Plant structure ap bio

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Plant Structure

Plant Structure

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  • 1. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents … p g Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not endorse, nor is affiliated in any way with the Rapid Learning courses. Plant Form AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Wayne Huang, PhD Andrew Graham, PhD Elizabeth James, PhD Casandra Rauser, PhD Jessica Habashi, PhD Sara Olson, PhD Jessica Barnes, PhD Rapid Learning Center www.RapidLearningCenter.com/ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 1
  • 2. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Learning Objectives By completing this tutorial, you will learn about: Types of plant cell structure and function. Types of plant tissues. Plant anatomy, structure and function. Reproductive organs of flowers. 3/40 Plant Form Concept Map Plant Root Dermal Tissue Epidermal cell Trichomes Stem Ground Tissue Parenchyma cells Leave Vascular Bundle Phloem Xylem Collenchyma cells Tracheids Guard cell Sieve-tube Sieve tube members Sclerenchyma cells Vessel Elements Sieve cells 4/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 2
  • 3. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Plant Cells and Tissues 5/40 Plant Cell Structure Standard plant cell structure. 6/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 3
  • 4. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Cell Wall The cell wall provides protection and with the vacuole is used for skeletal support. 7/40 Secondary cell wall of sclerenchyma, collenchyma and xylem. These are secondary deposits of lignified cellulose. Primary cell wall is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin. They are all polysaccharides. Pits, are holes on the cell wall to allow cell to cell communication. Plant Tissues There are three types of plant tissues: vascular, ground and dermal. Vascular tissue is conducting tissue and responsible for transporting water, food and solutes. There are two groups: xylem and phloem Dermal Tissues include the outer layer tissue and is used for protection and interaction with the environment. 8/40 Dermal Tissue Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Ground Tissue surrounds the vascular tissue and is important for storage and photosynthesis kinds. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 4
  • 5. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Tissues and Cells Each type of plant tissue has distinct cells. Much like a human liver would have specific cells p “hepatocytes”. Dermal Tissue Epidermal cells Guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs Phloem is the principal foodconducting tissue in vascular plants. Sieve cells Sieve-tube members Ground Tissue Parenchyma cells Collenchyma cells Sclerenchyma cells. Vascular Tissue Xylem is the main waterconducting tissue. vessel elements tracheids 9/40 Cells in Ground Tissue The structure of the cell and composition of the cell wall determines its function. Parenchyma cells are the most abundant and have a thin primary wall. They are used in food storage, p photosynthesis and aerobic y respiration. Collenchyma cells have thick primary wall and provide support for young tissue. Sclerenchyma cells have rigid secondary walls and are dead when mature. They are used for plant support. 10/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 5
  • 6. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Cells in Vascular Tissue 1. Xylem is the main water conducting tissue. It contains vessel elements and tracheids. Both cell types have rigid lignin-containing secondary cell walls. 2. 2 The xylem forms long tubes for moving water. water Both types, vessel elements and tracheids are dead when mature. This is a cross section of celery. It shows the vascular bundles including both phloem and xylem 11/40 1. Phloem is the principal food 1 Phl i th i i lf d conducting tissue n vascular plants. It contains sieve cells and sieve-tube members. 2. Sieve tube members have thin primary wall and no secondary wall. These cells form tubes to conduct food. Cells in Dermal Tissue Epidermal cells are a single layer of cells that cover plants. It secrets a layer of cuticular wax for protection. Guard cells are specialized cells on the undersurface of leaves. A hole exists between a pair of guard cells which is regulated in order to control gas exchange and water loss. Root hairs of many vascular plants are tubular outgrowths of trichoblasts, which are the hair forming cells on the epidermis of the plant root. They are used for protection and absorbing nutrients. 12/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 6
  • 7. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Question How do plant tissues make up a plant body? A plant body is made up of three major parts: leaf, stem and root. Each of these parts contain the three major tissues:epidermal, ground and vascular tissue. 13/40 Organization of Plant Body Root and Stem Meristem, Leaf, and Flower 14/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 7
  • 8. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Plant Body Roots are used to anchor the plant and for absorption of nutrients from the soil. Shoots are the major site of photosynthesis hold flowers, fruits and seeds. Shoot Stem Leaf Root 15/40 Plant Body is Made Up of Tissues Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Dermal Tissue Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Dermal Tissue Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Dermal Tissue 16/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 8
  • 9. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Root Structure 1. Epidermis is the surface cells. 2. Cortex tissue made up of parenchyma cells. ll 3. Endodermis is the most inner layer of cortex. 4. Vascular bundle: inner circle of cells. Endodermis Cortex Epidermis Vascular bundle Root Cross section 17/40 Root Root Structure: Longitudinal View Root Cap – protects delicate tissues as the roots elongate, and helps perceive gravity Zone of Maturation Zone of Elongation The Zone of Cell Division – Cells multiply The Zone of Cell Elongation – Cells become Zone of Division several times longer than wide The Zone of Maturation – cells differentiate into specific cell types Root Cap 18/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 9
  • 10. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 5 Major Root Types Aerial roots anchor climbing stems to vertical surfaces. Prop roots come out from the lower part of stems. Storage roots are used for food storage e.g. horseradish. Tap roots: main root growing downward; the i d d th primary root grows much larger than the secondary roots. Fibrous roots: branching and rebranching. 19/40 Root Function Root functions to take water and minerals up from the ground. d Roots are also important for anchoring the plant. 20/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 10
  • 11. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Stem The functions of stems Stem include: support for leaves and increasing in diameter (girth) as well as elongation, elongation transport of fluids between the roots and leaves. A stem is the part of a plant from which shoots and buds arise. Terminal bud Internode Lateral bud Node (Where bud or leaves attach) This is the structure of a stem. 21/40 Modified Stems Modified Stems have various Functions. ■ Tubers – Potato ■ Storage of Food g Tubers ■ Stolons – strawberry ■ Generating new plants ■ Bulbs – Tulips, Onions ■ Storage of Food Bulbs ■ Corms – Taros ■ St Storage of F d f Food Corms 22/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 11
  • 12. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Stem: Cross Section This is the structure of a cross section of the stem of a plant. Epidermis Collenchyma Cortex Parenchyma Vascular Bundle 23/40 Stem: Xylem and Phloem Xylem Phloem ■ Mostly composed of dead cells ■ Xylem transports water and dissolved ions from the root system to the stem. ■ The lignified thick-walled xylem cells strengthen the stem. ■ Composed of living cells ■ Transports synthesized organic food such as carbohydrates from the leaves to other parts of the plant. Xylem Phloem monocots Dicots Xylem 24/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 12
  • 13. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Meristem Meristem is a kind of embryonic tissue in plants made up of unspecialized meristematic cells located at roots and shoots. Apical Meristem Lateral Meristem Apical Meristem 25/40 Lateral meristems (axillary meristems) is growth that thickens stems and roots. Apical meristems (terminal meristems): Root and Shoot apical meristems at the tips of stems and roots where growth causes an increase in length of stems and roots. Meristem Lateral Meristem 26/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 13
  • 14. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Bud A bud is an undeveloped shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of the stem. Bud Flower Leaf Once the bud is formed, it may remain for some time in a dormant state or form a shoot immediately. A bud can develop into a flower or a leaf. 27/40 Leaf Function Photosynthesis Carbohydrates (Food) Leaves are the major sites for photosynthesis which provide food for almost all life forms. 28/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 14
  • 15. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Leaf Structure Petiole (A leave stalk, attaches leaf to plant) Lamina (leaf blade) Midrib Vein (vasular bundles, for transport) Leaf apex (the outer end of a leaf) 29/40 Leaf Cells Cross Section Upper Epidermis Cuticle Wax Layer Mesophyll Cells Lower Epidermis Vascular Bundle Cuticle Wax Layer Secreted by upper epidermal cells, for protection Vascular Bundle Transportation Mesophyll Cell Photosynthesis Epidermal Cells 30/40 Protection, interaction with environment © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 15
  • 16. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Specialized Leaf Cells Trichome Bundle Sheath Cells Guard Cell Guard Cell stomata Guard Cells: located on lower epidermis controlling gas exchange and water loss. occur in pairs and are shaped so that stomata (a pore) exists between them. They can change shape with the result in pore disappearing. ■ Trichome Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells present in most plants. ■ Bundle sheath cells Specialized cells in certain plants for photosynthesis 31/40 Flower’s Reproductive Organs Flowers have these specialized reproductive organs. Stamen= anther + filament Carpel Anther Filament Petal Sepal 32/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 16
  • 17. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Monocots and Dicots The two classes of angiosperm plants 33/40 Monocots and Dicots Plant: monocot and dicot taxonomy. Kingdom Plantae Class Angiospermae (Angiosperms) Gymnospermae (Gymnosperms) Plants without flowers Plants with flowers Subclass Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons, Dicots) Plants with two seed leaves Monocotyledonae (Monocotyledons, Monocots) Plants with one seed leaf 34/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 17
  • 18. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Structure Difference Cotyledons: seed leaves Veins in Leaves Flowers Vascular Bundle Monocots One Parallel In multiple of 3 Scattered Two Net-like 4 or 5 pedals Arranged in a ring Dicots 35/40 Question What are the major differences between monocots and dicots? Monocots have one cotyledon, parallel leaf veins, flower number in 3 and scattered vascular bundles. Dicots have two cotyledons, net-like y leaf veins, flowers in 4 or 5 and vascular bundles arranged in a ring. 36/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 18
  • 19. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Question: Review Vascular, ground, dermal Three types of plant tissues. ___________ _____ is the main water conducting tissue. Xylem ___________ Guard cells regulate and control _____ and _____. Gas and water ___________ Meristem is located where? M i t i l t d h ? ___________ Roots and shoots A ____ is an undeveloped shoot occurring in the axil of a leaf or tip of the stem. Bud ___________ 37/40 Learning Summary Plant Tissues Dermal Tissue Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Plant Cell Types and their Function Monocots and Dicots Plant Body Flower Leaf Stem Root 38/40 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 19
  • 20. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 17 Congratulations You have successfully completed the core tutorial Plant Forms Rapid Learning Center 39/40 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math What’s N t Wh t’ Next … Step 1: Concepts – Core Tutorial (Just Completed) Step 2: Practice – Interactive Problem Drill Step 3: Recap – Super Review Cheat Sheet Go for it! 40/40 http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 20