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Ch 01_ppt_lecture

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Nutrittion For Life 3e Chapter 1

Nutrittion For Life 3e Chapter 1

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  • 1. Chapter 1 Lecture Nutrition for Life Third EditionNutrition:Making ItWork for You
  • 2. What Is Nutrition? • Nutrition: the study of food, including – how food nourishes our bodies – how food influences our health© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Nutrition contributes to wellness. • Wellness: the absence of disease – Physical, emotional, and spiritual health • Critical components of wellness: – Nutrition – Physical activity© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. Why Is Nutrition Important?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Nutrition can prevent disease. – Nutrient deficiency diseases: • scurvy, goiter, rickets – Diseases influenced by nutrition: • heart disease, obesity, stroke, type 2 diabetes – Diseases in which nutrition plays a role: • osteoporosis, some cancers© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. Why Is Nutrition Important?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. What Are Nutrients? • Nutrients: the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function – Carbohydrates – Vitamins – Fats – Minerals – Proteins – Water© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. What Are Nutrients? • Macronutrients: nutrients required in relatively large amounts – Provide energy to our bodies – Carbohydrates, fats, proteins • Micronutrients: nutrients required in smaller amounts – Vitamins, minerals, water© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. Energy from Nutrients • We measure energy in kilocalories (kcal). • Kilocalorie: amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1ºC • On food labels, "Calories" actually refers to kilocalories (kcal).© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Carbohydrates • Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain • Provide 4 kcal of energy per gram • Found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits, legumes© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. Fats • An important energy source during rest or low-intensity exercise • Provide 9 kcal of energy per gram • Found in butter, margarine, vegetable oils© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. Proteins • Play a major role in building new cells and tissues • Can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram but are not a primary energy source© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. Proteins • Proteins are important for: – building cells and tissues – maintaining bones – repairing damaged structures – regulating metabolism • Protein sources include meats, dairy products, seeds, nuts, and legumes.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 14. Vitamins • Vitamins: compounds containing carbon that assist in regulating body processes • Vitamins are micronutrients that do not supply energy to our bodies. – Fat-soluble vitamins – Water-soluble vitamins© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. Vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E, and K – Dissolve easily in fats • Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and the B-vitamins – Remain dissolved in water© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. Vitamins© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. Minerals • Minerals: substances that do not contain carbon and are not broken down during digestion or destroyed by heat or light • Minerals include sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium. • Minerals have many different functions, such as energy production, fluid regulation, and bone structure.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. Minerals • Our bodies require at least 100 mg per day of the major minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. • We require less than 100 mg per day of the trace minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, iodine, and fluoride.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. Minerals© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 20. Water • Water is a critical nutrient that supports all body functions and is necessary for health and survival. • Water is involved in many body processes, including: – fluid balance – nutrient transport – nerve impulses – removal of wastes – muscle contractions – chemical reactions© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. A Healthful Diet • A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients. • A healthful diet is: – adequate – moderate – balanced – varied© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 22. A Healthful Diet Is Adequate • An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to support a persons health. • A diet adequate in many nutrients can still be inadequate in a few nutrients.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. A Healthful Diet Is Moderate • A key to a healthful diet is moderation. • A healthful diet contains the right amounts of foods for maintaining proper weight and optimizing the functions of our bodies.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. A Healthful Diet Is Balanced • A balanced diet contains the right combination of foods to provide the proper balance of nutrients.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 25. A Healthful Diet Is Varied • Variety refers to eating many different types of foods each day. • A healthful diet is not based on only one or a few types of foods.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 26. Determining Nutrient Needs • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): lists of dietary standards • DRIs identify the optimum amount of a nutrient to: – prevent nutrient deficiency – reduce the risk of chronic disease© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 27. Determining Nutrient Needs© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 28. Determining Nutrient Needs • DRIs consist of six values: – Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) – Adequate Intake (AI) – Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) – Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) – Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 29. Determining Nutrient Needs • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – The average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people in a particular category • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) – The average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97–98% of people in a particular category© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. Determining Nutrient Needs • Adequate Intake (AI) – The recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient; used when the RDA is not yet established • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) – The highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 31. Determining Nutrient Needs • Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) – The average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) – Describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 32. Determining Nutrient Needs© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 33. Designing a Healthful Diet • Tools for designing a healthful diet include: – Dietary Guidelines for Americans – USDA Food Patterns (MyPlate) – Reading and understanding food labels© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 34. Dietary Guidelines • Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide general advice for nutrition and health from: – U.S. Department of Health and Social Services – U.S. Department of Agriculture • The Dietary Guidelines emphasize balanced Calories, good food choices, and physical activity.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 35. Dietary Guidelines • 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: – Balance Calories to manage weight – Consume fewer foods/food components of concern, including sodium, overall fats and certain fats, sugars, and alcohol – Consume more healthful foods and nutrients, including fresh fruits, vegetables, high-fiber foods, and whole-grains – Follow healthy and safe eating patterns© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 36. USDA Food Patterns • Created to help people design healthy eating patterns • Visual representation is MyPlate (released in May 2011) – Replaced the prior graphic (MyPyramid) – MyPlate is an interactive food guidance system (www.choosemyplate.gov) based on the 2010 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Reference Intakes.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 37. MyPlate© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 38. Food Groups: USDA Food Patterns • The five food groups emphasized are: – grains – vegetables – fruits – dairy foods – protein foods© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 39. USDA Food Patterns • Emphasize the concept of empty Calories: – Calories from solid fats or added sugars that provide few or no nutrients – Should be limited to a small percentage of your Calorie and nutrient needs© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 40. USDA Food Patterns • Number and size of servings: – Ounce-equivalent (oz-equivalent) is a serving size of 1 ounce, or its equivalent. – Amounts vary by food groups, due to the relative density of different foods. – No national standardized definition for a serving size exists for any food.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 41. Ounce-Equivalents© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 42. Estimated Portion Sizes© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 43. Food Guide Pyramid Variations • Alternate Food Guide Pyramids include: – Vegetarian Diet Pyramid – Mediterranean Diet Pyramid – Latin American Diet Pyramid – Asian Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 44. Latin American Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 45. Asian Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 46. Mediterranean Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 47. Mediterranean Diet • The Blues Zone: Sardinian Diet© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 48. Food Labels • The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: – A statement of identity – Net contents of the package – Manufacturers name and address – Ingredients list – Nutrition Facts Panel© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 49. Five Components of Food Labels© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 50. Food Labels • Crackdown on Food Labels© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 51. Nutrition Facts Panel • The Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA. • This information can be used in planning a healthful diet.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 52. Nutrition Facts Panel • Serving size and servings per container – Used to plan appropriate amounts of food – Standardized serving sizes allow for comparisons among similar products. • Calories per serving and calories from fat per serving – Used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 53. Nutrition Facts Panel • List of nutrients – Fat (total and saturated) – Cholesterol – Sodium – Carbohydrates – Protein – Some vitamins and minerals© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 54. Nutrition Facts Panel • Percent Daily Values (%DV) – Describes how much a serving of food contributes to your total intake of a nutrient – Based on a 2,000-kcal food intake pattern© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 55. Nutrition Facts Panel • Footnote – Contains general dietary advice for all people – Also compares a 2,000-calorie diet with a 2,500-calorie diet© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 56. Getting Reliable Nutrition Advice • Educated and credentialed health professionals can provide trustworthy nutrition information: – Registered dietician – Licensed dietician – Nutritionist (requirements vary by state) – M.A., M.S., or Ph.D. in nutrition – Physician© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 57. Getting Reliable Nutrition Advice • Other reliable sources include government and professional organizations, such as: – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – National Institutes of Health – American Dietetic Association – American Society for Nutrition – American College of Sports Medicine© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 58. The Scientific Method • The scientific method is a standardized, multi-step process that involves the following steps: – observation of a phenomenon – a hypothesis (research question) to test – experiments to test the hypothesis – after extensive research, a theory may be developed© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 59. The Scientific Method© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 60. Getting Reliable Nutrition Advice • Establishing guidelines and understanding the role of nutrition in health involves ongoing experimentation. • Different types of research studies tell different stories: – animal studies – human studies – observational studies – case-control studies – clinical trials© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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