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# Dr. Ralph Buehler: “Making the National Capitol Region the Next Cycling Capital of the USA: Opportunities and Lessons from Home and Abroad”

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Presentation from Dr. Ralph Buehler's Lecture September 12, 2013: “Making the National Capitol Region the Next Cycling Capital of the USA: Opportunities and Lessons from Home and Abroad”

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• DC Region: 67% of bike trips &lt;40; 4%&gt;65
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• Column 1 in Table 4 presents AOR-transformed coefficients (e(β)) for the ‘full model’. AORs represent the individual’s likelihood of cycling to work relative to a specific reference group assigned the base value 1.00, while controlling for other variables in the analysis. Coefficients of the full model in Table 4 are consistent with relationships reported in most other studies, but not all are statistically significant.Controlling for other variables in the regression, whites are associated with 3.428 times greater odds to cycle to work than non-whites. Similarly, compared to women, men are associated with a 2.646 greater likelihood to cycle to work. One more car per household member is associated with 76.8% smaller odds for cycling to work. Similarly, more bicycles per household member are related to a greater likelihood to cycle to work (AOR 3.943). One additional mile of bikeways per 1,000 inhabitants in a TAZ is related to an 11.1% greater likelihood to cycle to work. Short work-trip distances (&lt;3miles) are associated with more bike commuting than trips longer than 3 miles (AOR 2.366). The coefficients for household location in the urban core and population density are not statistically significant in the full model.Trip-end facilities at work appear to be significant determinants of cycling to work. Compared to individuals without any bicycle facilities at work, commuters with cyclist showers, clothes lockers, and bike parking at work are associated with a 4.860 greater likelihood to commute by bike. Similarly, individuals with bike parking, but no showers and lockers at the workplace, are associated with 1.782 times greater odds to cycle to work than those without trip-end facilities. In contrast, free car parking at the workplace is associated with 69.7% smaller odds for cycling to work. Commuter transit benefits are not significantly related to bike commuting. Finally, respondents with travel days during warmer months are more likely to commute by bike than those traveling during winter months (AOR 1.732).
• JohnNorth America leads the WORLD in bike transit integration in this respect
• JohnMost of the newer LRT systems permit bikes on board and provide special racks.
• VRE: Collapsible bicycles are permitted on all of our trains.  Full size bicycles will only be allowed on the last three northbound, the mid-day, and the last three southbound trains on each line.Due to safety concerns, MARC&apos;s bicycle policy allows for the transportation of folding bicycles only.  There are no designated storage areas for bikes, and they are prohibited from being stored in the overhead racks.  However, folding bikes are no longer restricted to those carried in a case. Lockers for bikes are also available at many stationsSpecial cars on CalTrain provide extensive storage for bikes, up to 40 bikes per car, 80 bikes per train, but still not enough during rush hour. RARE! Most suburban rail systems do not offer any special provisions at all for bike storage on board, just use of special area designated for wheelchairs.
• Bike stations much older, larger, and offer more services in Europe. This one in Muenster is ten times larger than the largest bike station in all of North America. Almost 200 bike stations in Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands.
• JohnHolds about 150 bikes and provides bike rentals, repairs, change rooms and storage lockers, immediately adjacent to station.
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• ### Dr. Ralph Buehler: “Making the National Capitol Region the Next Cycling Capital of the USA: Opportunities and Lessons from Home and Abroad”

1. 1. Ralph Buehler, Virginia Tech and John Pucher, Rutgers University Making the National Capital Region the Next Cycling Capital of the USA: Opportunities and Lessons from Home and Abroad Photo: Susan Handy Photo: Ralph BuehlerPhoto: SF Bicycle CoalitionPhoto: Ralph Buehler
2. 2. Why Cycling?  Economical: Affordable by everyone, requiring minimal costs for individuals and governments  Good for business: Generate retail sales and profits from tourism  Environmentally friendly: Virtually no pollution  Space-efficient: Uses little space for operation and parking  Energy-efficient: Use up calories we need to burn off from eating too much  Healthy: Many studies report on physical, social, mental health benefits  Fun: Getting out into the fresh air with family and friends
3. 3. Cycling Share of Daily Trips in Europe, North America, and Australia, 1999-2008 0.5 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 8 9 9 10 18 26 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Percentoftripsbycycling Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.) City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
4. 4. Bike Mode Share of Work Commuters in the USA (2007) and Canada (2006) Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Seinen, M. 2011 “Bicycling Renaissance in North America? An Update and Re-Assessment of Cycling Trends and Policies,” Transportation Research A, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 451-475.
5. 5. Source: Pucher, Dill, and Handy, “Infrastructure, Programs, and Policies to Increase Bicycling,” Preventive Medicine, Jan 2010, Vol. 50, S.1, pp. S106-S125. 4 7 6 6 15 29 25 25 12 13 12 14 27 35 37 38 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Nuremburg… Berlin… Cologne… Munich… Freiburg… Muenster ('82-'10) Amsterdam… Copenhagen… Percentofalltrips Rebound of Bike Mode Share of Trips in German, Dutch, and Danish Cities
6. 6. 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.6 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.6 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.1 4.4 6.8 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 BikeShareofRegularCommutes 1990 (USA) / 1996 (Canada) 2011 (USA and Canada) * * 2011 figures for Canadian cities are preliminary estimates Boom in Cycling to Work in 14 Large US and Canadian Cities Source: Pucher, J. and Buehler, R. City Cycling, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2012.
7. 7. Source: Buehler, R., Hamre, A., Sonenklar, D., & P. Goger. 2013. Determinants of Cycling in Washington, DC. Report for U. S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Washington, D.C. and MAUTC. Trend in Number of Regular Bicycle Commuters in Washington, DC and Adjacent jurisdictions, 1990-2011 2,292 3,035 7741 916 1,231 2034 891 773 1337 967 669 1150 661 803 1452 359 413 770 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 1990 Census 2000 Census ACS 2011 Alexandria City, VA Arlington County, VA Fairfax County, VA Prince George's County, MD Montgomery County, MD Washington, DC 3.4x 2.2x 1.5x 1.2x 2.2x 2.1x Increase
8. 8. Trend in Bike Mode Share of all Trips in Washington, DC and Adjacent Jurisdictions, 1994-2008 Source: Buehler, R., Hamre, A., Sonenklar, D., & P. Goger. 2011. Determinants of Cycling in Washington, DC. Report for U. S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Washington, D.C. and MAUTC. 1.3 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.2 1.5 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Washington, DC Alexandria, VA Arlington County, VA Montgomery County, MD Fairfax County, VA Prince George's County, MD 1994 2008
9. 9. Spatial Variation in Bicycle Mode Share of Work Commuters in Washington, D.C. Area, 2005-2009 Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Seinen, M. 2011 “Bicycling Renaissance in North America? An Update and Re- Assessment of Cycling Trends and Policies,” Transportation Research A, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 451-475.
10. 10. Cycling levels in the Washington DC Region have increased… …. but the cycling boom is limited to certain areas, mainly in parts of or close to the „urban core‟ of the region.
11. 11. 2 2 1 16 12 7 31 24 18 29 35 24 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0<2.5km 2.5km<4.5km 4.5km-6.5km 0<2.5km 2.5km<4.5km 4.5<6.5km 0<2.5km 2.5km<4.5km 4.5km-6.5km 0<2.5km 2.5km<4.5km 5<7.5km Percentoftripsbycycling USA GER DK NL Trip distance category Share of Cycling for Short Trips Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.) City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
12. 12.  ~27% of all trips in the U.S. were a mile or shorter in 2009  ~41% of all trips were shorter than two miles  ~36% of all trips<2 miles in DC Region Lots of Potential for Increased Cycling: Many daily trips in American urban areas and the DC Region are short enough to bike!
13. 13. Europeans cycle for many trip purposes
14. 14. Pucher: Biking for all Texans
15. 15. 25% 27% 30% 49% 55% 56% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% USA UK Canada Germany Denmark Netherlands Percentoftripsbywomen Women‟s Share of Bike Trips in Europe and North America Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.) City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
16. 16. Copenhagen Amsterdam Berlin Vancouver MontrealToronto Portland Minneapolis Chicago San Francisco Melbourne Sydney Tokyo 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Percentofbicyclistswhoarefemale Percent of trips by bicycle Washington Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012 Bicycle Mode Share of Trips and Percentage of Female Cyclists in Large Cities
17. 17. Source: Susan Handy
18. 18. 3 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.5 2 2 2 1 1 14 9 9 9 11 9 32 20 14 14 15 15 15 40 25 21 22 23 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 5-15 16-24 25-39 40-65 65+ 0-16 17-29 30-59 60-65 65+ 0-17 18-25 26-44 45-59 60-65 65+ 10-19' 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-74 0-17 18-25 26-44 45-64 65+ Percentoftripsbycycling Age Group NL USA GER DK UK Bike Mode Share of Trips by Age Group Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.) City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
19. 19. Cycling for all ages Foto by Marie Demers
20. 20. 13 29 58 25 34 41 88 6 6 10 23 67 25 49 26 82 7 11 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 No car One car Two and more cars Lowest Quartile Mid Quartiles Highest Quartile White African American Other PercentofBikeTrips Washington D.C. Region U.S. Urbanized Areas 20 Percent of Bike Trips by Group in the D.C. Region vs. U.S. Averages for Urbanized Areas, 2008/2009. Source: Buehler, R., Hamre, A., Sonenklar, D., & P. Goger. 2011. Determinants of Cycling in Washington, DC. Report for U. S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Washington, D.C. and MAUTC. Higher % of trips by cyclists w/o and 1 car Higher % of trips by cyclists in 4th quartile High % of „white‟
21. 21. The Washington DC Region has a high share of work trips by bicycle, but… ….DC area cyclists are more likely men, younger than 40, in higher income groups, and white.
22. 22. •Especially important for the young, the old, for anyone with disabilities, for the timid or risk-averse •Women more sensitive to safety than men •Safety of cycling in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany helps explain high levels of cycling there Make Cycling Safe for Everyone !
23. 23. 1.1 1.6 1.6 3.3 5.5 1.6 1.5 4.7 5.7 33.5* 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 NL DK GER UK USA Fatalititiesandinjuriespertripandperkilometer Cylists killed per 100 million km cycled Cylists injured per 10 million km cycled Cyclist Fatality and Injury Rates, 2007-2010 Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.) City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
24. 24. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Totalcyclistfatalitiesrelativeto1970(=100) USA UK Denmark Germany Netherlands Trends in Cyclist Fatalities Source: Pucher and Buehler (eds.), City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
25. 25. SAFETY IN NUMBERS •As levels of cycling increase, injury and fatality rates per trip and per km traveled fall dramatically •Thus, if we can increase cycling, it will almost inevitably be safer
26. 26. Source: City of Portland (2013) Sharp increase in cycling safety in Portland as cycling levels rose 70% fall in crash rate 6-fold increase in bike trips
27. 27. Chicago Washington Toronto Montréal San Francisco Vancouver Minneapolis Portland 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 AnnualFatalitiesper10,000Cyclists Bike Mode Share of Workers New York Safety in Numbers: Cyclist fatality rate falls as cycling levels increase. Source: Pucher and Buehler, City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
28. 28. Cycling in the Washington DC Region is safer than in NYC and Chicago, … …. but Portland, Minneapolis, San Francisco and European cities are safer than DC.
29. 29.  Pro-car policies in European cities in 1950s and 1960s caused huge decline in walking and cycling  Dramatic policy turn-around since 1970s to limit car use and promote cycling, walking, and public transport in Dutch, Danish, and German cities Public Policies Crucial to Promote Cycling
30. 30. 1950s 1960s Today Source: City of Freiburg
31. 31. How to Encourage More Cycling while Improving Safety •Better cycling facilities •Integration of bike with public transport •Traffic calming of residential neighborhoods •Mixed-use zoning and improved urban design •Restrictions on motor vehicle use •Traffic education and Safe Routes to School •Traffic regulations and enforcement
32. 32. Trend in Bike Paths and Lanes per 100,000 Population in Nine Large North American Cities, 2000-2010 3 4 6 10 16 19 17 39 60 8 9 11 15 22 25 27 70 73 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 New York Chicago Toronto San Francisco Vancouver Montréal Washington Minneapolis Portland KilometersofLanesandPathsper100,000Population 2000 2010
33. 33. Cycling Policies in the DC Region  1970s: Plans for on-street facilities, but focus on off-street shared-use trails (often together with the NPS)  1980s/early 1990s: only few new pro-bike initiatives  Building on the progress of the late 1990s, bicycle planning experienced a renaissance in the 2000s.  New focus on bike lanes and „innovative‟ measures
34. 34. Bike Lanes and Paved Off-Street Paths per Square Mile of Land Area, 2011 0.81 1.86 0.86 0.51 0.29 0.19 0.98 1.12 0.84 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 Washington, DC Arlington County Alexandria City Fairfax County Montgomery County Prince George's County MilesofLanesorTrailsperSquareMile Miles of Paved Trails per Square Mile Miles of Lanes per Square Mile
35. 35. Separate Bikeways in Germany Sources: City of Freiburg & Pucher
36. 36. Stone Arch Bridge in Minneapolis Greenway in Minneapolis Source: Buehler
37. 37. One-way cycle track in The Hague Source: Peter Furth Raised curb between cycle track and traffic lane
38. 38. Almost 100km of 2-way cycle tracks in Montreal Separation from traffic via bollards and parked cars Separation from traffic via concrete barriers Photo: Peter Furth Photo: Velo Quebec
39. 39. Source: Buehler D C R E G I O N Pennsylvania Avenue 15th Street Mount Vernon Trail 15th Street
40. 40. Dutch Bicycle Facility Selection Matrix Lane Configuration Average daily traffic (vehicles / day) Street type and speed limit Urban local street Urban through street Rural local road Fast traffic road 30 km/h (19 mph) 50 km/h (31 mph) 60 km/h (37 mph) 70+ km/h (44+ mph) 2-way traffic with no centerline < 2500 mixed traffic1 bike lane2 or cycletrack3 advisory bike lane4 cycle track or low-speed service road 2000 to 3000 bike lane2 or cycle track5 3000 to 5000 > 4000 bike lane or cycle track bike lane or cycle track3 2 lanes (1+1) any bike lane or cycle track bike lane or cycle track3 4 lanes (2 + 2) or more any (does not exist) cycle track or low speed service road Source: Peter Furth, “Cycling Infrastructure,” in Pucher and Buehler, eds. City Cycling, MIT Press, 2012.
41. 41. Bike lanes are definitely better than no separate bike facilities, but they do not provide nearly as much protection of cyclists from motor vehicles as cycle tracks Bike lanes used for car parking Bike lanes used for truck deliveries Dooring of cyclists
42. 42. Bike bridge over Yarra River in Melbourne, Australia Bike bridge over Ems River in Muenster, Germany Crucial to provide river crossings for cyclists
43. 43. Provision of cycle track at this key underpass in Montreal Photo: Velo Quebec Separation from traffic via concrete barriers AND bollards
44. 44. 14 Street Bridge
45. 45. Intersection in Copenhagen, with Separate Crossings for Pedestrians and Cyclists
46. 46. Red bike lanes for intersection crossings, connected with red brick sidepaths on both sides of every road Source: City of Muenster, Germany
47. 47. Pucher: Walking and Cycling for Health Bike lane, advance stop line, and priority signal for cyclists in Muenster
48. 48. Advanced stop line for cyclists in Berlin Advanced stop line and bike box in Portland
49. 49. Bike Box in Alexandria, VA Source: Hillary Poole
50. 50. Green wave for cyclists in Odense, Den mark Troels Andersen, “Cycling in Odense, Denmark” Express bikeways for commuters Bike speed indicators Raised curb protects bike path from cars
51. 51. Traffic Calming of Residential Neighborhoods •Speed limited by law to 30km per hour (19mph) or less •Physical measures that force cars to slow down: •Road narrowing, zigzag routing, chicanes •Raised intersections and crosswalks •Traffic circles •Speed humps and bumps •Mid-block closures and artificial dead-ends •Bulb-outs at intersections and crosswalks, with sidewalk widening
52. 52. Source: World Health Organization (2008) and OECD Transport Research Centre (2006) Why Traffic Calming Saves Lives Speed kills! Speed kills!
53. 53. Convenient bike cut-thru for cyclists Foto by Peter Berkeley
54. 54. Traffic Calming in Québec City Source: Transports Viables Traffic calming in Quebec City and Montreal Cheap, easy, and very effective traffic diverters Photo: Transports Viables
55. 55. Typical traffic calming in new German suburbs 7 km/hr speed limit
56. 56. Bike Boulevards in Portland Traffic calming turns these streets into bikeways Fotos: Jonathan Maus (in 15 US cities in 2012)
57. 57. Source: City of Berlin 1,100 km of bicycling facilities in Berlin plus 3,800 km of traffic calmed streets = 10% bike share of all trips Source: City of Berlin, Burden, Buehler
58. 58. The Washington DC Region has greatly expanded its bicycle infrastructure and implemented innovative measures, but… …. it does not have a comprehensive network of bicycle facilities and intersection treatments that allows cyclists to get from A to B without cycling in heavy or higher speed car traffic.
59. 59. Bike Parking Spaces per 100,000 Residents, 2008 73 148 466 802 725 857 1,056 1,121 1,286 4,599 6,960 30,272 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 BikeParkingSpacesper100,000Population Source: Pucher, J., Buehler, R. (eds.) City Cycling. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
60. 60. Conversion of Car Parking to Bike Parking 27 bike corrals in San Francisco 95 bike corrals in Portland E-Street in DC King Street in Alexandria
61. 61. Bike Parking and Showers At Work Increase Likelihood to Commute by Bike Note: Relative to 1. Above 1=more likely. Below 1=less likely. Buehler, R. 2012. “Determinants of Bicycle Commuting in the Washington, D.C. Region: The Role of Bicycle Parking, Cyclist Showers, and Free Car Parking at Work,” Transportation Research Part D: Transportation and Environment Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 525-531.
62. 62. Over 50,000 buses in the USA now come equipped with bike racks Photo: Metro Transit
63. 63. Bike on LRT in NJ and Minneapolis Photo: Metro TransitPhoto: John Boyle
64. 64. Photo: John PucherPhoto: Ralph Buehler Bikes on Caltrain in San Francisco Photo: San Francisco Bicycling Coalition
65. 65. Bi-directional cycle track and bike sharing near metro station in Montréal Source: Vélo Québec BIXI bike docking station Metro station Cycle track
66. 66. Bike Station next to main train station in Muenster, Germany Photo: Peter Berkeley Capacity: 3,500 bikes
67. 67. Bike Station next to Union Station in Washington, D.C. Photo: Ralph Buehler
68. 68. Nice Ride in Minneapolis Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC Hubway Bikeshare in Cambridge, Boston, Somerville, and Brookline Over 20 bike sharing systems in North America
69. 69. Who are the „bike-sharers‟ in the Washington DC Region? 65 35 3 8 81 3 4 5 24 31 23 17 14 86 48 52 8 5 78 4 3 17 43 17 16 7 n.a. n.a. 55 45 7 3 81 5 5 12 55 20 10 5 14 86 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Male Female Asian Black White Hispanic Other 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Student Not Student Percent Area Cyclists Short-term CaBi Users Annual CaBi Members Source: Buehler et al. 2012. Are Bikeshare Users Different from Regular Cyclists? A First Look at Short-Term Users, Annual Members, and Area Cyclists in the Washington, DC Region
70. 70. The Washington DC region is a national leader in bikesharing… …but CaBi has fewer bikes and docking stations than systems in Paris, London, Montreal, and NYC.
71. 71. Traffic Education •Improved motorist training, with much more emphasis on how to avoid endangering pedestrians and cyclists •Compulsory traffic safety lessons for all school children by the age of 10, with testing by traffic police on actual traffic test courses, to ensure safe and defensive walking and cycling by an early age (as in the Netherlands and Germany)
72. 72. German traffic laws generally favor cyclists and pedestrians over motorists
73. 73. Cycling training and testing course in Berlin Most German and Dutch children take cycling lessons by the 3rd or 4th grade and must pass a police-administered cycling safety test!
74. 74. Bike path leads directly to school in NL
75. 75. Innovative directional signs and bike trip counters in Denmark Photo by Susan Handy Photo by Susan Handy
76. 76. Summer Streets in New York City attracts 200,000 participants on Saturdays in August Source: Troels Andersen Guided Bicycle Tours for Seniors
77. 77. Summary: Cycling in the DC Region  Between 1990 and 2013, cycling levels and bike infrastructure supply have increased;  „Bike-commuter‟ region;  National leader in bikesharing;  Expansive shared-use trail network;  Experimentation with innovative facilities (cycle tracks, color, bike boxes);  „Urban core‟ jurisdictions do most—particularly the District;  Many challenges for cycling remain:  Bike lane and path network not complete;  Few bicycle-friendly intersection;  Little use of traffic calming in neighborhoods;  Uneven distribution of cyclists vs. population;  Lack of training and enforcement. Source: Buehler, R., Hamre, A., Sonenklar, D., & P. Goger. 2011. Determinants of Cycling in Washington, DC. Report for U. S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Washington, D.C. and MAUTC.
78. 78. Proposed Measures to Increase Cycling in the Washington DC Region 1. Provide a comprehensive package of integrated measures 2. Build a network of integrated bikeways with intersections that facilitate cycling 3. Provide good bike parking at key destinations and public transport stations 4. Expand CaBi 5. Provide convenient information and promotional events 6. Introduce individualized marketing to target specific groups 7. Improve cyclist education and expand bike to school programs 8. Improve motorist training, licensing, and traffic enforcement 9. Restrict car use through traffic calming, car-free zones, and less parking 10. Design communities to be compact, mixed-use, and bikeable 11. Coordinate across jurisdictional boundaries
79. 79. New book with MIT Press http://citycyclingbook.wordpress.com About the authors: http://ralphbu.wordpress.com http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher
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