On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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“A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective.”
“A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system or system component (a product) to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document.
A documented representation of a condition or capability as in 1 or 2 above”
Source: The IIBA BOK v1.6
The Life of a Requirement Concept Phase Business Requirements Need, Problem or Opportunity Justification Project Charter Funding: Business Requirements Solution Requirements Describes the characteristics that meet the business and stakeholder requirements: - Functional - Non-Functional - Implementation Stakeholder Requirements: Needs of a stakeholder and their interaction with the system How WHAT WHY Requirements Phase
Business Analysts Act to Bridge “States” IIBA BOK, R1.6, p. 9 Problem Solution
“ current state” “ desired state” IIBA BOK provides the materials needed to build and maintain the bridge.
The BA Manages Client Expectations
Through traceability and requirements change management the BA manages the client expectation of the resulting solution
Backward Forward Requirements Business Idea Need Design/Code Test Cases
Is Traceability Necessary?
Question: Would you feel more confident about the quality of your food if it could traced from retail to the source?
US food producers have traceability systems to trace food from retail to key points in production process, and some are robust enough to trace food to the exact field where the food was grown. In Canada there was a listeriosis outbreak that eventually killed over 20 people. The source of the contamination was traced to two slicing machines. Source: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/AER830 /
Traceability Matrix Example
A traceability matrix is a two-way mapping of requirements numbers against design, code (configuration items), release, and test reference
Helps to ensure requirements aren’t missed, removed or added without approval
Helps to trace issues to source
Traceability and SDLC Documents
The degree to which a relationship can be established between two or more products of the development process, especially products having a predecessor-successor or master-subordinate relationship to one another (draft update to IEEE-STD-729, November 30, 1989)
Who Should Manage Traceability?
According to the business analysis professional association, in version 2 of the BABOK®, the business analyst should trace requirements and work with the project team to trace them to other project work products.
Business Process Business Rule Test Case
The Benefits of Traceability
Links downstream work products to the purpose for which they were created
Provides a process to confirm that the requirements gathering process is complete
Ensures that project work is not authorized for items that are outside of project scope
Increases quality on all projects sizes and types
Provide valuable metrics for the project
Enables stakeholder notification during the change management process
Source: IIBA, The Business Analyst Body of Knowledge, Rel 1.4, 2005, p163
Requirements Change Management
“ To improve is to change, to be perfect is to change often.” Winston Churchill (1874-1965) British politician
RQM Business Understanding of need and solution Change requests as Business Knowledge increases Project Timeline
The Business Analyst’s Role in Change Management
Impact analysis to the requirements and the solution
Identify and communicate the change impacts to all stakeholders, business, organizational, solution transition impacts
Use traceability matrix to assist in analysis
Modify requirements document to reflect solution and new version
Assess solution scope against the request
The Manage Part of Change Management
“ I get up every morning determined to both change the world and have one hell of a good time. Sometimes this makes planning my day difficult? ” E. B. White (1895 – 1985)
Business Analysts use some techniques to manage changes:
Benefit, Risk, Cost
Ensures the functionality with the most value is implemented when timelines become short
Helps to manage competing demands
Helps PM to manage time, cost and resources and move lower-priority requirements to later phases, releases
TIP: “Avoid ‘decibel prioritization’, in which the loudest voice heard get top priority, and ‘threat prioritization’, in which stakeholders holding the most political power always get what they demand.” Karl Wiegers, Software Requirements 2 nd . Edition Microsoft Press
Approaches to Prioritization
Is there some other way to satisfy the need that this requirement addresses?
What would happen if this requirement isn’t implemented right away?
How would the deferral of the requirement affect the user community?
Use Priority Scales
High – Must be in the first release
Medium – The business needs the functionality however can wait if necessary – can be implemented in the next release
Low – The user can live without the functionality and it can be implemented in later releases
Prioritization – Value, Cost, Risk
You can use a prioritization matrix.
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Prioritization on Basis of Value
Have the business estimate the benefits that each requirement provides them (e.g. rate 1-9)
Working with the business and I.T. estimate the penalty if the requirement isn’t included. Assess based on quality issues, legal, compliance, function loss that would affect productivity, harder to add capability later, other issues such as marketing, corporate communications