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    Au psy492 m7_a3_e_portfolio_lane_tishaj Au psy492 m7_a3_e_portfolio_lane_tishaj Presentation Transcript

    • 1
      Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
      Tisha J. Lane
      Psychology, 2011
    • Personal Statement
      During my high school years I always dreamed of becoming a lawyer. However, when I graduated from high school I didn’t immediately go to college. Instead, I married my husband and started a family. Before I decided to attend college, I graduated from beauty school where I learned to be a nail technician. After graduating from this program, I went and obtained my license the very next day; I could not wait to get started in my new career. After my last child was born, thirteen years ago, I realized that I needed a solid career and foundation; I decided to enter the local community college. Edison Community College (which is now Edison State College); I started with a non-degree seeking program as I still was not sure what area of study I would prefer. Then it hit me; I wanted to be a paralegal, this held my interest for a few semesters and then I decided that teaching would be an excellent route for me to go as I had a part time job as an education paraprofessional in an elementary school. Just when I thought I had it all figured out I took a few psychology courses and that’s when I yet again changed my path.
      My new path was psychology! I enjoy the human services side of psychology especially when it comes to children. As I worked in the school system as an education paraprofessional I came in contact with various students all of whom had different talents, gifts, needs, and personalities. It was my greatest joy when I worked within the Exceptional Student Education (ESE) classrooms with children who ranged from mild learning disabilities to Autism/Aspergers syndrome. The most rewarding experience I had was working with the supportive behavior children, as I utilized the many psychological courses I had already taken in order to help redirect these students to their greatest achievements. At this point in my working stages I knew that education was where I wanted to be, but not in a “teaching” position but as a behavior specialist/guidance counselor. I believe this position is an amalgam of all of my interests.
    • Personal Statement (con’td)
      I had stopped taking classes at my local college around 2003 and decided to focus on working as our finances needed that extra boost. In 2007, I found Argosy online programs; their Organizational Psychology program really intrigued me. I decided after much weighing out the pros and cons of online and traditional campus schooling to go for the online approach so that I could focus on both work and school. It has taken me four years to get to the final class and now I feel I have not exhausted my thirst for educational learning. Accordingly, I have decided to pursue a Master’s degree in either Education or Psychology. I would like to pursue a Masters Degree in Education or Psychology. I want to combine both areas of expertise into one in order to change that one student’s life.
      I have taken the majority of my psychology courses at Argosy including: Research Methods, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, Child and Adolescent Psychology, Social Psychology, Cognition and Learning, Counseling Theories, Personality Theories, and Abnormal Psychology. Academically, my strength lies with developmental changes as well as cognitive development; whereas my weaknesses are in a mathematical areas. My grade point average is a 3.49 of which I am very proud. Admittedly, I was skeptical that I would be able to achieve good grades in an online program but, quickly found that this was the greatest way for me to excel in my course work. I thoroughly enjoy my online classes.
      I look forward to excelling within my career path as I have achieved great success during my coursework and have developed both my critical thinking skills and my ability to accomplish my goals.
      Although I wished I had gone to college after high school, I am proud of my accomplishments many years later. My greatest achievements are my three children and the people that they have become. I have three self-respecting children that are carving their own paths for their futures. My measurement of success has already reached its goal I just hope that my new goals will measure up to my previous success.
      I plan to further my education to a Master’s level and while I am pursuing this goal I plan to gain a career in the education field as a teacher. I believe that the hardest part is choosing the Master’s program I would like to pursue, I have so many paths in which I would like to embark, but children, behavior, and education seems to be where I always return.
    • Resume
      Tisha J. Lane
      15879 Willoughby Ln.
      Ft. Myers, FL. 33905
      239-694-4205
      tlane02@embarqmail.com
      Education:
      Argosy University-Bachelor of Arts-Organizational Psychology 2007-2011
      Phoenix, Arizona (expected graduation August, 2011)
      Edison Community College-Associates Science-Paralegal 1998-2005
      Ft.Myers, Florida
      Employment:
      NeoGenomics Laboratories: 10/06-10/08
      Ft. Myers, Florida
      Title: Laboratory Support Supervisor
      Responsibilities: Consisted of but not limited to; supervised laboratory support operations. Created and enforced policies and procedures. preparing and obtainment of medical licensure applications to include the fifty states as well as managed care credentialing, compliance and regulatory by reviewing and changing SOP’s, preparation for inspections from various national agencies, chaired interoffice meetings monthly, prioritized workflow, directed cases to their destination. Maintained confidential files and documents.
      School District of Lee County: 09/00-10/06
      Ft.Myers, Florida
      Title: Helping Teacher/Substitute Teacher
      Responsibilities: Consisted of but not limited to; Helping Teacher: responsible for assisting children’s educational needs in math, reading, writing and special areas. Substituting: responsible for a class of 20-30 students. Responsible for teaching appropriate materials that included but not limited to: Reading, writing, math and listening skills.
      Kelley, Kronenberg, Gilmartin, Wander, & Fichtel Law Firm: 8/00-9/03
      Ft.Myers, Florida
      Title: Paralegal
      Responsibilities: Consisted of but not limited to; preparation of subpoena’s, notice of intent’s, child support arrearage questionnaire, response to requests for copies, settlement packages, trial preparation, preparation of medical, Medicare, social security disability and unemployment releases, accounts receivable/payable, file management, and other various tasks.
    • Reflection
      Attending Argosy University has been one of my greatest accomplishments; I have enjoyed the time in my courses meeting new people and gaining new friends. The online format of my courses has allowed me the flexibility to raise my children, work, and gain a degree. This is a rewarding experience.
      The courses at Argosy have allowed me to enhance my critical thinking skills as well as my cognitive abilities. Each courses design was the perfect challenge to move onto the next step. While providing me with excellence in communication skills these courses have also offered a profound self esteem. Most of all I have enjoyed the interaction between my peers as well as my professors. The professors are dedicated to their students and the abilities they wish to enhance.
    • Table of Contents
      • Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
      • Research Skills
      • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
      • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      • Foundations of Psychology
      • Applied Psychology
      • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    • Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
      Cognition and Learning
      Course Project: Cognitive, Research and Learning Theory
      PSY360-Cognition & Learning
      PSY360M1A4
      September 12, 2009
    • Application of Cognition and Learning
      Observational Learning
      Observational learning is most definitely observed behavior, such as when my nephew watches wrestling on television and then attempts to imitate a drop kick or slam, this is considered negative observational learning, but then on the other hand my nephew can watch his cousin work alongside his father and then imitate this behavior which in turn is positive behavior.
      Finding a positive role model anywhere can be rather difficult because no one is perfect there are any number of people whom try to do the right thing. I believe that positive role models are ones that have overcome debilitating diseases, states of mind, and personal/professional issues. I also firmly believe that a positive role model ignites one to do and be their personal best. According to our online lecture. “social learning perspective emphasizes that behavior is learned through observation and imitation” (Argosy, 2009).
      There are a few positive role models that I can think of and that would be Rush Limbaugh, Whitney Houston, and Bruce Willis. I chose these people because although they have had turmoil and issues in their path they have also made great efforts to overcome them as well as share with others their passion to help insight personal awareness. Another that I would like to mention but is very controversial to most is that of Michael Jackson, he was a great humanitarian and his love for all people was very great.
      Rush Limbaugh was charged with drug abuse allegations but overcame this dismay and has put his step forward to insight Americans about the political world. Whitney Houston was in a tumultuous relationship with her husband and drugs and has come from this a battle to make others aware of the issues and help them to put their best foot forward. Bruce Willis is a little milder of a character as the other two; however, most look down on his divorce from his wife as there are those that do not agree with divorce.
      This assignment deals with social learning theory therefore requesting a more child like role model for which I think that most children are infatuated with sports players such as, Michael Vick. Although this player does not exactly have a great background he is none-the-less most children’s role models. The most admirable thing that Michael Vick did was to admit his wrong doing and that he has learned from his mistakes this sends a great message. He also served his time for his crime.
      The social learning theory that is associated with sports players I believe is that the children see the fame and money that go hand in hand and they get sucked up in the moment. Therefore they want to imitate their great skills to achieve this in their lives.
      Reference:
      Argosy University, (2009). Cognition & Learning. Retrieved September 16, 2009, from Course Lecture.
    • Research Skills
      Research Methods
      The Effects of Compact Florescent Light Bulbs Have on Our Environment
      SCI115:Ecological Perspective
      SCI115M7A2
      March 1, 2010
    • Application of Research Skills
      Environmental Issues in Various Environments
      The effects of compact florescent light bulbs (CFL) on our environment cause a great deal of concern. There is significant data that states opposition to the use of CFL’s. Below is research provided that support opposition to CFL’s.
      The breakage alone of a CFL can cause high mercury levels to be admitted into the air of the area it was broken. According to the article written by Mike Adams of Natural News.com, this article discusses an actual issue when one woman has found that she needs to involve her local government to clean up the broken CFL she was attempting to install in her daughter’s room. When the Department of Environmental Protection responded to the call it was found, “that the mercury from one broken CFL created mercury levels in the child's bedroom that were greater than six times the state's "safe" level for mercury contamination” (Adams, M. , 2007, para. 4). With this information this leads one to question how safe are these bulbs to dispose of in a landfill.
      The contamination of mercury can be instilled in the landfills that these bulbs are taken to, to be disposed of. The article written by Alex Johnson of MSNBC.com discusses the issues in the amounts of poisonous toxins that the CFL’s emit into the soil of landfills. Even the tiniest amounts of mercury emission into the soil at a landfill can cause serious medical issues such as kidney and brain damage. It is stated by a Stanford University research on mercury, “about 5 milligrams, or barely enough to cover the tip of a pen — but that is enough to contaminate up to 6,000 gallons of water” (Johnson, A. 2008, para. 5). This is also a concern for those CFL’s that are not disposed of properly, such as, someone throwing away their broken bulb or burnt out bulb in their trash and then it ends up in an incinerator which emits these poisonous toxins into the air.
      The proper disposal of these bulbs needs to be met before they can benefit our environment. As stated in an article by Elizabeth Shogren of NPR.org, “The problem with the bulbs is that they'll break before they get to the landfill” (Shogren, 2007, para. 3). According to this article there are many states and local governments that have outlawed the disposal of these bulbs to trash cans, but this does not stop people from slipping them in, and being processed in your landfill.
    • Application of Research Skills (cont’d)
      The toxic risk of mercury to the environment is not exaggerated upon enough. As our landfills and sewage treatment plants are exposed to these dangers from the smallest of items such as the CFL it can cause great damage not only to humans but to our environment and wildlife, as stated by the United States Geological Survey, “Methyl mercury [CH3Hg] is the most toxic form. It affects the immune system, alters genetic and enzyme systems, and damages the nervous system, including coordination and the senses of touch, taste, and sight” (Unknown, 2000, para. 2). Mercury does not only occur naturally but is also introduced to our lives and wildlife as well as our soil.
      Sure there are plenty of pros to using the CFL’s as your choice of lighting such as, less energy costs, longer lasting bulbs, and brighter lighting. There is an article for the everyday use of these bulbs written by, Larry West of About.com. Not only does this article state the cost effective use of these bulbs but it states that, “with the replacement of one household incandescent bulb it is the equivalent of taking 7.5 million cars off the road” (West, L., n.d., para.2). This leaves far less greenhouse gases emissions from power plants.
      The greatest reason for those that approve the use of CFL’s are those that claim they support the decrease in Global Warming, as stated by Michigan’s Department of Natural Resources, “effective way to slow the rate of global climate change while saving money” (Unknown, n.d., para. 1). The state of Michigan backs the support of CFL’s as a way to slow the process of Global Warming and states the opposites of many arguments that are spoken in regards to the stance to not use CFL’s.
      References
      Adams, M., (2007, June 25). Breaking a compact fluorescent light bulb could cost you $2,000 in toxic mercury cleanup. Retrieved January 24, 2010, from, http://www.naturalnews.com/021916.html
      Johnson, A., (2008, April 7). Shining a light on hazards of fluorescent bulbs. Retrieved January 24, 2010, from, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23694819/.
      Mercury in the environment. (2007, October). Retrieved January 24, 2010, from, http://www.usgs.gov/themes/factsheet/146-00/
      Shogren, E., (2007, February 15). CFL bulbs have one hitch: toxic mercury. Retrieved January 24, 2010, from, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7431198
      West, L., (n.d.). Compact fluorescent light bulbs: change a light bulb and change the world. Retrieved January 24, 2010, from, http://environment.about.com/od/greenlivingdesign/a/light_bulbs.htm.
      Why use CFLs? Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2010, from , http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3585_30068_30172-90210--,00.html
    • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
      Communication Skills
      Preventing Child Abuse
      PSY493 Crime and Causes
      PSY493M4A2
      June 1, 2011
    • Application of Communication Skills
      Comparison of Freudian and Skinnerian Theories
      Sigmund Freud and B.F. Skinner were two of the great leaders in the psychoanalytical movement. Their contributions and research greatly molded and modified how we view psychoanalysis and the people analyzed. This paper will compare and contrast Freud and Skinner’s basic theoretical assumptions about crime and about the following: the unconscious, childhood history, focus of counseling and psychotherapy, and human learning and relearning.
      Freud believed that by bringing unconscious thoughts into the conscious it would motivate them. Freud also believed that people in general who bring their unconscious to light will seek gratification no matter the consequence or law broken by it. Therefore, it can be assumed that Freud assumed all people have needs and wants and there are those that will go the distance to satisfy them even if it means crime. The basis of this assumption is not acceptable to society and the cultural beliefs therefore making it a crime. “Freud theorized that people have an unconscious mind that would, if permitted, manifest itself in incest, murder and other activities which are considered crimes in contemporary society. Freud also believes that neuroticism is a result of tensions caused by suppression of our unconscious drives, which are fundamentally aggressive towards others” (Pervin & Oliver 1997).
      Freud believed that childhood history is based on principles of childhood psychosexual development, “completed in a predetermined sequence and can result in either successful completion or a healthy personality or can result in failure, leading to an unhealthy personality” (All Psych, 2011). The stages were; Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital stages. Each of these stages represented a completion of a life stage. Oral stage focused on gratification, if one is not completely gratified they can have a personality that leans toward drinking, smoking, over eat, etc. The anal stage focused on learning to control ones self. The phallic stage focused on the relationship between the child and parents. The latency stage focused on the same sex friendships. The Genital stage focused on gratification between the female and male sexually. Each of these stages can play an important role within ones childhood and their path in life to be or not to be a criminal. Freud utilized; free association, dream analysis, and transference in his therapy sessions. Free association allowed the patient to say whatever came to mind there was no boundary as to what the patient could talk about but if they became guarded or blocked in speaking this indicated that their unconscious resisted their speech. Dreams are where Freud believed that most unconscious ideals lie, and in order to grasp the patient’s thoughts he would analyze their dreams. Transference is the displacement of the patient’s thoughts onto the therapist. This allowed the patient to bring their unconscious to life and encourage them to work through their issues and find resolution. Freud also believed that learning came from the intrinsic motivation to gain knowledge, “Freud's scientific discovery of the unconscious has contributed to the understanding of the role of the unconscious in the motivation aspect of learning ...the basis of the valuing process intrinsic to the human organism... ('intrinsic motivation') and the importance of the emotional nature of motivation as a determinant for effective learning” (Unknown, n.d.).
    • Application of Communication Skills (cont’d)
      Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the basis of behavioral relationships. Operant conditioning is where reinforcement is utilized to strengthen or weaken wanted responses to specific situations. For example, potty training your child and your child uses the toilet would allow him/her to receive a piece of candy this is positive (strengthen) reinforcement. The child will likely continue to use the toilet if they believe they will receive a piece of candy for their action. Likewise in a criminal situation where stealing will follow with being arrested this should discourage the act of theft in the future. Skinner further believed that parents play an important role in the child’s development and how they learned. He believed that economic status, environment, and parental unit all contributed to parental efficacy and would or could contribute to delinquency.
      Skinner’s tactic for counseling was that of emphasis on the patient and counselor relationship where positive reinforcement is encouraged. The patient participates in behavior modification treatments allowing for the process of actualization. Learning and relearning follows upon the same path in a classical conditioning unit, which is an automatic response to an event.
      In conclusion, Freud believed in the encouragement of the unconscious to become conscious and Skinner believed that behavioral is a learned process. Skinner focused on specific behaviors and Freud focused on the whole life of the person.
      References
      All Psych, (2011). Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
      Pervin, L., & Oliver, O. (1997). Personality: Theory and research (7th ed.). New York: John Wiley.
      Unknown, (n.d.). Learning theory; freud and the discovery of the unconscious. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from http://www.holisticeducator.com/freud.htm
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Ethics and Diversity
      Reducing Intergroup Conflict
      PSY310:Social Psychology
      PSY310M7A2
      June 24, 2009
    • Application of Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Authoritarian Personality and the F-Scale
      Authoritarian personality types are classified as those that are seeking conformity, stability, and security. This specific personality type can be characterized as; intolerant, submissive to authority figures, insecure, and rigid in thought. This paper will discuss specific questions in regards to the “F-Scale” authored by T.W. Adorno, Et. Al. The questions are; test items that are especially strong or weak at measuring the personality variable for an authoritarian personality, how relevant is this test today, and do the questions in this test accurately reveal the construct of an authoritarian personality.
      Strong questions asked during the measurement of the authoritarian personality would include several, however, there are a few that have an immense regard toward this personality and they are; “obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn” (Anesi, 1997). This is parallel to the rigid thought process of an authoritarian as well as a submissive thought. Another question that strongly falls in line with the authoritarian personality trait is, “nobody ever learned anything really important except through suffering” (Anesi, 1997).
      The questions in this questionnaire are accurately appropriate as to the measure of the authoritarian personality, there does not seem to be weak questions as it is testing the psyche of the persons beliefs that fall in line with the authoritarian model. Each question has accordance with the characteristics of the personality type. Intolerant measure can be measured in; “most of our social problems would be solved if we could somehow get rid of the immoral, crooked, and feebleminded people” (Anesi, 1997). The submissive measure can be measured in; “every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question” (Anesi, 1997). Rigid thought can be measured in; “Homosexuals are hardly better than criminals and ought to be severely punished” (Anesi, 1997).
      However, a weakness of this test can be considered at the level of the era it was formulated compared to the today’s era. It does not cover the masses of today’s thoughts and emotions. Most people are not as rigid and cynical in thought. People have become more evolved in their thoughts and actions, gaining more security, less submissive, contemporary thoughts, and more tolerant. Therefore, making this test an inaccurate measure of the authoritarian personality as described.
    • Application of Ethics and Diversity Awareness (cont’d)
      The relevancy of this test in today’s society could be depended upon of forthcoming information as to where our country is headed. It would be interesting to know how our congress, representatives, and president would fare on this test. This test seems to be accommodating to the authoritarian personality definition. Though it was considered as controversial when it was formulated, today it is not, and it can be used as a pathway to what we have become. The relevancies of these questions to the authoritarian personality are rife with intolerance, submissiveness, insecurity, and rigid thought processes. As the questions are geared towards an authoritarian ideology they yield answers to a portrait of the authoritarian personality.
      In conclusion, the F-Scale test was a controversial test in the nineteen-fifties because of its measurement of what people were scared to believe of human thought and actions. It was not weak in the fifties but could be considered weak today as the evolution of the human mind. The test could not be considered controversial as it was in its infancy as we have surpassed this type of governing. However, a new authority is upon us and this test could possibly yield insight to what most do not see from our new leaders.
      References
      Anesi, C. (1997). The f-scale final form. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.anesi.com/fscale.htm
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Negotiation and Conflict Resolution
      Negotiation, Ethics and Leadership
      COM301: Negotiation and Conflict Resolution
      COM301M6A2
      June 18, 2010
    • Application of Foundations in Psychology
      Conflict Analysis and Solutions
      Conflict can be defined as an incompatibility to an idea, situation, etc. Conflict can arise without the intended path of conflict and can have a lasting effect on the parties involved or it can be resolved amicably never to be brought up again. This paper will discuss the author’s Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders Essentials of Negotiation definition of conflict as well as the basis for which one agrees or disagrees with that definition. In addition, this paper will share an analysis of an experience of a conflict situation and the appropriate solution to the conflict.
      Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders define conflict as, “sharp disagreement or opposition, as of interests, ideas, etc.” and includes “the perceived divergence of interest, or a belief that the parties’ current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously”, (Essentials of Negotiation, 2007, pg. 16). Conflict most certainly lies within fine lined disagreement. It cannot always be seen from the beginning of the situation that ends in conflict. Perception plays a very important role in conflict as perception is, “a single unified awareness derived from sensory processes while a stimulus is present” (perception, n.d.). As our senses and intuition lead our every thought it can quickly sense opposition to one’s ideals and beliefs therefore causing conflict in almost any situation where one may feel their interests are not tenable. The definition that Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders have given to conflict is in alignment with what I hold to be an accurate definition.
      Personal conflicts are more difficult to find a solution and are based on how much you want the other person to be a part of your life. The personal conflict that I have experienced was with one of my best friends, Jennifer. Jennifer was having several personal issues of her own in trusting her fiancé and on many occasions asked for advice, she did listen and participated in the conversations that acknowledged she understood what I was telling her, but did refuse to take the advice and completely did the opposite. The opposite response to my advice caused a conflict between us when she made a false police report against a stranger whom supposedly broke into her home. Jennifer admitted to me she made this up and at that point there was a conflict between us. My first thought was to turn my back on my friend and not even participate in this conflict but, I realized that I could not do this; I had to help her get the help she needed. It was my goal to help her find the help she needed to gain her self esteem and worth back.
    • Application of Foundations in Psychology (cont’d)
      The issues that surrounded the achievement of my goal were very difficult to overcome, as my friend was/is very hard headed as they say, she is very set in her ways. Just when one step forward was taken two steps back were to follow. Her ideals of herself, her life, her needs were the biggest obstacle in trying to assist her in achieving what she so desperately was looking for. After several times and measures to help her were attempted I told her she needed to go to psychological counseling to help her deal with the issues she had. This was more beneficial to her and now we have a greater friendship. I believe that communication between all parties is the greatest key to conflict resolution.
      References
      Lewicki, R.J., Barry, B., and Saunders, D.M. (2007). Essentials of negotiation. Retrieved May 21, 2010, from http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/007-7376501/pages/12121824
      perception. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved May 21, 2010, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/perception
    • Applied Psychology
      Personality Theory
      Reinforcement Shaping Life Milestones
      PSY361: Personality Theory
      PSY361M5A3
      February 11, 2011
    • Application of Psychology
      Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory
      Psychoanalytic theory is of the developmental processes which underlie within ones psyche; it is a form of analysis of the brain as it is developing. Sigmund Freud was the founding father of psychoanalysis, often analyzing his own thoughts and behaviors to form his theories. This paper will discuss three aspects of psychoanalytic theory that have been helpful toward understanding human personality and a summarization of Freud’s viewpoint.
      Freud was commonly known for including sexuality within his theories and experiments, which leads us to the oedipal complex. The oedipal complex theory was formed to describe the unconscious ideas and/or feelings one has toward their parents; such as; “the desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the parent of the same sex” (Rycroft, 1995). This complex analyzed the development of the bond that a male child constructed with his mother and the competition that was created out of this bond with the father. This theories basis of the development of a boy acquiring sexual feelings for his mother and despising his father is the formation of the “ego” within the child which in turn acknowledges a competition between the child and father based the mother becoming the object. The son develops a relationship with his mother in order to woo her away from the father. Likewise the daughter can also have development ideals as these but they are more of a liking to the same sex.
      Another Freudian theory that was developed in order to understand human personality was; the division of the psyche where Freud analyzed different stages of development and labeled them as the; id, ego, and superego. The id is the first development of ones brain where ones most basic instinct is formed under little consciousness. The id acts without malice or foresight and can become uncontrollable, thus seeking gratification at all costs. “The id has no contact with reality, yet it strives constantly to reduce tension by satisfying basic desires” (Feist & Feist, 2009, pg. 13, para.1). The ego is developed at a slower pace in order to keep the id in balance and decipher the differences between what is realistic and what is made up. The super-ego is defined as the development of personal interests within ones self and the analysis thereof. These stages have helped define analytical theories on a level in which one becomes more aware of the psyche and how to condition it to learn and change behaviors.
      Object relations theory is another psychoanalytic theory that was developed by Freud. Object relations theory refers to; ones internal manifestations relate to the representations of others. How one may identify themselves in relation to objects. For example; a teenager usually goes through an “identity crisis” base don what they previously felt was representative of them; then however find that their identity which had been previously developed is changed or never existed.
    • Application of Psychology (cont’d)
      Freud’s theory was based on conscious and unconscious development and the composition of each developmental stage of the; id, ego, and superego. Based on these structures of development the id is based on an inborn animal instinct that maximizes pleasure but minimizes discomfort through an unconscious level. The ego is based on the development of our self identity as an individual. There is self recognition of ones own desires and wants and operates to benefit the id. The superego is based on the balancing act between the id and ego, in this developmental stage, the superego learns and digests the morality of situations and the reality of situations. Within all three of these realms Freud believed that these three developmental stages influenced behavior and personalities alike.
      References
      Feist, J. & Feist, G.J., (2009). Theories of personality. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/007-7376714/pages/10030056
      Rycroft, C., (1995). A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London, 2nd Edn.).
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Social Psychology
      Increasing Funds, Activities, and Volunteerism in an Assisted Living Facility
      PSY310- Social Psychology
      PSY310M4A2
      June 3, 2009
    • Application of Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Jean’s Social Facilitation Theory Study
      Social facilitation theory is described as, a person’s performance is altered positively or negatively when there may or may not be an audience. It can also encumber whether the skill being spectated is mastered. The study that will be discussed within this paper was observed by Jean whom hypothesized; “The presence of others will improve the performance of teammates who exhibit mastery over their sport as compared to teammates who do not exhibit mastery over their sport” (Argosy, 2009). As well as; “The presence of others will hinder the performance of teammates who do not exhibit mastery over their sport as compared to teammates who exhibit mastery over their sport” (Argosy, 2009). Jean decided to attend a week long statewide gymnastic competition to put her hypothesis to work.
      During the observation Jean noticed that the teams who performed in front of large audiences scored higher than those who performed in front of a smaller audience. Jean also feels that this proves social facilitation. However, Jean has only observed the independent variable of the size of audience whereas; she fails to observe the dependent variable of the gymnast. There are many reasons one may not perform to their best or on the other side of the coin the independent judges see differently than the audiences, such as; their form, execution of steps and jumps, their appearance, as well as many other areas. These variables must also be used when observing the association of the social facilitation theory.
      Jean should try a different approach with her hypothesis as her hypothesis is too broad. For example; the presence of observers will positively enhance the performance of the gymnasts as opposed to the lack of presence of observers will negatively enhance the performance of the gymnasts. Before Jean can accurately evaluate the gymnasts she must first observe them while they practice before the competition to evaluate their mastery and whether this will hinder any of their performance. Jean can also observe them at various times of the day while they practice to evaluate their emotional and physical durability. This data will help to evaluate the gymnast before they are presented with the audience, known as the self-evaluation this will conclude your calculations of whether the audience has had an effect.
      In this observation, Jean collects data on each individual at various times of the competition. Jean will need to set the amount of gymnasts she chooses to perform her observation on such as there may be one hundred gymnasts she should choose to follow a minimum of fifty-two gymnasts to have the appropriate amount to account for the sample of the population. Each will perform at various times and different stages of the competition. The gymnasts should also be watched at specific times of the day as some perform better in the morning as opposed to the afternoon because of tiring and pains.
    • Application of Interpersonal Effectiveness (cont’d)
      In conclusion, by Jean observing a sample of the population of gymnasts at various times throughout the week as they practice she will be able to provide data that will entail enough data to the proportion of audience versus gymnast performance. However, she will need to stay within the timeframes of a specific part of the day such as the morning round versus the afternoon round of events. In the newly constructed hypothesis, the independent variable is the audience and the dependent variable is still the gymnast.
      Reference
      Argosy University, (2009). Social Psychology. Retrieved June 29, 2009, from Course Lecture.
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