CCNA 1 v3.0 Module 11TCP/IP Transport andApplication Layers
Purpose of This PowerPoint This PowerPoint primarily consists of the Target Indicators (TIs) of this module in CCNA version 3.0. It was created to give instructors a PowerPoint to take and modify as their own. This PowerPoint is: NOT a study guide for the module final assessment. NOT a study guide for the CCNA certification exam. Please report any mistakes you find in this PowerPoint by using the Academy Connection Help link.
To Locate Instructional ResourceMaterials on Academy Connection: Go to the Community FTP Center to locate materials created by the instructor community Go to the Tools section Go to the Alpha Preview section Go to the Community link under Resources See the resources available on the Class home page for classes you are offering Search http://www.cisco.com Contact your parent academy!
Objectives TCP/IP Transport Layer TCP/IP Application Layer
Introduction to TransportLayer Five basic services: Segmenting upper-layer application data Establishing end-to-end operations Transporting segments from one end host to another end host Ensuring data reliability Providing flow control
Windowing A method of controlling the amount of information transferred end to end Information can be measured in terms of the number of packets or the number of bytes
Window Size TCP window sizes are variable during the lifetime of a connection. Larger window sizes increase communication efficiency.
Acknowledgment Positive acknowledgment requires a recipient to communicate with the source, sending back an acknowledgment message when it receives data. Sender keeps a record of each data packet that it sends and expects an acknowledgment.
TCP and UDP Port Numbers Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass information to the upper layers. Numbers below 1024 are considered well-known ports numbers. Numbers above 1024 are dynamically assigned ports numbers. Registered port numbers are those registered for vendor-specific applications. Most of these are above 1024.
Responsibilities of ApplicationLayer Identifying and establishing the availability of intended communication partners Synchronizing cooperating applications Establishing agreement on procedures for error recovery Controlling data integrity
Application Layer Examples Domain Name System File Transfer Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transport Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Telnet
DNSThe Domain Name System (DNS) is a systemused for translating names of domains into IPaddresses.There are more than 200 top-level domains onthe Internet, examples of which include thefollowing: .us – United States .gov – government sites .uk – United Kingdom .org – non-profit sites .edu – educational sites .net – network service .com – commercial sites
FTP and TFTPFTP is a reliable, connection-orientedservice that uses TCP to transfer filesbetween systems that support FTP.TFTP is a connectionless service thatuses User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TFTP is used on routers to transfer configuration files and Cisco IOS images. TFTP is designed to be small and easy to implement.