Plant function cheat sheet


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Plant function cheat sheet

  1. 1. AP Biology - Core Concept Cheat Sheet 18: Plant Function Key Concepts Plant Hormones Five major types • Apical dominance: Apical dominance is the inhibition of lateral buds by auxin from the apical bud; the effect is therefore the apical bud becomes active. • Cotyledon: The seed leave(s) that can be used to classify plants. • Endosperm: Generated from fertiliztion of the central cells. All endosperm cells contain 3N nucleus and supply nutrients for embryo development and/or seed germination. • Hypersensitive response: When a plant is infected by a pathogen, it often triggers a hypersensitive response to kill the infected cells; therefore, the pathogen would not spread. • Macronutrients: 9 elements required in large quantity that plants absorb from air and soil to support their growth. These include C,H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. • Micronutrients: 7 elements required in small quantities that plants absorb from air and soil, inculding boron, copper, iron, chloride, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. • Systemin: The signal molecule a plant synthsizes in response to wounding • Transpiration: Evaporation via the stomata on the lower surface of leaves that pulls up water/minerals from roots. This force makes water to go upwards from root to leaves. • Auxins: o Stimulate cell elongation o Stimulate cell division • Effects on plants: o Apical Dominance o Phototropism o Gravitropism o Inhibit Leaf Abscission o Leaf Formation o Embryonic Development o Fruit Development o Root Initiation • Cytokinins o Stimulate cell division o Promote growth of lateral buds • Gibberellins o Promote stem elongation o Breaks seed dormancy • Abscisic Acid o Bud dormancy o Seed maturation and dormancy o Abscission of leaves and fruits o Closing of stomata Plant Reproduction Stigma sepal Ovary • Ethylene o Promote fruit ripening o Stimulates senescence and abscission in leaves and fruits Anther Filament Pedal Plant Defense Structure of a flower • Female organs -- carpel o Stigma on top o Ovary (containing megaspores) Natrual Physical barrier: o Cuticle: a layer of wax on surface of leaves o Trichomes: extension of plant cells o Spines (modified leaves) o Bark • Male organs -- stemina o Filament o Anther (containg microspores) Natural Chemical barier o Isoprene o Phenolic compounds o Alkaloids • Leave-like Structure o Sepal o Pedal • Double pollination o Pollen contains 2 sperms, one pollinate one egg cell --> embryo o Another sperm pollinate central cell --> endosperm • Seed o Seed coat o Cotyledon(s) o Endosperms CH2=CH2 Inducible Response: o Response to wound --> systemin o Response to pathogen --> SAR, systemic acquired resistance o Gene-for-gene theory: To every pathogen avirulence (avr) gene, there is a coresponding R gene (resistance gene) in plant to trigger HR How to Use This Cheat Sheet: These are the keys related this topic. Try to read through it carefully twice then recite it out on a blank sheet of paper. Review it again before the exams. © Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved