Plant diversity

513 views
357 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
513
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
32
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Plant diversity

  1. 1. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents … p g Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours 1/59 *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not endorse, nor is affiliated in any way with the Rapid Learning courses. Plant E l ti Pl t Evolution & Diversity Di it AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Wayne Huang, PhD Andrew Graham, PhD Elizabeth James, PhD Casandra Rauser, PhD Jessica Habashi, PhD Sara Olson, PhD Jessica Barnes, PhD © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Center www.RapidLearningCenter.com/ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. 1
  2. 2. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Learning Objectives By completing this tutorial, you will learn about: Ordovician Period 488 Million Year Ago Plant Evolution Plant Diversity Plant Classification Plant Adaptations Oldest Land Plant Fossils 3/59 Concept Map: Evolution and Diversity Evolution Origin of plants from algae -500 x 106 years 300,000 types of plants Evolved from algae Photosynthetic Eukaryotes Land Adaptation Roots, cuticle stomata etc Cell type Land plants Multicellular Cell wall of cellulose chlorophyll Divided into 10 phyla Embryophytes Tracheids Vs Non Tracheids Definition Bryophytes Tracheids Protect embryo Seedless No real roots Seed bearing 4/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 2
  3. 3. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Plant Evolution Introduction Evolution Fossil Records Ancestral Origin Invasion of Land Adaptation to Land 5/59 Plant Introduction and Overview Plants are photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes. Embryophytes are a group of plants made up of bryophytes and vascular plants: trees, flowers, flowers ferns mosses and other green land plants. Embrophytes produce an embryo that is protected by tissues of the parent plant. 6/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 3
  4. 4. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Evolution of Plants Fossil evidence indicates plants are derived from green algae between 400-500 million years ago when some algae moved on land. 7/59 cyanobacteria aka blue-green algae 3 Billion years ago Age of Plants 350 MYA Vascular plants appeared 300 MYA Forests appeared d . Mosses Ferns 500 MYA Land plants from green algae 500 million years ago. Cycads 360 MYA Origin of the seed 8/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 150 MYA Angiosperms Flowering plants MYA=Million Years Ago 4
  5. 5. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Fossil Records of Plants This is the fossil records of some protists and plant groups. The width of the shaded area is an indicator of the number of species. Algae is the oldest and angiosperm is the most recent. 9/59 Ancestral Origin of Plants From a single ancestral organism t oug t thought to be algae, a gae, a host of land plants evolved with even greater complexity. Ancestral organism Stramenopiles Red algae “Brown Plants” “Red Plants” Chlorophytes Charophytes “Green Plants” Embryophytes 10/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 5
  6. 6. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Invasion of the Land Embryophytes invaded land about 500 million years ago. What were some of challenges they had to overcome? Water not as readily available and rapidly lost from plant in the terrestrial environment. Dispersal of gametes is much more difficult outside of an aquatic environment. Gravity prevented vertical growth. 11/59 Difficulties on the Land Desiccation Temperature regulation Gas exchange Support Other problems plants faced when they invaded the land included: Reproduction Dispersal 12/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 6
  7. 7. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Adaptation From Water to Land Plants adapted by becoming multicellular on land and developing a thicker cell wall to prevent drying. They also developed a transport system for nutrients and minerals, as well as root, stems, leaves and seeds 13/59 Plant Diversity Embryophytes Plant Species Plant Kingdom Plant Life Cycle 14/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 7
  8. 8. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Embryophytes: Role of Tracheids The first plants on earth p lacked vascular tissue or like some mosses, had very simple conducting tissue that developed from dead cells. Tracheids are specialized cells for conducting water. When plants moved onto the land, some of them developed these cells and are called tracheophytes. Those that didn’t are called nontracheophytes. 15/59 Diversity of Embryophytes Embryophytes 10 Phyla Tracheophytes 7 Phyla Non-Tracheophytes 3 Ph l Phyla Have well developed vascular systems Lack tracheids Members: mosses, hornworts and liverworts 16/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 8
  9. 9. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 From Green Algae to Plants Ancestral alga Chlorophytes Charophytes Hornworts Liverworts Mosses Club mosses Gymnosperm 17/59 Fern Angiosperm Reproduction of Embryophytes Reproduction Evolution For Land Plants Gametes must be dispersed in a non aquatic environment. Plants adapted by producing gametes within gametangia and the egg gets fertilized within the female organ. The zygote develops into an embryo that was retained within the protective cells of the female s gametangia. female’s gametangia Embryos must be protected from desiccation. This adaptation results in plants being referred as embryophytes. 18/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 9
  10. 10. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Species of Plants More than 300,000 plants are estimated to exist. Many thousands remain unknown. Angiosperms Gymnosperms y p 300,000 1000 19/59 Plant Kingdom: Characteristics More than 300,000 species exist Often have plastids in cytoplasm Cell wall is made of cellulose Store reserve food as starch . Generate energy y photosynthesis y by p Contain chlorophyll and beta carotene 20/59 Usually live on land, but some live on water Contains multicellular phototrophs © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 10
  11. 11. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Unique Characteristics of Plants Meiosis produces spores that develop into multicellular haploid individuals Most plants reproduce sexually and are capable of asexual propagation l ti Alternation of generations is a universal feature of the life cycles of plants. Gametes are produced by mitosis Life cycle includes both multicellular diploid and multicellular haploid individuals 21/59 Plant Life Cycle The 2N sporophyte undergoes meiosis making a 1n reproductive cell called a spore. The spore undergoes mitosis to produce a gametophyte. 22/59 The gametophyte makes a haploid gamete that fuses to form a diploid zygote sporophyte sporophyte. Alternation between haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) generations is a distinctive feature of plants. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 11
  12. 12. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Alternation of Generations Multicellular Gametophyte Spore Gametes Haploid (n) Meiosis Fertilization Diploid (2n) Zygote Multicellular sporophyte 23/59 Plant Classification Introduction Bryophytes Tracheophytes Gymnosperms Angiosperms 24/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 12
  13. 13. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Plant Classification Introduction There are two major plant divisions depending on if the plant is a non-vascular (Bryophyte) or a vascular plant. Notice the types and similarities between the groups. Vascular plants Nonvascular plants Mosses Hornworts Gymnosperm Club mosses Algae 25/59 Liverworts Angiosperm Fern Bryophytes : Introduction Require a constantly moist environment Evolved 500 million years ago No roots but root like structures known as rhizoids Liverworts Hornworts 26/59 Earliest land plants Mosses © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 13
  14. 14. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Bryophytes Division Members Hornworts (Anthocerophyta) Liverworts (Hepatophyta) Mosses (Bryophyta) 27/59 Bryophytes: Features Have leaf like structures that catch and hold water that splashes onto them. Many grow in dense masses through which water can move by capillary action. Small enough that minerals can be distributed evenly by diffusion. 28/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 14
  15. 15. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Basic Characteristics of Bryophytes 1. Maternal tissues prevent loss of water from the embryo 2. Grow in all 6 continents and on the coast of Antarctica. 3. Grow in dense moist habitats and are usually small. 4. Have a thin cuticle that is not very effective in retarding water loss. 29/59 Liverworts Absorb water via filaments located on the lower surfaces of gametophytes. Most ancient surviving plants Asexual A l reproduction is by simple fragmentation of the gametophyte. Several genera have both sexual and asexual reproduction p 30/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 15
  16. 16. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Hornworts The hornworts, phylum mosses and tracheophytes, all have special adaptations for life on land. These plants have (pores) stomata that allow the uptake of CO2 and the release of O2, but these pores can be closed to prevent excessive water loss. 31/59 Non-Tracheophytes Spores germinate and give rise to a multicellular, haploid gametophyte whose cells contain chloroplasts. Non tracheophytes Visible green structure is the gametophyte. Sporophyte produces S h t d unicellular, haploid spores through meiosis within sporangium or capsules. 32/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 16
  17. 17. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Reproduction in Bryophytes The zygote develops into a sporophyte which produces 1N spores in the sporangia which germinate into another gametophyte. The male antheridium produces sperm. Water is required for the sperm to swim to the archegonium. Female gametangia are called archegonium and produces eggs. The haploid gametophyte makes haploid gametes. 33/59 Tracheophytes: Introduction Sporophyte generation of a now extinct organism produced a new cell type called Tracheid Tracheid. Tracheid is the principal water conducting element in the xylem of all y tracheophytes except the angiosperms. Early vascular plants had no roots, leaves, fruits or flowers. Tracheids 34/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 17
  18. 18. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 History of Tracheophytes First tracheophytes Phylum Rhyniophyta Had the basic structures observed in all other tracheophyte phyla Devonian Period Silurian Period Club mosses (Lycophyta) Ferns, Ferns horsetails and whisk ferns (Pteridophyta) Lycophyta and Pteridophyta have true roots, true leaves, and a differentiation between two types of spores. 35/59 Development of Tracheids Evolution of tracheids had two important applications. First it allowed for a pathway to transport food and minerals. Second it provided rigid structural support for vertical growth. Tracheophytes have a branching independent sporophyte. 36/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 18
  19. 19. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Evolution of Today’s Plants Branching independent sporophyte Multiflagellate sperm, complex leaves Club mosses Horsetails Whisk fern Fern Seeds Angiosperms Conifers Cycads Flowers Ginkgos Gnetophytes 37/59 Reproduction - Gametophytes Ferns and their allies have a heteromorphic alternation of generations. The mature fern is diploid 2N sporophyte. The diploid zygote then grows out of the prothallus as the sporophyte. 38/59 The prothallus carries out sexual reproduction making a 2N zygote. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com The plant creates 1N spores by meiosis dispersed by the wind. The spore germinates and grows into a haploid prothallus. 19
  20. 20. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Characteristics of Tracheophytes Roots have their origins as branches, either as rhizomes or above ground portion of stems. Early roots were simple structures that penetrated the soil, branching and anchoring the plant. 39/59 Plant Divisions Vascular Plants Tracheophytes Includes seedless plants Seed bearing forms Specialized transport cells Xylem Phloem 40/59 Transport water and minerals Transports sugars These plants are more complex and organized © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 20
  21. 21. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Formation of Leaf Gaps Most plants above the fern have magaphyllous leaves. The term leaf gap denotes a gap in the vascular cylinder above the leaf insertion. The petiole is the leaf stem and stipules are the small processes at the base of the petiole. Vegetative Stem: N=node, I=internode, B=branch in whorl, L=fused megaphylls 41/59 Seedless Tracheophytes Examples of seedless tracheophytes. Club moss Ground pines Horse tails Ferns- Most common vascular plants 42/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 21
  22. 22. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Horsetails Only living genus is equisetum Live in damp locations and have flagellated sperm Most are homosporous Some have photosynthetic gametophytes 43/59 Ferns Look on the under side of a fern and you will see their many sporangia. Most common seedless plant Water is necessary for fertilization Leaves have a branched vein system Sporophylls bear sporangia on their underside Gametophyte is fragile & requires a moist habitat 44/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 22
  23. 23. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Seed Bearing Tracheophytes Seed Bearing Plants Successful due to Efficient vascular system Extensive root system Phloem Xylem Two types of seed bearing tracheophytes Naked seed plants such as Conifers Gymnosperms Angiosperms Flowering plants 45/59 Gymnosperms . Gymnosperms contain cycads and conifer. The seeds are naked and not enclosed in a pericarp as in angiosperms. Pine cones Tracheids transport water and sieve cells carry organic materials. 46/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 23
  24. 24. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Angiosperms Angiosperms or flowering plants may be either monocots or dicots. Monocots have parallel veined leaves and floral parts in 3’s. Dicots have net-veined leaves and floral parts in 4’s and 5’s. 47/59 Plant Adaptations Leaves and Stems Growth Seed Production Pollen Special Adaptation of Flowering Plants Senescence and Death 48/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 24
  25. 25. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Adaptation of Leaves and Stems Leaves and stems adapted to absorb light and CO2. They are protected by a waxy covering to prevent loss of water. water Have stomata to regulate water loss, and chlorophyll to absorb light. Leaves have a rigid structure to prevent wilting. 49/59 Plant Adaptability in Growth Lignin is a chemical compound derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants plants. One possible form of lignin. Lignin provides skeletal support, support maintains plant rigidity and reinforces cellulose. Lignin is important in plant evolution because it enables plants to grow vertically. 50/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 25
  26. 26. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Seed Production Seed production is important because seeds can survive for many years and in harsh conditions. So why is seed development so critical to plant evolution? It is a good method to disperse the plants into new habitats and avoid inbreeding. Also the seeds protect the plant from pathogens and competition. 51/59 Role of Pollen Male Gametophyte It can be blown/travel great distances by wind/insects. 52/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 26
  27. 27. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Adaptations of Angiosperms Flowering plants have special adaptation to help them survive. For instance they are designed to attract pollinators. pollinators Also they have developed a coevolution with insects that help them to survive, such p , as pollinators. Their fruits and seeds are designed to aid in their dispersal. 53/59 Flower Specialization Flowers became specialized to help them survive and evolve. Some of their adaptations included color, nectar and odor. Adaptations of growth characteristics include: radial or symmetrical, complete or incomplete. Characteristics of flower shape included single versus composite and perfect versus imperfect. 54/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 27
  28. 28. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Senescence and Death Perennials live two years or more. Annual plants live one season and die. 55/59 Question: Review What kingdom do plants belong to? Plantae ___________ Fossil evidence indicates plants evolved from ______. Of the two major plant divisions the Bryophyte is __. Non-vascular ___________ Green plant having a vascular p g system: ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms. 56/59 ___________ Green algae Tracheophyte T h h t ___________ A chemical compound derived from wood and a important component of plant cell walls. Lignin ___________ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 28
  29. 29. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Learning Summary Embryophytes are the plants that produce an embryo that is protected by the parent plant. Plants are the multicellular photosynthetic organisms evolved from green algae. Plants reproduce sexually and have ability of asexual propagation. Non vascular plants are the most primitive. Vascular plants allow transport of water and minerals. Plants d t d t Pl t adapted to land by having cuticle, stomata, gametangia, pigments and spores. 57/59 Congratulations You have successfully completed the core tutorial Plant Evolution and Diversity Rapid Learning Center 58/59 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 29
  30. 30. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 15 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math What’s N t Wh t’ Next … Step 1: Concepts – Core Tutorial (Just Completed) Step 2: Practice – Interactive Problem Drill Step 3: Recap – Super Review Cheat Sheet Go for it! 59/59 http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 30

×