Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
 Ch 01_ppt_lecture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ch 01_ppt_lecture


Published on

Nutrittion For Life 3e Chapter 1

Nutrittion For Life 3e Chapter 1

Published in: Education

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter 1 Lecture Nutrition for Life Third EditionNutrition:Making ItWork for You
  • 2. What Is Nutrition? • Nutrition: the study of food, including – how food nourishes our bodies – how food influences our health© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Nutrition contributes to wellness. • Wellness: the absence of disease – Physical, emotional, and spiritual health • Critical components of wellness: – Nutrition – Physical activity© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. Why Is Nutrition Important?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Why Is Nutrition Important? • Nutrition can prevent disease. – Nutrient deficiency diseases: • scurvy, goiter, rickets – Diseases influenced by nutrition: • heart disease, obesity, stroke, type 2 diabetes – Diseases in which nutrition plays a role: • osteoporosis, some cancers© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. Why Is Nutrition Important?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. What Are Nutrients? • Nutrients: the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function – Carbohydrates – Vitamins – Fats – Minerals – Proteins – Water© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. What Are Nutrients? • Macronutrients: nutrients required in relatively large amounts – Provide energy to our bodies – Carbohydrates, fats, proteins • Micronutrients: nutrients required in smaller amounts – Vitamins, minerals, water© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. Energy from Nutrients • We measure energy in kilocalories (kcal). • Kilocalorie: amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1ºC • On food labels, "Calories" actually refers to kilocalories (kcal).© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Carbohydrates • Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain • Provide 4 kcal of energy per gram • Found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits, legumes© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. Fats • An important energy source during rest or low-intensity exercise • Provide 9 kcal of energy per gram • Found in butter, margarine, vegetable oils© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. Proteins • Play a major role in building new cells and tissues • Can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram but are not a primary energy source© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. Proteins • Proteins are important for: – building cells and tissues – maintaining bones – repairing damaged structures – regulating metabolism • Protein sources include meats, dairy products, seeds, nuts, and legumes.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 14. Vitamins • Vitamins: compounds containing carbon that assist in regulating body processes • Vitamins are micronutrients that do not supply energy to our bodies. – Fat-soluble vitamins – Water-soluble vitamins© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. Vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E, and K – Dissolve easily in fats • Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and the B-vitamins – Remain dissolved in water© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. Vitamins© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. Minerals • Minerals: substances that do not contain carbon and are not broken down during digestion or destroyed by heat or light • Minerals include sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium. • Minerals have many different functions, such as energy production, fluid regulation, and bone structure.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. Minerals • Our bodies require at least 100 mg per day of the major minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. • We require less than 100 mg per day of the trace minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, iodine, and fluoride.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. Minerals© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 20. Water • Water is a critical nutrient that supports all body functions and is necessary for health and survival. • Water is involved in many body processes, including: – fluid balance – nutrient transport – nerve impulses – removal of wastes – muscle contractions – chemical reactions© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. A Healthful Diet • A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients. • A healthful diet is: – adequate – moderate – balanced – varied© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 22. A Healthful Diet Is Adequate • An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to support a persons health. • A diet adequate in many nutrients can still be inadequate in a few nutrients.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. A Healthful Diet Is Moderate • A key to a healthful diet is moderation. • A healthful diet contains the right amounts of foods for maintaining proper weight and optimizing the functions of our bodies.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. A Healthful Diet Is Balanced • A balanced diet contains the right combination of foods to provide the proper balance of nutrients.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 25. A Healthful Diet Is Varied • Variety refers to eating many different types of foods each day. • A healthful diet is not based on only one or a few types of foods.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 26. Determining Nutrient Needs • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): lists of dietary standards • DRIs identify the optimum amount of a nutrient to: – prevent nutrient deficiency – reduce the risk of chronic disease© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 27. Determining Nutrient Needs© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 28. Determining Nutrient Needs • DRIs consist of six values: – Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) – Adequate Intake (AI) – Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) – Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) – Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 29. Determining Nutrient Needs • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – The average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people in a particular category • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) – The average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97–98% of people in a particular category© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. Determining Nutrient Needs • Adequate Intake (AI) – The recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient; used when the RDA is not yet established • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) – The highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 31. Determining Nutrient Needs • Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) – The average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) – Describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 32. Determining Nutrient Needs© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 33. Designing a Healthful Diet • Tools for designing a healthful diet include: – Dietary Guidelines for Americans – USDA Food Patterns (MyPlate) – Reading and understanding food labels© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 34. Dietary Guidelines • Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide general advice for nutrition and health from: – U.S. Department of Health and Social Services – U.S. Department of Agriculture • The Dietary Guidelines emphasize balanced Calories, good food choices, and physical activity.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 35. Dietary Guidelines • 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: – Balance Calories to manage weight – Consume fewer foods/food components of concern, including sodium, overall fats and certain fats, sugars, and alcohol – Consume more healthful foods and nutrients, including fresh fruits, vegetables, high-fiber foods, and whole-grains – Follow healthy and safe eating patterns© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 36. USDA Food Patterns • Created to help people design healthy eating patterns • Visual representation is MyPlate (released in May 2011) – Replaced the prior graphic (MyPyramid) – MyPlate is an interactive food guidance system ( based on the 2010 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Reference Intakes.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 37. MyPlate© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 38. Food Groups: USDA Food Patterns • The five food groups emphasized are: – grains – vegetables – fruits – dairy foods – protein foods© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 39. USDA Food Patterns • Emphasize the concept of empty Calories: – Calories from solid fats or added sugars that provide few or no nutrients – Should be limited to a small percentage of your Calorie and nutrient needs© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 40. USDA Food Patterns • Number and size of servings: – Ounce-equivalent (oz-equivalent) is a serving size of 1 ounce, or its equivalent. – Amounts vary by food groups, due to the relative density of different foods. – No national standardized definition for a serving size exists for any food.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 41. Ounce-Equivalents© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 42. Estimated Portion Sizes© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 43. Food Guide Pyramid Variations • Alternate Food Guide Pyramids include: – Vegetarian Diet Pyramid – Mediterranean Diet Pyramid – Latin American Diet Pyramid – Asian Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 44. Latin American Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 45. Asian Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 46. Mediterranean Diet Pyramid© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 47. Mediterranean Diet • The Blues Zone: Sardinian Diet© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 48. Food Labels • The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: – A statement of identity – Net contents of the package – Manufacturers name and address – Ingredients list – Nutrition Facts Panel© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 49. Five Components of Food Labels© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 50. Food Labels • Crackdown on Food Labels© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 51. Nutrition Facts Panel • The Nutrition Facts Panel contains the nutrition information required by the FDA. • This information can be used in planning a healthful diet.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 52. Nutrition Facts Panel • Serving size and servings per container – Used to plan appropriate amounts of food – Standardized serving sizes allow for comparisons among similar products. • Calories per serving and calories from fat per serving – Used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 53. Nutrition Facts Panel • List of nutrients – Fat (total and saturated) – Cholesterol – Sodium – Carbohydrates – Protein – Some vitamins and minerals© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 54. Nutrition Facts Panel • Percent Daily Values (%DV) – Describes how much a serving of food contributes to your total intake of a nutrient – Based on a 2,000-kcal food intake pattern© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 55. Nutrition Facts Panel • Footnote – Contains general dietary advice for all people – Also compares a 2,000-calorie diet with a 2,500-calorie diet© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 56. Getting Reliable Nutrition Advice • Educated and credentialed health professionals can provide trustworthy nutrition information: – Registered dietician – Licensed dietician – Nutritionist (requirements vary by state) – M.A., M.S., or Ph.D. in nutrition – Physician© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 57. Getting Reliable Nutrition Advice • Other reliable sources include government and professional organizations, such as: – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – National Institutes of Health – American Dietetic Association – American Society for Nutrition – American College of Sports Medicine© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 58. The Scientific Method • The scientific method is a standardized, multi-step process that involves the following steps: – observation of a phenomenon – a hypothesis (research question) to test – experiments to test the hypothesis – after extensive research, a theory may be developed© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 59. The Scientific Method© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 60. Getting Reliable Nutrition Advice • Establishing guidelines and understanding the role of nutrition in health involves ongoing experimentation. • Different types of research studies tell different stories: – animal studies – human studies – observational studies – case-control studies – clinical trials© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.