylinder A. 2 5/2 (12) directional valve 1) Left control: Solenoid: EXT-A Right control: Solenoid: RET-A 2) Left control: Solenoid: EXT-B Right control: Solenoid: RET-B 2 Mechanical position sensor Tagnames: A0 and A1 2 Proximity sensor Tagnames: PROX-B0 and PROX-B1 4 Exhaust 2 Pneumatic pressure source
54. 54. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 54 List of Electrical Control components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 3 NO push button 1) CY/CY 2) AUTO BP-1 3 NO switch 1) CY/CY 2) AUTO BP-1 2 Coil INIT and R1 5 Coil unlatch E0, E1, E2, E3 and E4 5 Coil latch E0, E1, E2, E3 and E4 11 NO contact INIT R1 E0 E1 (for two) E2 (for two) E3 (for two) E4 (for two) 7 NC contact E0 E1 (for two) E2 (for two) E3 and E4 2 NO limit switch A0 and A1 2 NO proximity switch PROX-B0 and PROX-B1 4 Solenoid EXT-A and EXT-B RET-A and RET-B 2 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C and L1P 2 Neutral N (for two)
55. 55. Multi-Workshop Exercises 55 SFC This system can work in automatic (AUTO) or cycle by cycle (CY/CY) mode. In the cycle by cycle mode, the start is controlled by push button BP-1. The SFC of this automation is the following. 1 1 AUTO+CY / CY.BP-1 2 2 A1 3 3 PROX-B1 4 4 A0 5 A+ B+ A- B- 5 PROX-B0
56. 56. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 56 Control Circuit The control circuit of this system uses the properties of a coil latch and a coil unlatch. The following figures show the control circuits with both the American and European symbols. NL1 NL1 INIT RET-A RET-B EXT-B EXT-A NL1P E4 E1 E2 E3 E3 E4 E2 E3 E1 E2 E0 E1 E4 E0 E3 E2 E1 RE0 E2E4 PROX-B1 PROX-B0 A1 A0 RE1 AUTO BP-1CY/CY BP-1AUTOCY/CY INITE4E3E2E1E0 NL1C Control circuit of a metering system (American symbols)
57. 57. Multi-Workshop Exercises 57 N L1 N L1 E4E3E2E1 N L1P RET-B RET-AEXT-BEXT-A E3E4E2E3E1E2E0E1E4E0 E3E2E1 R E0 E2 INITE4 R E1 BP-1 AUTOCY/CY PROX-B1 PROX-B0A1A0 BP-1AUTOCY/CY INIT E4 E3 E2 E1 E0 L1C Control circuit of a metering system (European symbols) Description of the control portion The first line of this control circuit allows the initialization of the circuit when it is put under voltage for the first time. Activating coil INIT closes contact INIT and initial step E0 becomes active. It is also possible to activate step E0 by activating proximity switch PROX-B0 when step E4 is active. Activating step E0 and deactivating step E4 (coil latch E0 and coil unlatch E4) is done simultaneously. The second line represents the receptivity associated with the transition from initial step E0 and step E1. This receptivity includes the starting modes of the circuit. The starting mode is automatic (AUTO) or cycle by cycle. With this last mode, push button BP-1 has to be activated to start a new working cycle. Activating coil R1 closes contact R1 and activates step E1 when step E0 is active. Activating step E1 is done at the same time that step E0 is deactivated.
58. 58. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 58 Notice that this circuit is built with coil latches and coil unlatches. Activating a step is done with a coil latch and deactivating a step is done with a coil unlatch. So, the control circuit has many lines with a coil latch and a coil unlatch built in parallel. This allows the activating of a step and the simultaneous deactivating of the previous step. For example, on the third line, when step E0 becomes active, step E4 becomes inactive at the same time. File IELPN03.PRO containing this exercise is available in Directory EXERC of this application.
59. 59. Multi-Workshop Exercises 59 4.4 Exercise 4 - Control Circuit of a Stamping System Description of the functional portion This exercise shows a system used to stamp coins. The functional portion of this system consist of three double-acting cylinders; A, B and C. Cylinder A is used to position the coin on the horizontal, cylinder B pushes the coins to where they are stamped. Cylinder C actually does the stamping with up and down movements of its rod. After the stamping, cylinders A and B go back to their initial position. All three cylinders are controlled by double solenoid 5/2 directional valves. A proximity sensor detects the position of cylinder A's rod as it retracts, and a mechanical position sensor detects the rod as it extends. A second mechanical position sensor detects cylinder B's rod as it retracts and a proximity sensor is used to detect the rod as it extends. Finally, two mechanical position sensors detect the position of cylinder C's rod as it extends and retracts. EXT-C RET-CEXT-B RET-BEXT-A RET-A A B C A1 PROX-A0 B0 PROX-B1 C1C0
60. 60. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 60 List of Pneumatic components Qty Component Properties 3 Double-acting cylinder 1) Identifier: A Opposing force: 5 Return friction: 2 Extend friction: 2 Rod diameter : 0,25 Piston diameter: 0,75 Stroke length: 4 2) Identifier: B same properties as cylinder A. 3) Identifier: C Opposing force: 500 Return friction: 20 Extend friction: 20 Rod diameter : 2 Piston diameter: 5 Stroke length: 4 3 5/2 (12) directional valve 1) Left control: Solenoid: EXT-A Right control: Solenoid: RET-A 2) Left control: Solenoid: EXT-B Right control: Solenoid: RET-B 3) Left control: Solenoid: EXT-C Right control: Solenoid: RET-C 4 Mechanical position sensor Tagnames: A1, B0, C0 and C1
61. 61. Multi-Workshop Exercises 61 Qty Component Properties 2 Proximity sensor Tagnames: PROX-A0 and PROX-B1 6 Exhaust 3 Pneumatic pressure source List of Electrical Control components Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 4 NO push button CY/CY, AUTO and AU BP-1 4 NO switch CY/CY, AUTO and AU BP-1 3 Coil INIT, R and S 26 NO contact INIT, R, S (4), E0 (2), E1 (3), E2 (3), E3 (3), E4 (3), E5 (3) and E6 (3) 21 NC contact S (7), E0 (2), E1 (2), E2 (2), E3 (2), E4 (2), E5 (2) and E6 (2) 7 Coil E0, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6 6 Solenoid RET-A, RET- B, RET-C EXT-A, EXT- B and EXT-C 2 L1 power supply (24 V) L1C and L1P
62. 62. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 62 Qty Component Identifier Tagnames 2 Neutral N (for two)
63. 63. Multi-Workshop Exercises 63 SFC This system can work in automatic (AUTO) or cycle by cycle (CY/CY) mode. In the cycle by cycle mode, the start is controlled by push button BP-1. This system also has an emergency stop (AU) that allows to stop the system and to reset the automatism to initial step E0. The SFC of this automatism is the following. 1 1 (AUTO+CY / CY.BP-1) 2 2 A1 3 3 PROX-B1 4 4 C1 5 A+ B+ C+ C- Si AU reprise à A0 Si AU C-, B-, A- 5 C0 6 B- 6 B0 7 A- 7 PROX-A0
64. 64. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 64 Control Circuit L1 N NL1 E0 E1 E1 EXT-C EXT-B EXT-A RET-B RET-C E3 E2 E1 E6 S E5 S S E4 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E6 E6 S E5 B0 E5 E4S E4 E5C1E3S E3 E4PROX-B1E2 E2 E3A1E1 E2 E1 RE0 S S S E0 PROX-A0 E0 E6 INIT S R AUTO BP-1CY/CY SAU S RET-A E1 C0 AUBP-1AUTOCY/CY INITE6E5E4E3E2E1E0 L1C N NL1C Control circuit of a stamping system (American symbols)
65. 65. Multi-Workshop Exercises 65 N L1 N L1 AUSAUTOCY/CY N EXT-CEXT-BEXT-ARET-ARET-BRET-C E3E2E1SE4SE4SE4 L1P E6 E0 B0 E6E5 E5 E6 C0 E5E4 E4 E5 C1 E4E3 E3 E4 PROX-B1 E3E2 E2 E3 A1 E2E1 SSSSS E1 E2 R E0 S E0 E1 PROX-A0 E0E6INITS R AUTO BP-1 CY/CY S S AU N INIT E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 E0 L1C E1 Control circuit of a stamping system (European symbols) Description of the control portion The first line of this control circuit allows the initialization of the circuit when it is put under voltage for the first time. Activating coil INIT will allow initial step E0 to become active when the circuit is under voltage. The second line is composed of normally open switch AU and coil S. This coil is activated when push button AU is activated for an emergency stop. Activating coil S deactivates all the active steps by opening all NC contacts S. Closing NO contact S resets the automatism to initial step E0. Activating coil S also makes cylinder A, B and C rods retract. Activating initial step E0 is done in three ways. The first way is by initializing the circuit by closing NO contact INIT. The second way is by using the emergency stop by closing NO contact S. The third way is by the transition from step E6 to step E0. The starting mode can be automatic (push button AUTO) or cycle by cycle (push button CY/CY). With this last mode, push button BP-1 has to be activated to start a new working cycle. Files IELPN04A.PRO and IELPN04B.PRO containing these exercises are available in Directory EXERC of this application.
66. 66. 67 A. Technical Specifications A.1 Lines The electric wire contained in the Electrical Control workshop library has the following simulation parameters: Color Allows the modification of the color of the line according to the colors supported by the Core System. Style Allows the modifications of the line type of lines according to the types supported by the Core System. Width Allows the modifications of the line width of lines according to the widths supported by the Core System. A.1.1 Electric Wire American symbol European symbol Electric wires are used to link two points in an electrical circuit. Electric wires are made of a conductor covered with an insulating sheath. The most commonly used conductor is copper. The material used for the insulating sheath depends on the temperature the wire will be submitted to.
67. 67. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 68 Wires used to distribute electricity in houses and buildings have a flexible insulating sheath made of rubber, cotton or thermoplastic products. On the other hand, wires used in electric ovens have insulating sheath made from mineral materials: glass, asbestos, porcelain or mica. These materials can withstand high temperatures very well. Choosing an electric wire depends on the considered use. Choice criteria include the diameter of the conductor, the color and the connection mode. A.1.2 Vertical and horizontal jump Pressure line allowing to jump over a line without being connected to it. A.1.3 Plug (male)/Socket (female) American symbol European symbol Plug Socket Using a plug and a socket to connect two components is optional. They are used to add information to a diagram. However, take note that a plug output can only be connected to a socket input and inversely. Usually, plug and socket terminals are identified by their shape and size. For example, in North America sockets in houses have two or three terminals. In both cases, the terminals have different shapes and sizes to identify their use. The rectangular shape is used to identify the power line or the neutral. As for the circular shape, it is used to identify the ground.
68. 68. Technical Specifications 69 In sockets with two terminals, the smallest terminal is used to connect the power line and the largest to connect the neutral. Sockets with three terminals are usually used when a ground terminal is obligatory. For example, electrical appliances with a metallic casing, such as an oven have three terminal plugs. A.1.4 Jump-to Label (output) American symbol European symbol Simulation parameters Tagname Allows an association between jump-to labels (Input/Output) The jump-to label (output) can act like a transmitter or a receiver. The status of the voltage at the connection point is transmitted as-is to the associated jump-to label, i.e. that shares a common tagname. A.1.5 Jump-to Label (input) American symbol European symbol Simulation parameters Tagname Allows an association between jump-to labels (Input/Output) The jump-to label (output) can act like a transmitter or a receiver. The status of the voltage at the connection point is transmitted as-is to the associated jump-to label, i.e. that shares a common tagname.
69. 69. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 70 A.1.6 Connection Block Simulation parameters Total numbers (1..40) Total number of connections First number (0..99) Number of the first connection A connection block is composed of a certain number of connections. Each connection makes it possible to connect in full safety 2 conductors of an electric circuit. During the insertion of the connector block, the user must specify the number of the first connection as well as the number of connections. A.1.7 Fuse American symbol European symbol 10 Amp. 10 Amp. Simulation parameters Max. Amps (A) Represents the maximum current (A) that the fuse is capable of withstanding. The intensity that the fuse can withstand has no effect on the simulation. This parameter is used for information purposes. A fuse is a protection device. It can shut down a circuit in which the current going through is too high (for example, in a short circuit situation). The fuse is calibrated to support a maximum intensity for the circuit. As long as the intensity does not go over the set intensity value, the fuse acts as a wire and does not influence the circuit. If the intensity of the current goes over the set value, the internal element of the fuse melts rapidly, opening the circuit. All the voltage goes to the terminals of the fuse and no current can circulate in the circuit.
70. 70. Technical Specifications 71 Fuses are usually made of a zinc or silver filament enclosed in a glass, ceramic or fiber tube. The heat generated from the current going through the circuit provokes, if it goes over the maximum intensity set for the fuse, the melting of the filament and consequently, the opening of the circuit. Fuses are often used in control circuits of motors. A.2 Power Sources A.2.1 Power Supply American symbol European symbol L1 L1 L2 L2 L3 L3 Simulation parameters Voltage Represents the voltage value (V). This parameter has no incidence on the simulation. A power supply line is characterized by its voltage and supplies the electrical power to circuits and motors. For example, a triple-phase motor supply needs three power lines, one for each of the phases.
71. 71. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 72 In industrial and domestic electrical installations, power supply is available from the local power company. The electrical company supplies many types of power sources, mainly a triple-phase 600 Volts system with three lines and a triple-phase 208/120 Volts system with four lines. The 600 Volts supply with three lines is used in industrial installations as a motive force for the drive of triple-phase motors. The 208/120 Volts supply system with four lines supplies three power lines with 208 Volts line to line and a neutral. A line to neutral connection is used to supply a 120 Volts single-phase voltage. All three lines can be used to supply 208 Volts line to line triple-phase motors. Each 208 Volts line to line bus can be combined with the neutral to supply 120 Volts lighting circuits. In triple-phase power circuits, the line to neutral voltage is equal to the line to line voltage divided by 1,73. For example, from a line to line 208 Volts triple-phase supply it is possible to obtain a 208/1,73 = 120 Volts line to line single-phase supply. A.2.2 Neutral American symbol European symbol N N The neutral is used in electrical power circuits as a reference for the voltage on a single-phase or triple-phase line. It is also used in triple- phase supply circuits to supply a smaller voltage than the line to line voltage. In triple-phase power circuits, the combination of a power line with a neutral allows the supply of a smaller voltage than the line to line voltage. For example, the combination of a 208 Volts triple-phase line to line power line with the neutral, has an output supply of 120 Volts line to neutral.
72. 72. Technical Specifications 73 In triple-phase circuits, the line to neutral voltage is equal to the line to line voltage divided by 1,73. For example, with a triple-phase supply of 208 Volts line to line, it is possible to obtain a single-phase supply of 208/1,73 = 120 Volts line to neutral. Sockets for ordinary domestic current are composed of two terminals. One terminal is connected to the single-phase 120 or 240 Volts line (depending on the country) and the other terminal is connected to the neutral. A.2.3 Ground American symbol European symbol The ground is equal to 0 Volts. It represents the reference by which the voltages are measured. The term ground is used because one of the wires of a supply cord in electrical installations is always linked to the ground by a low resistance wire. In reality, in the case of commercial and residential buildings, this connection is done by the water supply pipe located at the entrance of the building. In certain cases, the ground is also called the common. In electrical installations, the main objective of the ground is to reduce the danger of electrical shocks. Domestic electrical appliances with a metallic casing are required to have a ground wire on their casing. Such is the case for electric stoves, and water heaters for example. In that type of appliance, the plug socket, has a third terminal used to connect the casing to the ground. In industrial installations, the ground is usually achieved through a grid stuck in the ground. All motors and machines in factories are fitted with a ground. Also see sections A.2.1 Power Supply on page 71 and A.2.2 Neutral on page 72.
73. 73. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 74 A.2.4 Power supply 24V American symbol European symbol 24V 24V The power supply 24V is a source of 24 Volts. A.2.5 Common (0 volt) American symbol European symbol 0V 0V The common component is the equivalent to the Ground component but it is for circuits in DC current. A.2.6 Transformer American symbol European symbol 220:24 220:24 Simulation parameters Primary Voltage Allows the specification of the amplitude of the alternate voltage to transform. This parameter has no effect on the simulation. Secondary Voltage Allows the specification of the alternate voltage at the transformer outputs. This parameter has no effect on the simulation. The transformer allows the modification of the amplitude of an alternate voltage. It is made of two coils, the primary and the secondary.
74. 74. Technical Specifications 75 The main parameters of a transformer are the nominal voltage at the primary coil terminals (H) and the voltage at the secondary coil terminals (X). For example, using an alternate 120 Volts voltage, it is possible to obtain, by using a transformer, an alternate 24 Volts voltage. The transformer works because of a magnetic induction phenomenon. Supplying a voltage on the primary coil induces a magnetic field in the secondary coil. This results in an induced voltage at the terminals of the secondary coil. In practice, the amplitude of the induced voltage at the secondary coil depends on the voltage supplied on the primary coil and the number of turns ratio that exist between the two coils. Also see section A.2.7 DC Power Supply on page 75. A.2.7 DC Power Supply American symbol European symbol 220:24 220:24 Simulation parameters Primary Voltage Allows the specification of the amplitude of the alternate voltage that has to be transformed into DC power. Secondary Voltage Allows the specification of the amplitude of DC voltage that the DC power supply outputs. The DC power supply is used to obtain DC power from an alternate voltage. Its main parameters are the amplitude of the alternate voltage at the input (˜) and the amplitude of the DC voltage at the output (+/-). In practice, transforming alternate voltage into DC voltage is done with an electrical device called a power supply.
75. 75. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 76 A power supply is composed of a transforming stage, a rectification stage and a regulating stage. The transforming stage has a transformer that lowers the amplitude of the alternate voltage coming from the input. The rectification stage will rectify the negative parts of the alternate voltage. Finally, the regulating stage has capacitors that stabilize the output voltage to the desired value. Also see section A.2.6 Transformer on page 74. A.2.8 Multi. I/O transformer American symbol European symbol H4 H3 H2 H1 X3X2X1 220:24 220:40 H4 H3 H2 H1 X3X2X1 220:24 220:40 Simulation parameters Primary Voltage Allows the specification of the amplitude of the alternate voltage to transform. This parameter has no effect on the simulation. Secondary Voltage Allows the specification of the alternate voltage at the transformer outputs. This parameter has no effect on the simulation. Secondary Voltage 2 Allows the specification of the alternate voltage at the transformer outputs. This parameter has no effect on the simulation. The Multi I/O transformer behave like the regular transformer except that it can induce two different alternative tensions.
76. 76. Technical Specifications 77 X1 X2 X3 H4 H3 H2 H1 Vh13 Vh24 Vh14 Vh12 Vh23 Vh34 Vx23 Vx12 Vx13 Here are some examples on how to use it : • Vh12 primary supply :
77. 77. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 78 • Vh23 primary supply : • Vh34 primary supply : • Vh13 primary supply :
78. 78. Technical Specifications 79 • Vh24 primary supply : • Vh14 primary supply : • Transformer supplying a rectifier:
79. 79. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 80 Note: Generally, when there is a primary tension, tension is also induced in the secondary. Only one tension can be induced in the secondary. The following example is impossible: If the primary tension is 220 volts, the secondary tension 1 is equal to 100 volts and the secondary tension 2 is equal to 50 volts. The transformer should have the following notation:
80. 80. Technical Specifications 81 A.3 Output Components The various types of output components (except for the diode and the LED) contained in the Electrical Control workshop library have the following simulation parameters: Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. A.3.1 Coil American symbol European symbol Coil Coil latch Coil unlatch A coil is made of a rolled up copper wire. When the coil has current going through it, an electro-magnetic force is generated in its core. The coil is used in many electrical applications, in contact relays for example. In contact relays, the electro-magnetic force generated by the passage of the current in the coil opens or closes the contacts of the relay that are associated with the coil. Three types of coils are available in the Electrical Control workshop, they are the coil, the coil latch and the coil unlatch. When a coil in under voltage, the normally open contacts associated with it close whereas the normally closed contacts associated with it open. When the coil is no longer under voltage, the contacts take back their initial status.
81. 81. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 82 The coil latch works as the coil except that the contacts that are associated with it stay in their activated status even if the coil latch is no longer under voltage. That way, when the coil latch is under voltage, the normally open contacts close and the normally closed contacts open. The coil unlatch allows the contacts that were activated by a coil latch to take back their initial status. When the coil unlatch is activated, the normally open contacts become open again and the normally closed contacts become closed again. The contacts will remain in that status even if the coil unlatch is no longer under voltage. In Automation Studio, the coil has to have the same tagnames than the contacts to which it is associated. Also see section A.4 Contacts on page 90. A.3.2 Coil with OFF delay American symbol European symbol 1 2SR 1 2 Simulation parameters Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. Preset Time delay from 1 to 99. The Coil with OFF delay deactivates its associated contacts when current is applied, but only after the preset delay.
82. 82. Technical Specifications 83 A.3.3 Coil with ON delay American symbol European symbol 1 2SA 1 2 Simulation parameters Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. Preset Time delay from 1 to 99. The Coil with ON delay activates its associated contacts when current is applied, but only after the preset delay. A.3.4 Flashing coil American symbol European symbol 1 2 1 2 Simulation parameters Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. Preset Time delay from 1 to 99.
83. 83. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 84 The Flashing coil activates and deactivates its associated contacts when as long as current is applied. The preset delay specifies that delay between the activation and the deactivation. A.3.5 Solenoid American symbol European symbol A solenoid is made of a wire evenly wrapped around in a helix shape to form a long coil into which is placed a iron core. When the coil has a current going through it, it generates a magnetic field that has its lines parallel to the axis of the solenoid. This magnetic field develops a force that will attract the floating core. The movement of the core is used to control many devices such as pneumatic and hydraulic directional valves. A return force is necessary to bring back the floating core to its rest status. This force can be generated by a spring, a push button, a lever or another solenoid. In pneumatic directional valves, the return of the floating core can also be done with a pressure pilot. A solenoid has to have the same tagname than the solenoid of the pneumatic or hydraulic directional valve to which it is associated. Pneumatic and hydraulic directional valves controlled by a solenoid are available in their corresponding workshops. A.3.6 Indicator Light American symbol European symbol
84. 84. Technical Specifications 85 Simulation parameters Color Allows the specification of the color emitted by the indicator light. Type The indicator light can be of three types: electro-luminescent, neon or incandescent. This parameter has no effect on the simulation. The indicator light is used to indicate the status of a component in a control system. Its color is usually associated with the task to be done. For example, red can be used for the indicator light of a push button used as an emergency stop button. Also, the indicator light of a push button authorizing the start of an automatism’s cycle is usually green. The indicator light can work with voltages varying between 6 and 120 Volts, in AC as well as DC current. Models supporting a small current use LED (light emitting diode). They occupy a small space and have a longer life span; they consume little energy and have a low maintenance cost compared to neon or incandescent type lights. In some applications, (a current limiting device) allows the indicator light to work under a lower current than the one in the control circuit. This device can a transformer or more commonly a resistor. The working principle behind the indicator light using LEDs relies on an important characteristic of electronics. It uses a special p-n junction that emits light when it is under direct current (when the anode-cathode voltage is positive). Also see sections A.3.9 Three-phase motor on page 88 and A.3.11 LED (light emitting diode) on page 89.
85. 85. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 86 A.3.7 Heating Element American symbol European symbol Simulation parameters Power Allows the specification of the amount of energy that can be dissipated by the heating element (watts). This parameter has no incidence on the simulation and is there for information purposes. The heating element is a resistance that can support very high temperatures. A heating element can operate under a working temperature varying between 275°C and 500°C. Its main parameter is its power. The resistance wire in a heating element is usually made of a nickel and chrome alloy. This alloy is wrapped around a ceramic tube, forming turns. The whole thing is covered with a ceramic enamel that keeps the wire in place and protects it against oxidation and humidity. In the heating element, the release of heat is done with the convection principle. The fluid that is in contact with the heating element heats up and creates convection currents that make the cold fluid circulate to the heating element. A.3.8 Single-Phase Motor American symbol European symbol Simulation parameters
86. 86. Technical Specifications 87 Power Allows the specification of the maximum power of the motor (watts). This power is a parameter that has no effect on the simulation, it is for information only. Rotation Speed Allows the specification of the maximum rotation speed of the motor (t./min.). This rotation speed is a parameter that has no effect on the simulation, it is for information only. The single-phase motor transform electrical energy into mechanical rotative energy. The main parameters of the motor are its power and rotation speed. The single-phase motor can be connected between two power lines of 120 or 240 Volts or, between a power line and a neutral. The single-phase motor is made of a mobile part called the rotor and a static part called a stator. The stator has a main coil turned to form poles. The number of poles gives the rotation speed of the motor and they always come in an even number. The rotor is composed of a cylinder made of sheet metal that has been punctured at the ends to form notches destined to receive conductors. The conductors of the rotor are made of bare copper bars that are fitted in the notches. When a voltage is applied on the stator’s coil, an alternate magnetic flux is generated. The variation of this magnetic flux induces alternate current in the conductors of the rotor. The presence of this induced current in the magnetic field created by the stator’s turn, produces an electro-magnetic force that makes the rotor turn. In industrial applications, the power of motors is usually expressed in horsepower (HP). Finding its equivalent in the International System is done by the relation 1HP = 746 W. The single-phase motors are used in applications that require little power, like machine tool and fans. In those applications, the power generated by the motor varies from a fraction of HP to a few HP.
87. 87. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 88 A.3.9 Three-phase motor American symbol European symbol The three-phase motor requires a tri-phase current. It is very sturdy and reliable but its power output tends to be poor under small load. A.3.10 Diode American symbol European symbol + - + - direct inverse + - + - direct inverse The diode is an element that lets electrical current flow in one direction only. In the « right » direction the diode offers little resistance to the passage of current. This resistance provokes a light voltage drop at the terminals of the diode, called threshold voltage. This voltage is of 0.2 Volts for diodes made of germanium, and of 0.6 volts for the ones made of silicone. The passage of a current induces heat that can be damaging if the cooling is not correct.
88. 88. Technical Specifications 89 In the reverse direction, the diode blocks the passage of the current. If the voltage at the terminals is too high, the diode will be destroyed. A.3.11 LED (light emitting diode) American symbol European symbol A LED (light emitting diode) allows the visual indication of the logical status at one point of a circuit. The color of the component changes depending on the logical status (0 or 1) of the input signal. In an electrical circuit, the LED acts as a diode. A.3.12 Resistor American symbol European symbol Simulation parameters Resistance Resistor level in ohms. This parameter is not taken into consideration during simulation. A.3.13 Overload relay American symbol European symbol
89. 89. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 90 Simulation parameters Connection type Can be connected to single-phase, diphasic and triphasic tensions. This parameter is not taken into account during simulation. The thermal relay of overload uses a heating resistance connected in series to the engine supply. The quantity of heat produced increases along with the current intensity. In the event of an overload, the heat produced cuts the circuit. The threshold can be set to whatever value. This kind of protection is very effective because when the threshold has been reached the resistance temperature takes some time to cool down preventing an immediate restart. A.4 Contacts The various types of contacts contained in the Electrical Control workshop library have the following simulation parameters: Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. A.4.1 Contacts NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Contacts are used in association with coils in contact relays.
90. 90. Technical Specifications 91 They can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). These two types characterize the electrical behavior of contacts when they are not activated, i.e. when the coil to which they are associated is not activated. As soon as the coil has a current going through it, contacts to which it is associated change their status. Normally open (NO) contacts close, and normally closed (NC) contacts open. These two contacts work as opposites. A normally open (NO) contact blocks the passage of current in a circuit when not activated. Once activated, the contacts allow the passage of electrical current. On the other hand, a normally close (NC) contact allows the passage of electrical current when not activated and blocks it when activated. When the coil is under voltage, the contacts to which it is associated change their status instantly. For this reason, they are sometimes called instant contacts to differentiate them from delay contacts. A contact has to have the same tagname than the coil to which it is associated. Also see section A.3.1 Coil on page 81. A.4.2 Rising/Falling Edge Contacts American symbol European symbol Rising edge Falling edge Rising and falling edge Rising edge and falling edge contacts are associated with a coil.
91. 91. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 92 A rising edge contact is a normally open contact that acts on the rising edge of the intensity of the current that travels along the coil to which it is associated. When the current starts traveling the coil, the rising edge contact closes momentarily, for a time equivalent to 1 simulation cycle. A falling edge contact is a normally open contact that acts on the falling edge of the intensity of the current that travels along the coil to which it is associated. When the current stops traveling the coil, the falling edge contact closes momentarily, for a time equivalent to 1 simulation cycle. A rising edge or falling edge contact has to have the same tagname than the coil to which it is associated. Also see section A.3.1 Coil on page 81.
92. 92. Technical Specifications 93 A.4.3 Delay Contacts American symbol European symbol ON delay NO ON delay NC OFF delay NO OFF delay NC ON/OFF delay NO ON/OFF delay NO Simulation parameters Preset Time required, in number of simulation cycles, for the change of status of the contact. The minimum value is 1 and the maximum value is 9999. A delay contact works in the same way as an instant contact with the exception that its change of status is done after an adjustable preset period of time. A delay contact is associated with a coil.
93. 93. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 94 Delay contacts are divided in two groups, contacts with ON delays and contacts with OFF delays. In each group, contacts can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). The delay period of the NC contacts with ON delay and NO contacts with OFF delay starts at the moment the coil is supplied with voltage. Once the period of time has elapsed, the NC contacts with ON delay closes and the NO contacts with OFF delay opens. At the moment the coil is no longer supplied, the contacts take back their initial value. 0 1 Coil NO contact with OFF delay NC contact with ON delay 0 1 0 1 Delay NC contacts with OFF delay and NO contacts with ON delay instantly change status when the coil is supplied. However, when the coil is no longer supplied, the contacts take back their initial value only after the time delay has elapsed. Coil NO contact with ON delay NC contact with OFF delay 1 0 1 0 1 0 Delay
94. 94. Technical Specifications 95 A.5 Switches The various types of switches contained in the Electrical Control workshop library have the following simulation parameters: Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. Some types of switches have to be used in conjunction with sensors available in other workshops. For example, a pressure sensor from the Pneumatic or Hydraulic workshop library has to be used with the pressure switch contained in the Electrical Control workshop. A.5.1 Push Buttons NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Push buttons do the same thing as switches activated by finger pressure. They constitute the link between the user and the circuit. Push buttons can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). Usually, push buttons have a return spring i.e. a spring that brings back the push button to its initial position as soon as the button is released. That is why push buttons are said to be momentary contact switches.
95. 95. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 96 Push buttons are made of a manual actuator and a contact. The type of push button depends on the type of contact. Contacts can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). If the push button is normally open (NO), activating the switch closes the contact. However, if the push button is normally closed (NC), activating the switch opens the contact. In simulation diagrams, push buttons can be associated with switches that have the same tagname. This association can be done with same type switches or opposite type switches. A.5.2 Toggle Switches NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Toggle switches are components that authorize or prohibit the passage of current in an electrical circuit. They can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). The type of toggle switch determines its behavior at rest status, i.e. when it is not activated. A normally open (NO) toggle switch blocks the electrical current whereas a normally closed (NC) toggle switch allows it. Toggle switches can be associated with push buttons that have the same tagname. This association is possible with same type push buttons or opposite type push buttons. Toggle switches change status each time the push buttons to which they are associated are activated. The changing of status is characterized by a behavior opposite the one in rest status. So, a normally closed toggle switch opens when the push button to which it is associated is activated. However, a normally open toggle switch closes when the push button to which it is associated is activated.
96. 96. Technical Specifications 97 Also see section A.5.1 Push Buttons NO/NC on page 95. A.5.3 2 positions switch American symbol European symbol 1 2 1 2 Simulation parameters Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. The 2 position switches make it possible to connect the line 1 (initial position) or the line 2. The change of state is triggered by a click on the pushbutton. The arrow of the symbol indicates the conducting line. A.5.4 3 positions switch American symbol European symbol 1 2 3 1 2 3 Simulation parameters Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. The 3 position switches make it possible to connect the line 1 or the line 2. Initially, the switch is in the neutral position 3. The change of state is triggered by a click on the pushbutton. The arrow of the symbol indicates the current conducting line or the neutral position.
97. 97. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 98 A.5.5 Multiposition switch American symbol European symbol Simulation parameters Tagname Allows the specification of a label to establish an association with the components with which it interacts. Total positions Number of switch position, the value must be between 3 and 20. A Multiposition switch makes it possible to connect a line (connector No 1) with an output line. The possible number of output line is configured at insertion time. To change the switch position in simulation, click on the desired output line.
98. 98. Technical Specifications 99 A.5.6 Limit Switches NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Limit switches are associated with mechanical position sensors. They can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). They are made of two contacts, a mobile one and a fixed one. At rest status, the NO limit switch is open and blocks the current. However, the NC limit switch is closed allowing the passage of current. Limit switches allow the detection of a position or the limitation of a translation movement. For example, when a cylinder rod comes in contact with the roller of the position sensor to which it is associated, the mobile contact of the switch changes position, provoking the status change for the limit switch. In fact, for a NO limit switch, the mobile contact presses against the fixed contact and the switch closes. In the case of a NC limit switch, the mobile contact moves away from the fixed contact and the switch opens. Once the position sensor is no longer activated, the mobile contact of the limit switch takes back its initial position, under the action of a return spring. The switch takes back its rest status. Limit switches need to have the same tagname that the mechanical position sensors to which they are associated. Mechanical position sensors are components from other workshops.
99. 99. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 100 A.5.7 Proximity Switches NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Proximity switches are associated with proximity sensors. They can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). Usually, proximity sensors can be of inductive or capacitive type. In an inductive sensor, the rest status of the proximity switch is maintained by the magnetic field created by a high frequency oscillator located on the face of the sensor. When a metallic object penetrates this field, the oscillations are reduced and the variation of current of the oscillator provokes a status change of the switch. In a capacitive sensor, highly sensitive electrode condensators are located on the face of the sensor. The sensitivity of these electrodes allows the proximity sensor of the capacitive sensor to detect non- metallic objects. When an object passes in front of the sensor, it changes the coupling capacities which provokes a status change of the switch. Proximity switches need to have the same tagname than proximity sensors to which they are associated. Proximity sensors are components from other workshops.
100. 100. Technical Specifications 101 A.5.8 Pressure Switches NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Pressure switches are associated with pressure sensors. They can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). They are use to detect a set pressure threshold. Pressure switches are made of a mobile contact that moves between two pairs of terminals from fixed contacts. One pair represents terminals from normally open contacts while the second pair represents terminals from normally closed contacts. As long as the sensor is not activated, the mobile contact stays pressed against the normally open contact terminals for the NO switch and stays pressed against the normally closed contact terminals for the NC switch. When pressure becomes equal to or greater than the set pressure, the sensor spool moves by compressing its spring. This movement presses the contact against the normally closed contact terminals for a NO switch or against the normally opened contact terminals for a NC switch. Once pressure becomes lower than the set pressure, the mobile contact goes back to its rest position. Pressure switches need to have the same tagname than the pressure sensors to which they are associated. Pressure sensors are components from other workshops.
101. 101. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 102 A.5.9 Thermal Switches NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Thermal switches are not functional, they serve as graphic symbols to be incorporated in your diagrams. Thermal switches can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). Thermal switches are associated with thermal sensors. Their action depends on the type of detection used by thermal sensors. Two types of detection are usually used in thermal sensors. The first type is by resistance variation and the second type is by thermocouple detection. A.5.10 Level Switches NO/NC American symbol European symbol NO NC Level switches are not functional, they serve as graphic symbols to be incorporated in your diagrams. Level switches can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC).
102. 102. Technical Specifications 103 Level switches are associated with level sensors. They allow the detection of the level reached by a fluid in a tank. Their action depends on the type of detection used by level sensors. The sensor detection is a mechanical, resistance modification or capacity modification type. A.6 Counters The various types of counters contained in the Electrical Control workshop library have the following simulation parameters: Maximum Value Allows the specification of a maximum value that a counter up will reach or the initial counting value for a counter down. The value must be a positive integer between 1 and 9999. This category has two types of components that can be used in control circuits. The counter up counts starting at 1 to the maximum value in increasing order. The counter down counts starting at the maximum value to 1 in decreasing order. American symbol European symbol Counter up CTU 100 0 CTU 100 0 Counter down CTD 100 100 CTD 100 100 The counter up has an input signal (upper left line on the symbol), a reset signal (lower left line on the symbol) and an output. Each input impulse increments the counter of one unit starting from the initial null value. The main parameter of a counter up is its maximum counting value. Once this value is obtained, the output of the counter is instantly under voltage. The output can be canceled with the reset signal.
103. 103. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 104 The counter down has an input signal, a reset to the maximum value signal and an output. The main parameter of a counter down is its maximum value. This value is the starting or initial value of the countdown. Each input impulse at the input of the counter down makes the value go down one unit. When this value reaches zero, the output of the counter down is under voltage. This output can be canceled by activating the reset signal. A.6.1 Thumbwheel 1 2 3 4 5 The thumbwheel needs to be supplied in current at port 1. It converts the decimal value it contains in a binary value of 4 bits. The least significant bit is at port 2. The thumbwheel assigns the converted four bits to the Input component of the Ladder diagram workshop connected to it. During simulation, click on the top arrow to increase the thumbwheel's value and click on the bottom arrow to decrease it. Simulation parameters Initial value Starting value during simulation.
104. 104. Technical Specifications 105 A.6.2 LED display 1 2 3 4 5 The LED display converts a binary value received by ports 2 to 5 ( 2 being the least significant bit) in a decimal value. Port 1 must be connected to the ground.
105. 105. 107 B. Glossary Active Workshop Installed workshop whose components are displayed in the Diagram Editor library. Component One of the three basic elements used for creating diagrams. Each component represents a behavior or a function that is animated during simulation. Components are part of the Library and are provided by the workshops. Connection A connection binds to components and/or links together. There are two types of connections: connectors and mechanical contacts. A connection from one technology can not be connected to a connection from another technology. I.e. a pneumatic line cannot be connected to a hydraulic component and vice-versa. For a hydraulic line to activate a pneumatic valve it must get its source from a hydraulic line. The contrary is also true. Connection Number A number designated for each point where components are connected. Connector A connector connects two components, two links or one component and one link, to allow the flow of fluids (pressurized air or oil) or electrical current. Symbolized by a circle when on a component, it is a point where links or components are connected together. The connectors are displayed in the same color as the components if they are connected,
106. 106. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 108 and in a different color if they are not connected. When a connector is inserted on a link, it is represented in the form of a black dot. It can be inserted on a link in order to identify specific connection points or multiple connections. Core System Set of common functions in Automation Studio including all the edit commands and simulation commands of the application. Diagram A document which graphically represents a circuit or a model by means of elements and components drawn from the Automation Studio workshop libraries. Display Tools Designates the design accessories in the Diagram Editor: grid, rulers, connections, and connection numbers. You can specify their display from the View menu. Diagram List The contents of a Project Manager window for a given project. The Diagram List displays all the diagrams in the project. Edit Mode A mode of operation in Automation Studio during which project diagrams can be created and modified. There is another mode of operation, the Simulation mode. GRAFCET/SFC GRAphe Fonctionnel de Commande Étape Transition. Also called Sequential Function Chart (SFC). Graphic control language based on the concepts of steps and transitions. A sequence of commands is
107. 107. Glossary 109 divided into a series of steps, each containing one or more command actions. A transition separates two steps and contains the logic conditions authorizing the execution of the immediately preceding step and the activation of the immediately following step. Graphic Object An element of the Library which cannot be simulated. Graphic objects are inserted into diagrams strictly as non-functional elements. They come in four types: rectangle, ellipse, line and text. Grid A network of horizontal and vertical dotted lines which cover the workspace in the Diagram Editor and on which the elements of a diagram are aligned. Library One of the tools provided by the Diagram Editor. It is a window containing the basic elements used for designing circuits or simulation models. There are three types of elements: components, links and graphic objects. They are provided by the workshops, which are plugged into the Core System. Link An element of the Library used to connect the components of a diagram. During simulation a link will transmit signals from one component to another. Map Locator Solid horizontal and vertical lines displayed in the workspace which show the physical breaks in the pages of a diagram.
108. 108. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 110 Mechanical contacts The mechanical contacts are connections that connect a sensor and a receiver making it possible for a component to modify the behavior of another component. They are represented by a rhombus that appears at the point of contact. Contrary to the connectors, the color of the rhombuses is not influenced by the state of connection. Menu Bar A horizontal bar located above the application title bar. The menu bar displays the various menus and commands which are available for the active window. Project A group of diagrams forming a cohesive whole. A Project is managed by the Project Manager. Project Label A brief description of a project, displayed in the project summary. Project Manager An utility which you use to create, edit and manage project files in Automation Studio. The Project Manager workspace for a given project contains the Diagram List, which shows all the diagrams contained in that project. Properties Characteristics or parameters of a component. You can change or view the properties by opening the component Properties dialog box. Rulers Rulers are displayed at the edges of the window and indicate the unit of measurement being used for the diagram. They serve as references for
109. 109. Glossary 111 diagram size and the relative position of elements. Shape of the Link Path followed by a link between two connection points. Simulation Cycle One step in the calculation which determines the status of each component. Simulation Mode Mode of operation in Automation Studio during which a project or a diagram is simulated. Unlike the Edit mode, the Simulation mode, when it is active, does not allow any change to the project. Sort Key The criteria used to classify items of the List in alphanumeric order. The sort keys are specified in the Sort box of the Tools menu in the Project Manager. The alphanumeric order is the following: 0,1,2...9,A,B,C....Y,Z. Status Bar A horizontal bar located at the bottom of all the utility windows in Automation Studio. It displays information such as comments, zoom factor, pointer coordinates, etc. Title Bar Horizontal bar located at the top of a window and displaying the title of this window. Toolbar A bar located under the menu bar, which contains icons for the most
110. 110. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 112 frequently used commands. User Interface An environment made up of windows, dialog boxes, menus, commands, mouse, buttons, etc., which allow the user to interact with the computer. Utility A general designation for the different types of windows in Automation Studio. The Core System contains two utilities: the Project Manager and the Diagram Editor. Worksheet The entire surface available in Automation Studio for generating diagrams. Workshop A module which plugs into the Automation Studio Core System. Each workshop contains elements, diagrams and functions relating to its own technological specialty and to the type of diagrams it can generate. Workspace The portion of the window which displays your work.
111. 111. 113 C. Index Coil with OFF delay, 82 Coil with ON delay, 83 Coils, 81 Common (0 volt), 74 Connection block, 70 Connections Verify Connections, 12 Contact NO/NC, 90 Contacts Delay Contacts, 93 Counter Down/Counter Up, 103 Counters, 103 DC Power Supply, 75 Delay Contacts, 93 Dialog Box Standard, 20 Dialog Box Lines, 24 Diode, 88 Electric Wire, 67 Falling Edge Contact, 91 Flashing coil, 84 Fuse, 70 Ground, 73 Heating Element, 86 Indicator Light, 85 Jump-to Label (input), 69 Jump-to Label (output), 69 LED, 89 Neutral, 72 Overload relay, 89 Plug male, 68 Power Supply, 71 Power supply 24V, 74 Properties Definition, 20 Push Button NO/NC, 95 Resistor, 89 Rising Edge Contact, 91 Rotate 90° Counterclockwise, 11 Simulation Start Project, 14 Step by Step, 14 Single-Phase Motor, 87 Socket, 68 Solenoid, 84 Switch 2 positions switch, 97 3 positions switch, 98 Multiposition switch, 98
112. 112. Electrical Control Workshop User's Guide 114 Switches Level Switches NO/NC, 102 Limit Switch NO/NC, 99 Pressure Switch NO/NC, 101 Proximity Switch NO/NC, 100 Thermal Switches NO/NC, 102 Three-phase motor, 88 Toggle Switch NO/NC, 96 Transformer, 75 Multi I/O transformer, 76 Vertical and horizontal jump, 68