Animal form cheat sheet

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Animal form cheat sheet

  1. 1. RapidLearningCenter.com.com © Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved AP Biology - Core Concept Cheat Sheet 19: Animal Form Animal Tissues Four major types ■ Each type is made up of same type of cells • Muscular Tissue ■ Skeletal muscle: consists of filaments of myosin and actin with alternating banding ■ Smooth: Lack the banding, also consists of actin and myosin ■ Cardiac muscle: striated muscle found only in the heart. For heart beating. • Nervous Tissue ■ Neurons ■ A cell body: contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles ■ An axon: Long fibers that carry signals away from the cell body ■ Many dendrites: receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body ■ Glial Cells: ■ Nonconducting cells that serve as support cells in the nervous system and help to protect neurons • Connective Tissue ■ Loose Connective Tissue, e.g., adipose tissue ■ Fibrous Connective Tissue, e.g.,tendons Special types ■ Cartilage ■ Bone ■ Blood Functions ■ Binding ■ Supporting ■ Protecting ■ Forming blood ■ Storing fats ■ Filling space • Epithelial Tissue • Cell Shape: three types ■ Squamous epithelium is flattened cells. ■ Cuboidal epithelium is cube-shaped cells. ■ Columnar epithelium consists of elongated cells. • Cell layer: three types ■ Simple epithelium has only a single cell layer. ■ Stratified epithelium has more than one layer of cells ■ Pseudostratified epithelium is a single layer of cells so shaped that they appear at first glance to form two layers. • Functions ■ Movement of materials in, out, or around the body. ■ Protection of the internal environment against the external environment. ■ Secretion of a product. 11 Organ Systems • Muscular system: ■ All skeleton-attached muscles ■ For movement and body temperature regulation • Digestive System ■ Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Colon (large intestine), Rectum, and Anus ■ Food ingest and digestion. • Respiratory System ■ Nose, Pharynx, Larynx,Trachea, Bronchi, and Lung ■ Exchange gas between body and environment • Cardiovascular System ■ Blood vessels, Blood and Heart. -- Arteries: from heart -- Veins: to heart -- Capillaries: from arteries to veins ■ Transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, chemical signals etc • Lymphatic System ■ Central lymphoid tissue -- Bone Marrow: produce all cells in immune system -- Thymus: T cell maturation ■ Peripheral lymphoid tissue -- Lymph nodes -- Lymphatic sinuses, blood vessels, parenchyma Spleen -- Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ■ Function is defense • Excretory System ■ Liver, Skin and Urinary System ■ Removes organic wastes; maintaining fluid levels • Endocrine System ■ Composed of all glands in body ■ Hormone secretion • Reproductive System ■ Male: testicles, Duct system (epididimys, vas deferens), Accessory gland (seminal vesecle, prostate), and Penis. ■ Female: Fallopian tubes Ovaries , Uterus Vagina, Accessory glands, and External genital organs. ■ Function: reproduction • Nervous System ■ Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system ■ Sense the environment and process the signal, coordinate muscle movement • Skeletal System ■ Bones ■ Support for the body, producing blood and immune cells, support muscle movement and store minerals. • Skin System ■ Skin, hair, nail, and skin-associated glands ■ Protection, exchange and secretion Animal Cell Cell Body Axon Dentrites Endoplasmic reticulum Vacuole Centrosome Nucleu Lysosom Mitochondria Golgi Apparatus Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Peroxisome

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