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Animal function slides

  1. 1. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 1 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents …p g Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not endorse, nor is affiliated in any way with the Rapid Learning courses. A i l F tiAnimal Function AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Rapid Learning Center www.RapidLearningCenter.com/ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Wayne Huang, PhD Andrew Graham, PhD Elizabeth James, PhD Casandra Rauser, PhD Jessica Habashi, PhD Sara Olson, PhD Jessica Barnes, PhD
  2. 2. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 2 Learning Objectives Energy Source: Nutrition, Digestion and Respiration By completing this tutorial, you will learn about: Circulation and Defense Reproduction and Development Sensor and Movement 3/46 Animal Function Concept Map DevelopmentAnimal Digestion Nervous System ReproductionReproduction Immune Response Immune Response Defense Sensory InflammatoryInflammatory Response Ingest Food Respiration Oxygen 4/46 Nutrients Circulation Response
  3. 3. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 3 Energy Source Nutrition Di ti 5/46 Digestion Respiration Animal Nutrients Major nutrients include carbohydrates and proteins. Other essential nutrients include nonessential amino acids: tryptophan, Vitamins are required in smaller amounts than amino acids: tryptophan, methionine, valine, histidine, theronine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine and lysine. 6/46 smaller amounts than amino acids but are essential. Minerals are chemical elements other than C, H, O and N. Ca and P are the two types required in large amounts.
  4. 4. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 4 Animal Nutrition Uptake ■ Macromolecules need to be broken down to small nutrition molecules for body to uptake. ■ Feeding Types:■ Feeding Types: ■ Omnivores: Animals feeding on multiple types of food, e.g. human ■ Herbivores: Animals only eat plants ■ Carnivores: Animals only eat other animals Omnivores 7/46 Herbivores Carnivores Food Processing Stages Food processing stages: • Ingestion: taking the food in. • Digestion: breaking the food down into small units. • Absorption: nutrient molecules are absorbed Ingestion • Absorption: nutrient molecules are absorbed. • Elimination: undigested waste is passed out. 8/46 Elimination Digestions & Absorption
  5. 5. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 5 Digestion in Stomach Food enters the stomach and is broken apart by a process called heuristic churning and mixed with digestive fluid (having HCl and digestive enzymes). Small molecules like glucose or alcohol pass through the stomach directly into the blood streamthrough the stomach directly into the blood stream. Gastric Glands: • Mucous Cells: secret mucous for lubrication • Chief Cells: secrets pepsinogen (inactive) • Parietal Cells: secrets HCl which 9/46 HCl + Pepsinogen (inactive) Pepsin (active) Parietal Cells: secrets HCl which breaks down food • Pepsin: digest proteins into smaller peptides. Digestion in Small Intestine Liver Small Intestine: the major organ for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption Pancreas p 10/46 Small intestine Liver: Makes bile which makes fat more susceptible to enzyme attack. Pancreas: Produces digestive enzymes and alkaline solutions which neutralize food mixtures from stomach.
  6. 6. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 6 Small Intestine in Detail The intestine goes from the stomach to the anus. The small intestine is divided into the Nutrients are absorbed in the lumen. In the glandular epithelium are goblet cells that secrete mucus which lubricates food passage. Villi increase the surface area of the intestines. divided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. 11/46 Large surface area - facilitate absorption: • Plicae Circulares: Folds of submucosa which serve to increase surface area. • Villus (Villi): Finger-like projections on the small intestine wall. • Microvilli: Many tiny projections on epithelial cells which form villi. Small Intestine Breakdown Products The small intestine is responsible for carbohydrate breakdown to maltose and monosaccharide. Proteins are broken down into amino acids. 12/46 Nucleic acids are broken down into nucleotides, nitrogen bases, sugars and phosphates. Fats are broken down to fat droplets and fatty acids and glycerols. Only small molecules can be absorbed in the small intestine.
  7. 7. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 7 Nutrition Question Nutrients are needed for body function what else d d? Oxygen do we need? 13/46 Gas exchange happens in the lung. When rib cage enlarges, air Respiration: Inhale O2, Exhale CO2 Trachea Left Lung comes in and shrinks air out. Bronchus Right Lung Bronchiole Alveoli 14/46 Breathing is automatically controlled by centers in the brain. Right Lung The lung structure includes: trachea, bronchus, bronchiole and alveoli. Most gas exchange occurs at the alveoli.
  8. 8. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 8 Oxygen and CO2 Transport • Hemoglobin is a iron containing oxygen transport metalloprotein. • It is found in the red blood cell. • Hemoglobin transports oxygen • Hemoglobin is a tetramer, made up of four protein subunits. Each heme group binds one oxygen molecule. • Gas exchange happens at the alveoli which is permeable to gas • Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body. 15/46 alveoli which is permeable to gas. • Oxygenated blood is bright red. Deoxygenated blood is a darker shade of red. Circulation and Defense 16/46
  9. 9. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 9 Cardiovascular System Heart Structure ■ Left Ventricle ■ Right Ventricle Pulmonary artery Superior Vena Cava Aorta ■ Left Atrium ■ Right Atrium ■ Pulmonary artery ■ Pulmonary Veins ■ Superior Vena Cava ■ Inferior Vena Cava ■ Atrioventricular Valve Left Atrium Right Atrium y y Semilunar Valve Pulmonary Veins 17/46 Valve ■ Semilunar Valve ■ Aorta Right Ventricle Left ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Atrioventricular Valve Blood Circulation Blood circulation can be divided into two circuits, the pulmonary circuit and th t i i it Pulmonary Circuit A circuit of blood circulation between lung and heart Function: 1) S d CO t l Pulmonary Circuit Lung CO2 O2 O2 CO2 the systemic circuit. 1) Send CO2 to lung 2) Get O2 from lung 18/46 Systemic Circuit Tissue O2 O2CO2 CO2 Systemic Circuit A circuit of blood circulation between heart and other part of body Function: 1) Bring CO2 to heart 2) Send O2 to tissues
  10. 10. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 10 Cardiac Cycle The cardiac cycle consists of three stages of alternating relaxation and contraction of the heart. Atria systole: contraction of the atria and blood DiastoleDiastole: heart is relaxed and blood flows in. 19/46 of the atria and blood moves into the ventricles. Systole Ventricular systole: ventricles contract and O2 rich blood moves into the aorta artery. CO2 rich blood moves into the pulmonary artery. Body Defense: Nonspecific Nonspecific defense proteins and cells Categorized into nonspecific defense and immune response. Neutrophil ■ White Blood Cells: engulf bacteria and virus and infected tissues Neutrophils Monocytes Macrophages Lymphocyte Eosinophil Basophil Monocyte Lymphocyte 20/46 ■ Proteins: Interferons: produced by infected tissues for fighting the virus. Complement: Circulate in blood for making microbes more susceptible to macrophage. Basophil Eosinophil
  11. 11. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 11 Inflammatory Response Inflammatory response is a major component of nonspecific immune response. Tissue injury results in the release of chemical signals like histamine. This causes blood vessel dilation and an increase of local blood vessels, migration of phagocytes in the areas (s elling redness)response. areas (swelling, redness). 21/46 Phagocytes consume bacteria and cell debris resulting in wound repair. Immune Response Resistance to specific invaders contains two interactive immune response: B cell Humoral T cell Cellular response: ■ The humoral immune response: -- Detects antigens in blood stream -- Involves antibodies generated by B cells Plasma Cell Antibodies T cell T cell attacks infected cell 22/46 ■ The cellular immune response: -- Detect antigens that reside within or on cells. -- Involves T cells. Binding to Antigen Antigen Destroyed x Infected cell lysis
  12. 12. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 12 Antibody and B Cells AntigenThere is an enormous amount of binding antigen diversity in antibodies. This is due to the process Antibody reservoir Antigen binding stimulates cell division One dominant cell type of clonal selection. •There is a variety of B cells in low numbers. • Antigens binding the B cell stimulates one type of B cell 23/46 Plasma cell to divide and differentiate into plasma cells. • Because of clonal selection these antigen specific cells will dominate. Primary and Secondary Response Antibody reservoir Antigen Mitosis Primary response: Lymphocytes are first exposed to the antigen and form a clone of plasma cells which produce antibodies Memory B cell Plasma cell which produce antibodies. Secondary response involves a subsequent exposure to the same antigen. This will trigger a stronger 24/46 Memory B cell Large clone of cells trigger a stronger immune response.
  13. 13. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 13 Cell Mediated Response There are three types of T cells: • Cytotoxic T cells - attack body cells that are infected with virus. • Suppressor T cell - inhibit other T and B cell• Suppressor T cell - inhibit other T and B cell activity. It is responsible for terminating immune activity after the infection is eliminated. • Helper T cells - activates other T and B cells for antibody production. 25/46 Killer T cells directly attack other cells having foreign or abnormal antigens on their surfaces. Immune System Summary MonocytesMonocytes AntibodiesMacrophages B cells Secondary NeutrophilsNeutrophils Interferon Inflammatory Eosinophil CytotoxicCytotoxic T cell Complement Humoral Response Primary responsePrimary response Secondary Response 26/46 Inflammatory response Helper T cell Suppressor T cell Nonspecific Response Specific Immune Response Cell-mediated Response Basophil
  14. 14. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 14 What is Clonal Selection? What is clonal selection? Clonal selection is a process for antigen to stimulate cell divisionstimulate cell division of a corresponding B cell, therefore this specific B cell number increase significantly 27/46 Development and Reproduction 28/46
  15. 15. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 15 Reproductive - Development Sperm and Ova Formation: Meiosis Mating to Form ZygotesMating to Form Zygotes Embryo Development Child Born Process 29/46 Growth Stages Adults Sperm and Ova Formation Sperm is developed in coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules in the testes. Ova are formed in the ovary. Both sperms and ova are produced during meiosis. 30/46
  16. 16. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 16 Embryo Development Zygote Three layeredThree-layered embryo Cleavage Blastula SpermsSperms Ovum Fertilization Gastrulation Cleavage: Blastula Mature embryo Organ formation Cleavage: Blastula is formed, gastrulation cells divide into three layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. 31/46 Organ Formation: Endoderm leads to digestive tract, liver, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroids thymus, lining of bladder. Ectoderm: skin and central nervous system, Mesoderm: internal organs, skeletal/muscular system. Blastulation Morula Blastula The blastula is an early stage of embryonic development in animals. It is formed by cleavage of a fertilized ovum. It is made up of a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid filled 32/46 spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastula follows the morula and is before gastrula.
  17. 17. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 17 Gastrulation is an invagination of cells during the blastula phase of development to form a digestive cavity – called archenteron and two separate germ layers called an ectoderm and (internal endoderm) often a mesoderm develops between them Gastrulation them. There is only one opening to the digestive cavity which is known as the blastopore. The germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. 33/46 What is Gastrulation? What is gastrulation ? Gastrulation is a developmental stage for embryos, it generates three layers of cells which can further differentiate into organs. 34/46
  18. 18. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 18 Sense andSense and Nervous System 35/46 Sensory Process SoundSound ElectricalElectrical Signal Sensory Receptor Sensory Receptor Light Food SensorySmell Sensory Neuron y Transduction Smell Nerve System Central Nerve System Motor Neuron 3 Types of Neurons 1. Sensory neurons send impulses toward the CNS away from the peripheral system. 2. Interneurons are the neurons lie entirely 36/46 Effector (Action)to the y within the CNS. 3. Motor neurons: these nerve cells carry signals from the CNS to the effector cells in the peripheral system.
  19. 19. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 19 Sensory Receptors Mechanical and chemical receptors detect temperature and pressure. They also detect muscle contraction and blood pressure. They are Auditory receptors are responsible for detecting pressure waves in the air. p y responsible for sensing taste, smell and body position. 37/46 Optic receptors detect light over a broad range of wavelengths. Potential on Sensory Neuron A nerve signal originates as a change in the resting potential. Resting Potential ■ The voltage across the plasma membrane of a restingplasma membrane of a resting neuron ■ Inside of cell is negative and outside is positive ■ The resting potential is maintained by ions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Inside of cell outside 38/46 Action Potential ■ A nerve signal Threshold Potential ■ A change in the potential that is big enough to initiate a nerve signal
  20. 20. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 20 Synapse and Neuron Communication Action potentialAction potential Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the receiving neuron. The binding opens ion channels in the receiving neuron and generates a new action potential y py p Neurotransmitter Releasing Neurotransmitter Accepting and binding ofAccepting and binding of the neurotransmitter Transmitting Neuron The potential arrives at the synaptic cleft and releases neuro- transmitters. N action potential. 39/46 the neurotransmitter New Action Potential Receiving neuron Neurons communicate at the synapse. An action potential can regenerate itself along the neuron. Spinal Cord Spinal cord connects the central nerve system and peripheral nerve system. Sensory Cell Body Dorsal Root Ganglion y y White Matter Gray Matter Central Canal Sensory axon Receptor Effector Spinal N 40/46 Motor Cell Body Interneuron Motor axon Nerve
  21. 21. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 21 Central Nervous System C b ll Forebrain Brain and Spinal Cord The brain is made up of three parts. Th b i t i Brainstem CerebellumThe brainstem is the most primitive in the evolutionary chain. Important in life support and basic functions such as movement. The cerebellum consists of two hemispheres and integrates the sensory perception and motor output 41/46 and motor output. Forebrain the most advanced in evolutionary terms. Important for learning ability and creativity. What is the Signal in a Neuron? What form does a stimulus signal take in a neuron? A stimulus signal exists as a potential charge across the plasma membranemembrane. 42/46
  22. 22. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 22 Animal Nutrients Animal Nutrients Learning Summary Animal Sensory System and Signal Animal Sensory System and Signal Digestion and Respiration Digestion and Respiration AnimalAnimal Signal Transmission in Nerve System Signal Transmission in Nerve System AnimalAnimal 43/46 Reproduction and Development Reproduction and Development Animal Circulation and Defense System Animal Circulation and Defense System Question: Review _____ are animals that feed on multiple types of food. ___________Omnivores The major organ for chemical ___________ ___________ Small intestine Pulmonary and systemic circuit The major organ for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption. Spinal cord connects the The two circulation divisions of blood. 44/46 ___________Central, peripheral p ____ and _____ nerve systems. The blastula is formed by _____ of a fertilized ovum. ___________Cleavage
  23. 23. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 20 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 23 Congratulations You have successfully completed the core tutorial Animal Function 45/46 Rapid Learning Center Rapid Learning Center Wh t’ N t Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math What’s Next … Step 1: Concepts – Core Tutorial (Just Completed) Step 2: Practice – Interactive Problem Drill Step 3: Recap – Super Review Cheat Sheet 46/46 Go for it! http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com

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