Animal form

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Animal form

  1. 1. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 1 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents …p g Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not endorse, nor is affiliated in any way with the Rapid Learning courses. Animal Form AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Rapid Learning Center www.RapidLearningCenter.com/ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Wayne Huang, PhD Andrew Graham, PhD Elizabeth James, PhD Casandra Rauser, PhD Jessica Habashi, PhD Sara Olson, PhD Jessica Barnes, PhD
  2. 2. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 2 Learning Objectives Animal Cell and Tissue By completing this tutorial, you will learn about: Animal Organ System Homeostasis 3/40 Basic Animals Concept Map Animals Food Plants Animal Form Animal Function Physiology PlantNutrients Reproduction Genetics 4/40 y gy Animal waste P Environment Biochemistry
  3. 3. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 3 Animal Form Concept Map TissuesCell CEpithelial Tissue Nervous Tissue A i l b d ConnectiveConnective Tissue Epithelial TissueEpithelial Tissue Respiratory 11 major organ systems11 major organ systems Muscular Tissue Tissues are organized into organs HomeostasisHomeostasis EnvironmentEnvironment 5/40 Animal body Digestive Respiratory Skin Immune Nervous ReproductiveReproductive Excretory Muscular Circulatory Skeletal EndocrineEndocrine Animal Cells and Tissues 6/40
  4. 4. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 4 Animal Organization Animal cells are organized into tissues, organs and organ Organ systems comprise of the body of the animal. Organization from cells toorgans and organ system. Organization from cells to entire body is critical for animal form and function. 7/40 Animal Cell Structure 8/40
  5. 5. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 5 Animal Tissues: Four Major Types Epithelial Tissue Closely packed in either single or multiple layers, and cover both internal f f Connective Tissue Tissue with an extensive extracellular matrix that often serves to supportand external surfaces of the animal body. often serves to support, bind together, and protect organs. 9/40 Nervous Tissue Bundles of neuronal processes enclosed in connective tissue that carry signals to and from muscles. Muscle Tissue Formed by muscle cells for movement of and/or within the animal. Epithelial Tissue Structure Function Pseudostratified columnar 1. Cell Shape: three types • Squamous epithelium is flattened cells. C b id l i h li i b h d ll epithelial cell• Cuboidal epithelium is cube-shaped cells. • Columnar epithelium consists of elongated cells. 2. Cell layer: • Simple epithelium has only a single cell layer. • Stratified epithelium has more than one layer of cells 3. Functions • Movement materials in, out, or around the body. P t ti f th i t l i t i t 10/40 • Protection of the internal environment against the external environment. • Secretion of a product.
  6. 6. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 6 Connective Tissue Form & Function Fibrous connective tissue There are two major types of connective tissue: loose (LCT) Special Types Cartilage Bone Blood tissue: loose (LCT) adipose tissue and fibrous (FCT) tendons. 11/40 Blood Tissue Functions Binding Supporting Protecting Forming blood Storing fats Filling space Three Types Muscle Fibers There are three types of muscle fibers. Smooth: Lack the banding, also consists of actin and i It i l t Smooth myosin. It powers involuntary movements of the viscera Skeletal muscle is striated and usually attached to the skeleton. They create movement by applying force to bones and joints by 12/40 Skeletal g gcontracting and relaxing. Cardiac muscle is striated muscle found only in the heart. The cells are usually connected to each other by intercalated disks. It powers the heartbeat Cardiac
  7. 7. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 7 Nervous Tissue Two Types C ll B d Dendrites 1) Neurons (made up of three parts): A cell body - contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles. A long axon - Cell Body Axon Long fibers that carry signals away from the cell body. Many dendrites: receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body. 13/40 Glial cells are nonconducting cells that serve as support cells in the nervous system and help to protect neurons. What do Groups of Tissue Form? Certain group of cells form tissues, what do tissues Several tissues form a functional unit called organs form? g 14/40
  8. 8. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 8 Animal Organ System The functional unit 15/40 Tissues Are Organized Into Organs Several types of tissue form a functional unit called an organ. Muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue 16/40 tissue
  9. 9. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 9 Animal Body Animal body has 11 major organ systems. ■ Muscular System ■ Skeletal System ■ Skin or Integument ■ Respiratory System ■ Digestive System ■ Circulatory System 17/40 ■ Circulatory System ■ Lymphatic System ■ Excretory System ■ Nervous System ■ Endocrine System ■ Reproductive System Muscular System Muscle composition all skeleton is attached to muscles. Muscle function to allow movement and locomotion. They power the circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems. Muscles play a role in regulating temperature. 18/40
  10. 10. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 10 Digestive System The digestive system functions to ingest food and break it down into smaller chemical units. It also The digestive system is composed of: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, pancreas gallbladder colon absorbs the nutrients and eliminates wastes. pancreas, gallbladder, colon (large intestine), rectum and anus. 19/40 Respiratory System Composition: ■ Nose ■ Pharynx ■ Larynx ■ Trachea ■ Bronchi ■ Lung Function: ■ Exchange gas between body and environment: Inhale Oxygen 20/40 ■ Lung Remove carbon dioxide
  11. 11. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 11 Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system is composed of: blood vessels, arteries (from heart), veins (to heart), capillaries from arteries to veins It also includes: blood, red and white cells as well as platelets, plasma and the heart organ itself. veins. 21/40 Cardiovascular system functions to transport oxygen, CO2, nutrients and waste between cells and the respiratory system. It also carries chemical signals from the endocrine system. Lymphatic System: Immune System Composition Function ■ Defense against invading microorganisms and viruses p ■ Central lymphoid tissue Bone Marrow: produce all cells in immune system Thymus: T cell maturation ■ Peripheral lymphoid tissue Lymph nodes -- lymphatic sinuses ■ Defense against the growth of cancer cells. 22/40 y p -- blood vessels -- parenchyma Spleen Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
  12. 12. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 12 Excretory System The excretory system is composed of the liver skin and Liver Kidney These function liver, skin and urinary system. 23/40 Ureter Kidney Bladder These function to remove organic wastes. Liver, Skin, Urinary System Urinary System - kidneys filter the blood to form urine, which is excess water, salt, urea and uric acid Liver: produces urea and uric acid as a by product of the breakdown of proteins. uric acid. 24/40 The function of the Excretory System is to remove organic waste and maintain fluid levels.Skin - removal of excess water, salt, urea and uric acid
  13. 13. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 13 Endocrine System Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland The endocrine system is made up of: pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and d ti l d It i l Thyroid gland Parathyroid Adrenal gland Thymus reproductive glands. It is also part of the endocrine system is the: hypothalamus, thymus and pancreas. 25/40 Pancreas Ovaries Testicles The endocrine system secretes hormones to control growth and coordinates long range responses to external and internal stimuli. Reproductive System Male ■ The testicles ■ The duct system, which i d f th Seminal vesicles is made up of the epididymis and the vas deferens ■ The accessory glands, which includes the seminal vesicles and prostate gland ■ The penis Vas Deferens Testicles Prostate Penis Epididymis 26/40 Female ■ Fallopian tubes ■ Ovaries ■ Uterus ■ Vagina ■ Accessory glands ■ External genital organs
  14. 14. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 14 Nervous System Brain The nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes neurons and nerves that are not in the central Spinal Cord nervous system. The nervous system functions to coordinate 27/40 Central nervous system functions to coordinate the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, processes input from the senses and initiates actions and responses. Skeletal System The skeletal system is composed of bones. Most of the bones are The function of the skeletal system is to support the body, to move and to store minerals. It is also the site of internally linked. store minerals. It is also the site of haematopoiesis: producing blood and immune cells. 28/40
  15. 15. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 15 Skin System The skin is composed of the: epidermis (keratinocytes, basal cells and melanocytes), and dermis which contains elastic and collagen fiberscontains elastic and collagen fibers as well as capillary networks and nerve endings. 29/40 The skin has hair, nails, skin glands and their products. It functions in: protection, exchange and secretion. Homeostasis Internal balance 30/40
  16. 16. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 16 Homeostasis Living organisms regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of The components of homeostasis includes maintenance of: It must also maintain the concentration of nutrients and, y multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. maintenance of: O2, CO2 and pH. waste products. 31/40 The concentration of salt and electrolytes must be maintained as well as the volume and pressure of the extracellular fluid. Mechanism of Homeostasis The mechanism of homeostasis is negative feedback. Set a threshold Sense the change Signal the change 32/40 Effector to bring the change back to normal range
  17. 17. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 17 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Extrinsic homeostatic systems are controlled from outside the body by two systems. 1. Nervous system: sensors. 2. Endocrine system: signal transmission. 33/40 Intrinsic homeostatic systems often involve only one or two organs, e.g. blood vessel regulation by oxygen and CO2. Sensor of Homeostasis Controlled by two systems: Nervous System and Endocrine System Nervous System: sensory system homeostasis. • Sensory nerve (dorsal root of spinal nerves) • Synapse (in the spinal cord for monosynaptic reflexes) • Motor nerve (ventral root of spinal nerves)- controls effectors • Effectors: muscles and glands 34/40 Endocrine: sensory system homeostasis. • Upon receiving signals from nervous system, endocrine system secretes hormones into blood. • Hormones are broken down rapidly, but they set in motion effects that may persist after the hormones are gone: stimulate metabolism, turn on genes, etc.
  18. 18. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 18 Example of Homeostasis Fat cells synthesize lipids from glucose Blo Fall Negative Feedback Blood glucose > 1.0 g/dm-3 Pancreas Islet β-cell Insulin Liver cells synthesize glycogen from glucose Other cells uptake glucose odglucose lsBlood Rises Li ll b k d Return to normal level Glu 35/40 Blood glucose < 0.7 g/dm-3 dglucose s Liver cells break down glycogen --> glucose Amino Acid--> glucose Pancreas Islet α-cell ucagon Negative Feedback Animals and Homeostasis How does an animal body maintain homeostasis? Through negative feedbacks and achieved by nervous system (as sensors)system (as sensors) and endocrine system (signal transduction) 36/40
  19. 19. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 19 Question: Review Animal cells are _____ into cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. ___________Organized ___________ ___________ Cell Shapes Loose and Fibrous Glial Neurons Squamous, cuboidal and columnar represent what? Two types of nervous Types of connective tissue. 37/40 ___________Glial, Neuronssystem tissue. The skeletal system is composed of _____. ___________Bones Animal cells k Animal cells k Learning Summary There are 11 organ system There are 11 organ system make up animal tissues. make up animal tissues. HomeostasisHomeostasis g y for vertebrate animals. g y for vertebrate animals. 38/40 Homeostasis mechanisms are controlled by negative feedback. Homeostasis mechanisms are controlled by negative feedback. Animal tissues form organs Animal tissues form organs
  20. 20. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 19 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 20 Congratulations You have successfully completed the core tutorial Animal Forms 39/40 Rapid Learning Center Rapid Learning Center Wh t’ N t Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math What’s Next … Step 1: Concepts – Core Tutorial (Just Completed) Step 2: Practice – Interactive Problem Drill Step 3: Recap – Super Review Cheat Sheet 40/40 Go for it! http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com

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