Origin ofspecies
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Origin ofspecies

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Origin ofspecies Origin ofspecies Document Transcript

  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents … p g Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not endorse, nor is affiliated in any way with the Rapid Learning courses. The O g Of e Origin O Species AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Wayne Huang, PhD Andrew Graham, PhD Elizabeth James, PhD Casandra Rauser, PhD Jessica Habashi, PhD Sara Olson, PhD Jessica Barnes, PhD Rapid Learning Center www.RapidLearningCenter.com/ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 1
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Learning Objectives By completing this tutorial, you will learn about: Understand how new species originate originate. Know what makes a species a species. Understand how environmental change effects biodiversity. Be able to apply these concepts to understand the continual evolution of species today. 3/37 Concept Map Allopatric Speciation Biological Species Concept Gene Pool Isolation via internal barrier Sympatric speciation Speciation p Event Truly Satisfy Species Definition MorphoSpecies Concept Origin Of Species Biodiversity Basic Patterns of Evolution 4/37 Anagenesis Cladogenesis © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 2
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Species Concept Define species Morphology species concept Phenotype and genotype interactions Species Concepts There are two approaches to defining a species. species One is based on whether or not animals can breed with one another and produce offspring that are fertile. The second approach depends on morphology. 6/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 3
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Morphology This is in contrast to physiology which focuses on function. Gross morphology would include: overall shape, p , color, major markings etc. but not finer details. Morphology in biology typically refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, color, pattern) of an organism or taxon and the parts that make it up. 7/37 Morphology Species Concept Morphospecies is an approach in which an organism’s morphology is compared and contrasted to that of similar organisms, for the purpose of defining a species. Lynx Example: animals belonging to the same species are similar in : form, shape and i i il i f h d appearance. This is the most used method in the field. 8/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com Bobcat 4
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Morpho-species Application Are these two snakes considered the same species ? No, No they look too different. different Even though different colors, they still look more alike then different, therefore same species. 9/37 Important Terms Genotype – The genetic makeup of an organism, also organism known as genome. Phenotype – the visible or measurable manifestation of an organism’s traits. Genotype + Environment Phenotype 10/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 5
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Morph-Species Theory Weakness The morpho-species concept is not sufficiently rigorous to eliminate mistakes in defining a species. A judgment based on appearance or phenotype leads to ambiguity. 11/37 Biological Species Concept In this approach a species is defined by its ability to interbreed with members of a specific population but not others. 12/37 This breeding would result in viable, fertile offspring. This definition p g of species is less ambiguous. Male D k M l Donkey + F Female Horse l H = Mule (infertile) Most mules when mated with mules are usually unable to produce offspring. So by this definition mules would not be a species. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 6
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Weakness of Bio-species Concept The weakness in the “biospecies concept” to define species is that it is ineffective for organisms g that procreate asexually. Such as bacteria, plants, etc. 13/37 Bio-species & Extinct Organisms The bio-species method of defining a species is ineffective for extinct organisms organisms. This is because it is not possible to determine if the fossils could have mated. 14/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 7
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Evolutionary Relationships & Biodiversity Anagenesis verse Cladogenesis Basic Patterns of Evolution There are two basic patterns of evolution and speciation; anagenesis and cladogenesis. g Genesis means “origin of life”. 16/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 8
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Anagenesis Anagenesis is the evolution of species involving a change in gene frequency in an entire population not just a cladogenetic branching event. The entire population is different from the ancestral population and the ancestral population is considered extinct. extinct Old world monkeys New World Monkeys Prosimians 17/37 Evolutionary change leading to the prosimian line is a transformation into a new species without branching i.e. anagenesis. Gorillas Orangutans Gibbons Cladogenesis Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event. A clade is a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister organisms. Old world monkeys New World Monkeys Prosimians Gorillas 18/37 Orangutans Gibbons Evolution of New World monkey line is an example of cladogenesis. Note branching. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 9
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Biodiversity and Evolution Which pattern of evolution would lead to greater species diversity (biodiversity) ? Anagenesis Cladogenesis Hint: all of these primates derived from New World Monkeys Gorilla Orangutan Gibbon 19/37 Speciation Events Causes of speciation © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 10
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Speciation Events: Isolation A new species may be created when a segment of a population becomes isolated. This might happen because of new barriers g pp such as mountains or bodies of water. The new species may be defined based on either “morphology” or “biology” definitions. 21/37 Definition of Gene Pool Gene Pool The complete set of genes of all members in a population. 22/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 11
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 What Isolates a Gene Pool ? Barriers to interbreeding and or reproduction leads to gene pool isolation. Barrier 23/37 Internal Barriers to Gene Flow Gene Pool Isolation Two causes: • C Cessation of gene flow: intrinsic to the organism, ti f fl i t i i t th i part of its genetic make up. • Gene pool isolation: external to the organism. Reproductive isolation may be caused by the production of sterile offspring (e.g.. Mule) or prevention of fertilization (e.g. errors in cell division). 24/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 12
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Internal Barriers to Fertilization Internal Barriers to fertilization Gene pool Isolation Wrong Place: organisms occupy different habitats / niche and do not meet. For example, tree snakes live in an elevated habitat whereas water moccasins stay in or near the water. Their evolved adaptations / traits allow them to compete within their niche. It also inhibits their meeting. 25/37 Behavioral Barriers Wrong Behaviors: dissimilar mating behaviors or rituals no mating. i.e., whale songs very distinctive, species specific & required for mating. Wrong Anatomy: organisms with grossly different body proportions no mating. 26/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 13
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Infertile Progeny Internal Barrier Progeny not fertile resulting in no further generations. Donkey + Horse Mule (sterile) no transfer of genes b k t originating (parental) populations back to i i ti ( t l) l ti (gene pool isolation). 27/37 External Barrier & Gene Pool Example of External Barrier to reproduction: For example, geographic isolation. Shifting land masses islands separating from mainland. Populations once united can be divided with these land shifts. 28/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 14
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Speciation via External Barriers The time line below depicts a speciation event known as Allopatric Speciation. That is speciation initiated by external barriers. Time line Modifications via natural selection or extinction (most) No reproduction / fertilization with parental population Environment Change Physical Separation 29/37 Internal barriers to reproduction develop = new species No gene flow between populations. Organism subset interacting with new environment Summary of Speciation Events Barriers to Fertilization (External at 1st) Gene Pool Isolation + new environment New species Internal barriers may develop as a byproduct of adaptations Extinction or adaptations via natural selection 30/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 15
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Sympatric Speciation Sympatric speciation is more important for plant speciation than for animals. Sympatric speciation is a set of speciation events S ti i ti i t f i ti t different from allopatric speciation in the following ways: Internal barriers develop first without initial external barriers. Internal barriers cause instant reproductive and gene pool isolation. 31/37 Interbreeding Internal Barriers Inherent trait of organism leads to decrease or halt of interbreeding between parental & separated subset populations, even if external barrier no g longer exists. An example of this type of barrier would be flowers that bloom at different times preventing cross pollination. 32/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 16
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Sympatric Speciation & Cell Division In speciation by reproductive isolation, errors in cell division during mitosis can occur. This results in doubling the number of chromosomes and preventing correct pairing in gametes during fertilization. This failure in mitosis results in polyploids; most of which go extinct before reproducing. 33/37 Learning Summary Speciation Events Evolutionary relationships and Biodiversity Species Concepts C t Patterns of Evolution 34/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 17
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Question: Review Two approaches to species definition. The Th genetic makeup of an ti k f organism is called its ____. Morphology & viable offspring ___________ Genotype ___________ The visible or measurable expression of an organisms traits. ____ is the evolution of a species involving a change in gene frequency in the entire population. 35/37 Phenotype ___________ Anagenesis ___________ ____ is an evolutionary splitting event. ___________ Cladogenesis Congratulations You have successfully completed the core tutorial The Origin of Species Rapid Learning Center 36/37 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 18
  • AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 13 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math What’s N t Wh t’ Next … Step 1: Concepts – Core Tutorial (Just Completed) Step 2: Practice – Interactive Problem Drill Step 3: Recap – Super Review Cheat Sheet Go for it! 37/37 http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 19