Most hated words on the Internet (UK) 1-Folksonomy 2-Blogosphere http://www.emilychang.com/go/ehub/ though average venture investment in Internet business = $7.1 million Driving Demand into the Long Tail Need to make the tail easier to enter What Is Web 2.0 Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software by Tim O'Reilly 09/30/2005 http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html Accessed 18 October 2005
Centralized Social Networks = myspaces.com Social Bookmarking = del.icio.us, digg.com Social citations = http://www.citeulike.org/ Collaborative editing – writely.com
Shift from Fordism to Post-Fordism from Mass-Consumption to Individual Consumption (see Urry, Gaze, p.13) (Consumerism Sweeps the Mainland) CHINA – Increasing urban Growth of Middle Class – about 35% of urban population Rapid increase in average income in large Chinese cities Seeking Modern, Conveniences, Health Consciousness, Information/Knowledge Rising Consumer Power More products and choices Desire for Clothing, Food, Housing Especially Brand Names 20 million new telecom lines a year - growing 4x faster than in US Transportation & Communication More Time-Conscious Fast/convenient foods, Microwave ovens, computers Domestic Travel booming
1. Build Client Trust Address Specific Niche Audience Interests Create Social Network/Community with Customers Sense of Ownership Pre-Answer as many questions as possible “ Information Seeks to Be Free” Hiding information is futile is the digital age How to facilitate information sharing 2. Exhibit an Identity Create a Clear Identity through Image & Message Be Consistent – image, messages, policies, Post Tourists seek Efficiency, Predictability and Control 3. Use the Best Tools That Facilitate Easy Communication, Trust, & Community Open & Simple - always wins in the long term current customer driven systems = customer exploitation systems Examples [ edit ] Instant Messaging An instant messaging application or client allows one to communicate with another person over a network in relative privacy. Popular clients include Skype , ICQ , Yahoo Messenger , MSN Messenger and AOL Instant Messenger . One can add friends to a contact list or buddy list, by entering their email address or messenger ID. If they are online, their name will be listed as available for chat. Clicking on their name will activate a chat window with space to write to the other person, as well as read their reply. [ edit ] Internet Relay Chat Internet Relay Chat (IRC) clients allow users to join chat rooms and communicate with many people at once, publicly. Users may join a pre-existing chat room or create a chat room about any topic. Once inside, you may type messages that everyone else in the room can read, as well as respond to messages from others. Often there is a steady stream of people entering and leaving. Whether you are in another person's chat room, or one you've created yourself, you are generally free to invite others online to join you. When others accept the invitation, they are taken to the room containing the other members, similar to the way conference calling works with phones. This facilitates both one-to-one and many-to-many interaction. [ edit ] Internet forums Originally modeled after the real-world paradigm of bulletin boards , internet forums allow users to post a &quot;topic&quot; for others to review. Other users can view the topic and post their own comments in a linear fashion, one after the other. Topic are usually displayed according to the time of the last post. Therefore, more recent posts, or &quot;threads,&quot; and the ones with the most recent replies appear at the top of the list. Forums can contain many different categories in a hierarchy according to topics and subtopics. Other features include the ability to post images or files and the ability to quote another user's post with special formatting in your post. Forums often grow in popularity until they can boast several thousand members posting replies to tens of thousands of topics continuously. Examples include ezboard.com , freerepublic.com , World Forum . [ edit ] Blogs or Weblogs Blogs, short for web logs, are like online journals for a particular person. The owner will post a message periodically allowing others to comment. Topics often include the owner's daily life or views on politics or a particular subject important to them. There are many websites that address the history of blogs, like The History of Weblogs and weblogs : a history and perspective . Blogs mean many things to different people: ranging from &quot;online journal&quot; to &quot;easily updated personal website.&quot; While these definitions are not wrong, they fail to capture the power of blogs as social software. Beyond being a simple homepage, or an online diary, some blogs also allow comments on the entries thereby a discussion forum, have blogrolls, i.e., links to other blogs which the owner reads or admires, and indicate their social relationship to those other bloggers using the XFN social relationship standard. Pingback and trackback allow one blog to notify another blog, creating an inter-blog conversation. In summary, blogs engage readers and build a virtual community around a particular person or interest. Examples include Slashdot , LiveJournal , BlogSpot [ edit ] Wikis Examples include the original Portland Pattern Repository wiki, MeatballWiki , CommunityWiki, Wikipedia , Wiktionary and Wikisource . [ edit ] Wikitorial – LA Times open editorial page Wikinews.com “ Wiki wiki” – “quick” in Hawaii Social network services Social_network_services allow people to come together online around shared interests or causes. For example, some sites provide dating services where users will post their personal profiles, location, age, gender, etc, and are able to search for a partner. Examples include ArtBoom , Orkut , Friendster , Linkedin or Tribe Networks . See also: Category:Social networking [ edit ] Social network search engines Social network search engines allow people to find each other according to their XFN social relationships. XHTML Friends Network allows people to share their relationships on their own sites, thus forming a decentralized/distributed online social network, in contrast to centralized social network services listed in the previous section. RubHub XHTMLFriends.net [ edit ] Social guides Recommending places to visit in the real world such as coffee shops, restaurants, and wifi hotspots, etc. Some popular applications are CafeSpot , Tagzania and WikiTravel . [ edit ] Social bookmarking Some sites allow users to post their list of bookmarks—or favorite websites—for others to search and view. The object is for people to meet others with whom they share a common interest. Examples include del.icio.us , furl , RawSugar , Spurl.net , BlinkList and Connectedy . [ edit ] Social Citations Much like social bookmarking, this software, aimed towards academics, allows the user to post a citation for an article found on the internet. These citations can be organized into predifined categories or a new category defined by the user. This will allow academics researching or interested in similar areas to connect and share resources. An example of this software is CiteUlike [ edit ] Peer-to-peer social networks A hybrid of web-based social networks, instant messaging technologies and peer-to-peer connectivity and filesharing, peer-to-peer Social Networks generally allow users to share blogs , files (especially photographs) and instant messages . Some examples are imeem , QNext and Grouper . Also, Groove and WiredReach have similar functionality, but with more of a work-based, collaboration bias. [ edit ] Collaborative real-time editing Simultaneous editing of a text or media file by different participants on a network. SubEthaEdit is the most famous example of this. [ edit ] Virtual presence Virtual presence means being present at virtual locations. In particular, the term virtual presence denotes presence on World Wide Web locations pages and Web sites which are identified by URLs. People who are browsing a Web site are considered to be virtually present at Web locations. Virtual presence is a social software in the sense that people meet on the Web by chance or intentionally. The ubiqitous (in the Web space) communication transfers behavior patterns from the real world and Virtual worlds to the Web. [ edit ] Virtual worlds and Massively-Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) Virtual Worlds and Massively-Multiplayer Online Games are places where it is possible to meet and interact with other people in a virtual world - which looks somewhat like reality. Some popular commercial worlds are Second Life , ActiveWorlds , The Sims Online and There . Some commercial MMOGs (or, more accurately, MMORPGs ) include Everquest and World_of_Warcraft . Non-commercial, open-source and experimental examples include Planeshift , Croquet_project , VOS and Solipsis .
“ Blogosphere” (Technorati.com) * 27.2 million active blogs (Feb 2006) * 40.7 million blog sites (May 2006) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blogging A blog or weblog (derived from web + log) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). Although most early blogs were manually updated, tools to automate the maintenance of such sites made them accessible to a much larger population, and the use of some sort of browser -based software is now a typical aspect of &quot;blogging&quot;. Blogs range in scope from individual diaries to arms of political campaigns , media programs, and corporations . They range in scale from the writings of one occasional author (known as a blogger ), to the collaboration of a large community of writers. Many weblogs enable visitors to leave public comments, which can lead to a community of readers centered around the blog; others are non-interactive. The totality of weblogs or blog-related websites is often called the blogosphere . When a large amount of activity, information and opinion erupts around a particular subject or controversy in the blogosphere, it is sometimes called a blogstorm or blog swarm .
# Currently * Podcast Alley = tracks 19,000+ Podcasts & Videocasts (May 2006) * Feedburner = tracks 47,000+ Podcasts & Videocasts (April 2006) o and 1.6 million subscribers + estimates audience growth at 20% a month PC World “Listening to the Pod People” - Currently 5 million podcast listeners – projected to gro to 55 to 60 million by 2010
2% of US has listened to a podcast (Oct 2005) 1 in 10 US Adults owns and MP3 player successful podcasts Importance of a Niche narrow, devoted markets Personalization & Community limited and more focused search options Easier
Podcast Galveston – Galveston CVB http://www.galveston.com/podcastgalveston/ iPod Traveller - http://www.ipodtraveller.net/ Commercial tour operator that specializes in Europe and hosts weekly podcasts about European travel news and reviews Podcasting (and Blogging) Tourism A “blog” is short for “Weblog”, which is a form of online diary that is available public viewing. There are currently an estimated seven million blogs that anyone with access to the Internet can see and read. A “podcast” is an audio version of a blog. A podcast can also be considered as a form of Internet radio (radio broadcasts available on the Internet). Internet radio has been around since the mid-1990s; while blogs have existed in their current form since 1999. The concept of a podcast was only introduced in mid-2004. By late 2005 there were an estimated 10,000 podcasts that were available for anyone to listen to on the Internet. What made podcasting different from Internet radio was the ability to subscribe to specific podcasts, which would then be downloaded onto ones computer on a regular basis using a program known as a podcatcher. The most popular podcatcher is Apple’s iTunes, which added this capability in June 2005. Other podcatching programs include iPodder Lemon <ipodder.sourceforge.net> and Odeo.com, among many others. Many of these blogs and podcasts are directly related to travel and the tourism industry. For example, I started a blog to describe the behind the scenes planning and experience of a conference that I organized in China last year. This can be seen at: <http://golden-triangle.blogspot.com>. More recently, in July 2005, I started the Geography for Travelers podcast. I describe this podcast as “Travel and tourism from a geography (and other social sciences) perspective.” Every week I discuss a news items and topics related to the undergraduate class that I teach on the Geography of Tourism. While this provides a built-in audience, the podcasts itself is designed for a more general listening public. This podcast can be found at: <http://travelgeography.blogspot.com>.
related articles www.nationalgeographic.com/traveler/resources/st_travelswithipod0604/ipod.html technology.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0,16559,1681516,00.html www.nytimes.com/2005/05/28/arts/design/28podc.html?ex=1274932800&en=db1ced6873dcc4b6&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss www.macnewsworld.com/story/50096.html www.csmonitor.com/2006/0412/p13s01-litr.html www.wired.com/news/wireless/0,1382,65945,00.html tech.monstersandcritics.com/news/article_1089780.php/Portable_tourist_guides_now_in_service Is Podcasting &quot;The death of the guidebook? &quot; I saw this posted on the Amateur Traveler podcast shownotes (thanks Chris2!). I tend to agree with the conclusions to the article that guidebooks will not go away (I'll take a paper map over one on my PDA anytime!) -- and that destination podcasts will only grow in popularity. Most people want to learn as much as they can about the places that they visit and podcasts make a great supplement to guidebooks -- unless maybe if you are into Experimental Tourism! Podcasts about Tourism and Travel (click the title above to access this website) Some say that blogging was the birth of Web 2.0. Podcasting is essentially audio blogging and there has been a gradually growing number of podcasts related to travel. Travel and tourism podcasts tend to be of three types (with considerable overlap among individual podcasts): Destination Podcasts (describing and selling destinations) Travel Experience Podcasts (including sound-seeing tours) Travel/Tourism Industry and Education Podcasts (including news and opinion) This website (which I maintain) focusses on #3 in this list, though it also includes links to podcasts directories that include destination and experience podcasts. Mark Peacock of the Travel Commons podcast suggested that travel podcasts can also be divided into those that are Original (specifically for podcasting) and those that are Repurposed (originally broadcast as traditional radio programs, for example). Finally (for now at least), here is a recent article on Travel Podcasts: Digital options lighten load for tourists - By Reuters February 18, 2006, 1:59 PM PST
What is Web 2.0? I suggest these websites to answer that question: * Wikipedia - &quot;Web 2.0&quot; * You know you're Web 2.0 when... (Dion Hinchcliffe's Web 2.0 Blog) * What is Web 2.0 (Tim O'Reilly) * What Web 2.0 means to you * Virtual Karma - Complete List of Web 2.0 Applications * Emily Chang's eHub - Latitudes Magazine - Travel Attitudes Magazine for Broadband This is National Geographic 2.0 -- a gorgeous online travel photo magazine with Italian flare and built for online viewing. A broadband connection is necessary and the latest issue (#14) is 181 pages of sharp full color photos and animations. Issue #14 covers Columbia, Myanmar, The Berkshire Hills (Massachusetts), Mt. Etna, Berlin, Croatia, Tuscany and Salina (Italy). Look for animations (some hidden) in some of the photos. Basic Travel information and links are provided at the end of each photo essay. The magazine comes in Italian and English versions. You can subscribe to their newsletter to get announcement of each new issue. The have a discussion forum, but with no moderators it is almost entirely filled with spam! They must be graphic artists first, and web masters last. Very cool! - Check it by clicking on the title above. Online Travel Maps - a mini review Online Travel Maps - a mini review The folks over at TechCrunch (a new media blog site) have been comparing the different map search engines, including maps.Google.com, maps.Yahoo.com, Microsoft (local.live.com), maps.Ask.com and Mapquest.com. The competition is heated and new feature rollouts make comparisons a moving target. Their &quot;winner&quot; (in April 2006) was maps.Yahoo.com, which includes detailed traffic information for major cities and an easy to use interface that includes listing of services, restaurants and other places of potential interest to travelers. Click Here to see the full TechCrunch assessment, which includes a table that compares the major features that are offered (and not) by each map. Taking a quick look at all of the different sites listed above, I agree that the maps.Yahoo.com interface has the best combination of usefulness and usability. However, I found that maps.Ask.com has the nicest looking color aerial images of Flagstaff, AZ, which made finding my house much easier on their website than any other. And that oldie but goodie Mapquest.com, which still has a very Web 1.0 static map, had the most accurate street maps of Flagstaff. To compete, Microsoft has added live traffic indicators to its maps, though it listed far fewer road incidents in Phoenix, AZ, than did the Yahoo map viewed at the same time. And Microsoft has a preview site of for Streetside (at http://preview.local.live.com/; also reviewed at TechCrunch). This site shows front and side photo views of streets in downtown San Francisco and Seattle. Pretty cool, especially if you are familiar with one of those two places (I found my old apartment in SFO!), though the interface is a bit clunky, kind of like playing a very old vide car driving game. Personally, I think any of them will do a good job in getting you from point A to point B, but these new toys can be fun!
The New World of Travel 2.0: Applications of Social Software in the Travel and Tourism Industry, and in Teaching a Sustainable Tourism Course Alan A. Lew Northern Arizona University http://alanlew.com http://alanalew.com
“… web applications, services, resources, blogs or sites with a focus on next generation web, social software, blogging, Ajax, Ruby on Rails, location mapping, open source, folksonomy, [tagging], design and digital media sharing”
eHub - h ttp:// www.emilychang.com/go/ehub /
Democratizing tools of production
User Generated & Contributed Data / Info.
“ Ideas over Costs”
Online business without venture capital
“ a Billion Niches”
Custom Streams, not mass markets
Enabled by High Speed Internet
Social Software “…lets people rendezvous, connect or collaborate by use of a computer network” “software that supports group interaction” ( wikipedia.org )
Internet Relay Chat
Social Network Services
recommend real world places / services - TripAdvisor
publicly posted favorite lists
Del.icio.us, Google Notebook
Social Reputation Network
Blogs, Podcasts, Vlogs/Videocasts
references for academics
Peer-to-peer Social Networks
file sharing – photos, games
meeting in online worlds
Virtual Worlds & Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs)
25.0% 2 Had created your own Wiki website 25.0% 2 Had contributed to or edited a Wiki website 25.0% 2 Had created an Audio program and made it available on the Internet 37.5% 3 Had heard of term “Web 2.0” 37.5% 3 Had created and contributed to your own Blog 37.5% 3 Had created an Video program and made it available on the Internet 37.5% 3 Watched to Video programs on an mp3 player (like an iPod) 37.5% 3 Listened to Audio programs (news, talk, etc) on an mp3 player 50.0% 4 Had frequently used Instant Messaging (IM) on your computer 50.0% 4 Had created a website using a Social Media/Software website 50.0% 4 Had heard of the terms “Social Media” or “Social Software” 50.0% 4 Had heard of Wikis 50.0% 4 Listened to Audio programs (news, talk, etc) on your computer 62.5% 5 Had used a Wiki website, such as Wikipedia 75.0% 6 Had created a website using an HTML editor 75.0% 6 Had actively participated in a Social Media/Software Website 75.0% 6 Had joined a Social Media/Software Websites 87.5% 7 Had occasionally used Instant Messaging (IM) 87.5% 7 Watched to Video programs on your computer 87.5% 7 Listened to Music on an mp3 player 100% 8 Had heard of Blogs 100% 8 Listened to Music on your computer
Were any of the Social Media/Software tools that you have used prior to this semester part of a class that you took?
It was never mandated to use any of the sites because for the majority of my classes, we could only used scholarly, peer reviewed journals or other writings. Wikis (or any other social media) were not allowed or deemed reliable.
Mostly home-based stuff
All of my experience with social media/software was purely for "social" reasons to communicate with friends.
In a class I took, History of American Music, we were given a cd of mp3 files to listen to (on our computer and on a mp3 player) and study for exams, then we gave the cd back at the end of the class.
I’ve used Wikipedia to conduct research for multiple classes, but never really realized how it worked until Dr. Lew’s class.
I took a FrontPage website development class two years ago.
Which of the Social Media/Software tools used this semester did you think were most effective for use in an online class? (N=8)
Everything we used was really effective...I learned a lot!
I thought that your Podcasts were a particularly effective way of delivering on-line content.
I enjoyed the Podcasts .
I also enjoyed the discussions with other students and peers through Wikispaces . Everything was really effective!
The Blog and the Wikispaces presented us with a specific task and then we heard from peers and were able to view what we had done compared to others and make adjustments. Learning how to communicate and add comments was good.
Designing the Webpage was fun.
Listening to a Podcast made the class more interesting rather than just reading the material. Then having to put a comment ( Innertoob ) in made us pay attention.
The Podcasts we listened to for assignments, whether they be Dr. Lew’s podcasts or someone elses about various issues, were very helpful in understanding topics.
Dr. Lew’s audio recordings ( Elluminate audio only ) where he reviewed the assignments were helpful as well, especially since this is an online course with little other teacher/student interaction.
I was never able to get Elluminate working on my computer; I’m still not sure how to use it, but when audio-only files were uploaded onto vista, I always listened to those and found them helpful ( Elluminate audio only )!ba.
I really liked the Blogs . I feel this is a great way to communicate during this class.
Innertoob was probably the most effective because one could potentially listen a lecture or observation from someone a great distance away.
Blogging was most useful, as I enjoyed the interaction, although I feel the bulletin boards in VISTA are more convenient and work in much the same manner.
Do you have any other comments and suggestions on the use of Social Media/Software tools in this class? (N=5)
I learned a great deal about social media, etc. but not as much as I would have liked to learn about Sustainable Tourism. It just got really frustrating at times....
The Podcasts were particularly useful. I started to wonder about the educational value of some of the other elements such as Wikis for this class.
I think it was difficult to effectively work in this course at the beginning as I am not very computer savvy.
The course definitely taught me a lot, and I feel much more comfortable using the computer, social media software, etc.
Making the podcast was an experience and probably the most difficult for most of us to do.
Other than your self, I am not sure who else will listen [to my podcast] !
I was never able to actually take part in an Elluminate session due to class conflicts and also equipment on my computer.
I did go and listen to the Elluminate podcasts (audio only) for a few of the assignments I was not totally clear on.
I enjoy online classes like this one where the instructors lays out the requirements clearly.
Downloading the software and producing a podcast is not nearly as easy as presented, at least for older, less technologically-savvy students. The telephone podcast option was the easiest, and the only one I succeeded at, but even it presented some challenges.
Perhaps an Elluminate session would have helped. Speaking of which, Elluminate sessions in the morning are virtually impossible for working students to participate in.
I probably struggled with the technology elements more than most of the class. Although I was vaguely aware of them, blogging, wikis and podcasts were new to me.
It’s difficult to straddle the divide between young people who have not only embraced the age of technology, but made it their own. A challenge I and my peers in the “traditional” tourism industry face is finding ways to market to these younger travelers if we want to stay in business.
I still have grave reservations about wikis and their potential for disseminating misinformation on a grand scale, for example Wikipedia-reported “death” of a major entertainer, who was actually hale and hearty. Although this was a fairly harmless incident, imagine the problems posed for researchers relying on the Internet for data.
On the professional level, I’m glad I’m more familiar with them, and I can always hire others to actually develop them as part of an outreach or marketing effort.
Perhaps the most important part of learning, and reinforcing what you’ve learned, is sharing the knowledge. I see the tremendous potential of new methods of communication with travelers. After a conversation with the manager of a regional driving tour, they’ve developed a grant to create a website and podcast of the tour. Until now it was only available on CD in visitor centers and some businesses.
I believe the website, which will be linked with Chamber’s, visitor center’s, tourism and other websites, will help market our region to a whole new audience. One example is the many bicyclists who travel through here and certainly can’t listen to a CD audio tour. But I’ve noticed that more and more of them travel with iPods or mp3s, making a podcast perfect for them.