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  • 1. New Media and Democratic SocietyNew Media and Democratic Society 11/17 presentation11/17 presentation Fannin Chen, Tina Chen Crowdsourcing Mashups Citizen journalism
  • 2. Introduction of the Author  Karthika Muthukumaraswamy  She was from India and moved to US since 2001.  3 graduate degrees in Integrated Master of Science in LifeSciences in India microbiology in U pennsylvania master of journalism in Temple U  a research specialist in the Department of Cardiology at the University of Pennsylvania  multi aspects background, she’s now a freelance writer focus on politics, media, science, research and professional tennis
  • 3. Introduction of the Author  Anand Girid haradas  Born in Cleve­land, Ohio, to parents from Bom­bay, he has also resided in Paris and out­side Washington, D.C., where his family still lives.  He studied the history of political thought at the Uni­ver­sity of Michi­gan, Ann Arbor, and at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford.  the author of “India Calling: An Intimate Portrait of a Nation’s Remaking,”  He writes the “Currents” col­umn for The New York Times and its global edi­tion
  • 4. 4 Jeff Howe  He invented the term “crowdsourcing” in one of the articles he wrote for Wired magazine in 2006.  He is an editor at Wired magazine where he covers the media and entertainment industry.  He is also a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University. (The Nieman Fellowship is an award given to mid-career journalists by The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University.)  He mentioned in his article that crowdsourcing is actually the application of open source principles to fields outside of software.
  • 5. 5 Crowdsourcing  What is Crowdsourcing?  Crowdsourcing is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated employee and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in a form of open call.  Howe differentiated four types of crowdsourcing strategies: Crowdfunding, Crowdcreation, Crowdvoting, Crowd wisdom.  Example of Crowdfunding: spot.us
  • 6. What is mashup?  Mash up is a web application hybrid!  Merrill, 2006 Mapping mashups (google map, yahoo map API) Video and photo mashups (flickr sudoku) Search and shopping mashups (amazon wishlist) News mashups (RSS, ATOM)
  • 7. Mapping mashups  NYC Craigslist Apartments, Yahoo! Pipes,+Yahoo! Maps, +Microsoft Outlook Mashup
  • 8. Video and photo mashups  Play sudoku using numbers from Flickr! 
  • 9. Search and shopping mashups  Amazon wish list   Integrate all thing you want to buy in one page.
  • 10. News mashups  Integrate news article from lots of news websites
  • 11. Mashups + croudsourcing  Ushahiti  What is Ushahidi (Youtube video) -Swahili (Bentu language) means "testimony" or "witness“ -Created for Kenya's post election violence since 2007. -People reported violence through text , email, twitter and place it on google map “Get critical and timely information to the people who -The power of crowdsourcing! Safe lifes, provide aids.
  • 12. Haiti crisis map
  • 13. What does Ushahiti do now  Concerning public, reporting crisis. Sudan Vote Monitor is a Sudanese civil society initiative that used SMS to monitor the elections in the Sudan. Chile Crisis Map is tracking the post-earthquake crisis response and recovery efforts in Chile. Interesting! Snowmageddon: The Cleanup - Where the Washington region comes together to dig out of Snowmageddon 2010.
  • 14. OpenStreetMap in the Haiti relief  http://www.openstreetmap.org/ Anyone can map Wikipedia for maps over 160,000 users  The earthquake devastate Haiti.  Update the road network and map to let the aid come in time.  Have a complet look in 48hrs  Amazing reconstruction if mapping Haïti map coverage in Openstreetmap following 2010 ea (Youtube video)
  • 15. OpenStreetMap in the Haiti relief  It looks like this now!
  • 16. OpenStreetMap in the Haiti relief  What does the user say… Kjeld Jensen, Red Cross (IFRC): … A few days ago I installed a version on my Garmin Oregon GPS and the result is impressive. It has already saved me and my driver from getting lost twice, and the alternative would have been long delays. In the coming days I will try to update our Red Cross relief GPS receivers with your map.  Google crisis responese Haiti Earthquake – Imagery Downloads http://www.google.com/relief/haitiearthquake/imagery.html Intended for use by mapping professionals with GIS software.
  • 17. Mission 4636  http://www.mission4636.org/  “It allowed people on the ground to text their requests for medical care, food, water, security and shelter from any Digicel / Comcel-Voila device and receive aid.” Where people do not have internet access or smart phone, they can still report crisis through SMS text.
  • 18. 18 Examples of Crowdsourcing outside journalism  DARPA’s red ballon challenge  In less than 9 hours, a group from MIT spotted all the 10 red balloons and won a prize of 40,000 dollars  Profit sharing helps crack the challenge  The reliability issues was also mentioned  Amazon Mechanical Turk  A platform for business owners to submit HITs (Human Intelligence Tasks)  The HITs are designed to require very little time, and offer very little compensation
  • 19. 19 Examples of Crowdsourcing outside journalism  Google image labeler  An application designed as a game in order to help Google improve image search results  Very addictive game as shown by the points users earned  Quirky.com  An example of crowdsourcing in product developments  The website asks its users to submit ideas of an product or vote for ideas that’s been submited  Compared with traditional business models, the advantage is you only pay what you use, and an unlimited amount of people are helping you
  • 20. 20 Examples of Crowdsourcing in journalism  Gallop survey shows that faith in traditional media has reached a new low, people’s demand for online news is increasing.  Help me investigate  A website designed for using crowdsourcing in investigative journalism  The key idea behind the site is that it breaks down investigations into different elements  People with specialist knowledges are helping journalists with their investigation
  • 21. 21 Examples of Crowdsourcing in journalism  New York Times Lens  A project asks normal people to freeze their moments at 3 pm, May 2nd  Received over 10,000 photos submitted from all around the world
  • 22. 22 Examples of Crowdsourcing in journalism  YouTube’s “Life in a day” Project  YouTubers are asked to record their day on July 24th, 2010  The bits and pieces submitted from around the world will then be collected and built into a feature-length documentary film  Implications  Crowdsourcing in such projects are an important method of storing history  This method is especially important for countries where part of the history is a taboo topic  Crowdsourcing might be a good idea for oral history projects
  • 23. Citizen Journalism  Jay Rosen  He is a press critic, a writer, and a professor of journalism at New York University.  Strong supporter of citizen journalism  Definition of Citizen Journalism (Youtube video)
  • 24. Citizen Journalism- examples  CNN ireport (citizen journalism + crowdsourcing) http://ireport.cnn.com/  Assignments there are assignments set for ireporter  Voice ireporter on CNN live!  Hear what Lila King, a senior producer of CNN.com said about citizen journalism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tmW8PttqlU  Set up a topic, find news worthy articles, integrate with CNN!
  • 25. Twin Cities Daily Plan  http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/  Goal: “We strive for high standards of fairness, accuracy, and accountability.” “bring together professionals and citizens to create diverse content in local journalism.”  They do train citizen journalism skills  It’s professionally edited and staffed by a few part-time professional editors and journalists (who do “quality control”)
  • 26. wikinews  http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Main_Page  Works just like Wikipedia  You can create new page and start writing, or editing news that has been done before.
  • 27. Compare to the “five cases”  Crowdsourcing, involves many people’s work.  Citizen journalism encompasses crowdsourcing (Bowman & Willis, 2003; Lasica, 2003), but often refers to a more generalized notion of non-professional journalists contributing to the news gathering and/or reporting process of a professional journalism. (Thiel-Stern, 2009)  One can accomplish a news article, but combining with the wisdom of the crowd- lots of articles, or say, crisis reports, it can form a tremendous power force.
  • 28. 28 Trustworthiness  The 5 most Entertaining Crowdsourcing Disasters  Lesson learned: Crowdsourcing is not a good idea when the crowd is not well managed. Targeting the right crowd is key here  The trustworthiness of the information collected: TripAdvisor case  Hotel owners were were upset about the fraudulent reviews on TripAdvisor  The website responded that they value reviewers privacy and they would not provided names  The reviews were finally removed due to media pressure
  • 29. 29 Trustworthiness  Are review sites trustworthy? Yelp.com case  Yelp salespeople have offered to remove bad reviews  they've also removed good reviews when businesses turn down advertising solicitations  Who to trust?
  • 30. 30 Trustworthiness  Other controversial opinions:  There is no crowd in crowdsourcing and the vast majority of Wiki entries are the product of a motivated individual.  Crowdsourcing is not suitable to solve complex problems
  • 31. 31 Crowdsourcing and Democracy  It allows minority voices to be heard  Example: President Obama’s "Open For Questions" forums were hijacked by marijuana legalization enthusiasts  The possibility of using crowdsourcing in policy making: The HMG case  It’s an experiment by the British government  Achievements in influencing policy making  Using crowdsourcing inside a crowdsourcing project  There may be some issues, but still, the potential is unlimited
  • 32. THANK YOU!THANK YOU!