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Common sense in philosophical and scientific perspective

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  • 1. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  • 2. ModernPhilosophical Scientific
  • 3. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  • 4. • Plato’s writings, to distance philosophers from the common people and to differentiate true scientific knowledge (episteme) from the misguided and murky opinion (doxa) of the multitude.• He advanced the notion thatknowledge of absolute truths is in somesense innate->Dialectical Reasoning.
  • 5. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  • 6. He demonstrate the limitations of thesenses, Descartes proceeds with what is known asthe Wax Argument.He considers a piece of wax: SENSES such as•shape•texture•size•color•Smell•When he brings the wax towards a flame, thesecharacteristics change completelyTherefore, in order to properly grasp thenature of the wax, he cannot use thesenses: He must use his mind. Descartesconcludes:“Thus what I thought I had seen with myeyes, I actually grasped solely with thefaculty of judgment, which is in my mind”.
  • 7. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  • 8. Hobbes rejected the approach ofDescartes. Deriving all ideas fromthe senses in ways that wouldbecome standard fare for later BritishEmpiricists.IDEA OF SPACEderived from mental images - presentthings to us as though they weredistinct from usIDEA OF EXISTENCEderived from the thought of emptyspace being filled.
  • 9. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  • 10. •An Essay Concerning HumanUnderstanding- “sense that is common to the others”• The “common” sense, the sense thatunites disparate impressions under asingle concept or experience. It istherefore allied with "fancy," andopposed to "judgment," or thecapacity to divide like things intoseparates• All believed that there is a sense inthe human understanding that seescommonality and does thecombining—this is "common sense."
  • 11. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  • 12. Hume believes that all humanknowledge comes to usthrough our senses.2 CATEGORIES OFPERCEPTIONS:1. ideas2. impressions
  • 13. By the term impression, then, Imean all our more livelyperceptions, when we hear, orsee, or feel, or love, or hate, ordesire, or will. And impressionsare distinguished fromideas, which are the less livelyperceptions, of which we areconscious, when we reflect on anyof those sensations or movementsabove mentioned.
  • 14. He further specifies ideas, saying, It seems a proposition, which will not admit of much dispute, that all our ideas are nothing but copies of our impressions, or, in other words, that it is impossible for us to think of anything, which we have not antecedently felt, either by our external or internal senses.This forms an important aspect of Humesskepticism, for he says that we cannot be certain athing, such as God, a soul, or a self, exists unless wecan point out the impression from which the idea ofthe thing is derived.
  • 15. Influenced by the discoveries and methodologies of modern science, but mirrored this trend and the long term-effect was to place into DOUBT—SELF-EVIDENTLY TRUE
  • 16. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  • 17. SCIENTIFIC
  • 18. Foundation and startingpoint of Scientific Inquiry.-Scientific Reasoning must begin with known as obvious truths and assumptions
  • 19. SCIENTIFIC
  • 20. Bacon used to be called thefather of experimentalscience, but his claim to thistitle was denied because hismethod of tables andexclusions is not the procedureof modern science whereby anexperimenter somehowformulates a guess, tentativetheory, or hypothesis and thentests it in experiments.
  • 21. Read between the lines andinterprets Bacon with commonsense, it is clear that he realizedthe impossibility of reaching finaltruth by means of tables andexclusions or from the axioms orhypotheses which emerged fromthem. Hypothesizing inevitablywas involved in the classifying, inthe selection of prerogativeinstances, and in the formulationof the axioms. Scientific truthswould emerge when these weretested by systematicexperiments.
  • 22. SCIENTIFIC
  • 23. Johannes Kepler contributedimportantly to every field headdressed. He changed the face ofastronomy by abandoningprinciples that had been in placefor two millennia, made importantdiscoveries in optics andmathematics, and was anuncommonly good philosopher.Keplers philosophical ideas havebeen dismissed as irrelevant andeven detrimental to his legacy ofscientific accomplishment
  • 24. Galileo was a great scientist and wassurely a genius. He was the first person onearth to have ever told that the laws ofnature were purely based onmathematics.
  • 25. For Boyle, the acquisition of knowledge was an end in itself. He had a lot to say about experimenting as a means to gain knowledge about the natural world. He was the first natural philosopher to establish that the suppositions employed in setting up an experiment must be validated before proceeding with the experiment itself.Something in this approach is akin to amathematicians insistence on fundamental truths(such as the establishment of geometrical theorems)before proofs can be produced.
  • 26. SCIENTIFIC
  • 27. When Isaac Newton published hisPrincipia, he stated that he intended toillustrate a new way of doing naturalphilosophy that overcomes some of thelimitations of the axiomatic method. Thismethod is now called the empirical scientificmethod. The goal of Newton’s method wasto find empirically the forces of nature.
  • 28. SCIENTIFIC
  • 29. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective
  • 30. Thomas Reid defended thecommon sense, or naturaljudgment, of human beings, bywhich the real existence of bothsubject and object is directlyknown (natural realism).
  • 31. He argued that if there is no logical or scientificproof of a real external world or continuouslyexisting mind, it is not because they do not existor cannot be known, but because human consciousness of them is an ultimate fact, which does not require proof but is itself the ground of all proof. Common-sense beliefs automatically govern human lives and thought.
  • 32. Thomas Reid did not give a definitionof common sense per se, but offeredseveral "principles of common sense:" • Principles of common sense are believed universally (with the apparent exceptions of some philosophers and the insane)
  • 33. • It is appropriate to ridicule the denial ofcommon sense • The denial of principles of common sense leads to contradictions
  • 34. "All knowledge and all science must bebuilt upon principles that are self-evident; and of such principles everyman who has common sense is acompetent judge"
  • 35. Pinkers refers to these core truths andrules as features of common sense, andargues convincingly that the preciouslydominant understanding of the mindas a “blank slate” at birth is false.
  • 36. Common Sense in Philosophical and Scientific Perspective III-H BSE Social Studies•Caliwagan, Cholo •Dela Cerna, Cindy Joy•Bombane, Christine •Sison, Lyka Marie Prof. Sagadraca