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  • The Marketing Information System This CTR corresponds to Figure 5-1 on p. 147 and relates to the material on pp. 147-155. Discussion Note: The MIS Concept is one of those exciting new areas for marketing careers you may wish to discuss with your students. Components of the Marketing Information System The MIS consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers. Key components and functions include: Assessing Information Needs. Knowing what is needed or likely to be needed is a key feature of the MIS that underscores the importance of information. Quantity alone is not the answer as too much information can obscure important details. Also, not all desirable information is available. Competitors seldom volunteer information on their results. Distributing Information. This function requires organizing the MIS in a flexible and responsive manner that allows each user access to the combinations of information they need to make better decisions. Internal Records. An effective MIS organizes and summaries balance sheets, orders, schedules, shipments, and inventories into trends that can be linked to management decisions on marketing mix changes. Information Analysis. This function requires that the MIS director anticipate how the information is to be used. For example, if users from all business functions use the MIS on-line for short deadline decisions, then the analytical tools each area needs must be available on demand. Marketing Intelligence. This function provides the everyday information about environmental variables that managers need as the implement and adjust marketing plans. Marketing Research. This function links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through an exchange of information. Research is often project oriented and discussed in more detail on the following CTR.

Transcript

  • 1. Business Research Methods MKT3001 Tourism Research Methods MKT2011
  • 2. Course Team
    • Janelle McPhail Course Leader
    • Room T422
    • Phone 4631 1274
    • Email [email_address]
    • Consultation times:
    • Tue 8 -11
    • Wed 2 - 5
    • Hoda McClymont Tutor
    • T412
    • 4631 1453
    • [email_address]
    • Tue 9 – 11
    • Wed 10 – 12 & 1 – 2
    • Fri 10 - 11
  • 3. Our contract with you
    • You are instructed to review the course specification for the course online. This is our contract with you in relation to assignment due dates, assignment extensions, requirements to pass the course etc.
    • Course Specification
    • http://www.usq.edu.au/course/specification/2003/mnospecs.html
    • If you have any
    • administrative concerns or
    • requests please contact me.
  • 4. Text & Materials
    • Cavana, RY, Delahaye, BL & Sekaran, U 2001, Applied business research; Qualitative and quantative methods , John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Queensland.
    • OR
    • Jennings, G 2001, Tourism research , Wiley, Milton, Queensland.
    • PLUS
    • Coakes, SJ & Steed, LG 2002, SPSS for windows: Analysis without anguish, (version 11.0) , John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Queensland.
    • MKT3001or MKT2011 study package available from the USQ Bookshop.
    • SPSS – available in USQ Computer Labs
  • 5. Assessment
    • Assignment 1 20% 2 April 2003
      • One research proposal
    • Assignment 2 20% 21 May 2003
      • requires the use of a statistical package (SPSS); you may like to read the requirements for this assignment early in the semester and commence working on it.
      • Before commencing assignments please refer to the Communication Skills Handbook.
    • Exam 60 %
      • Two (2) hours duration:
      • Part A has six (6) short answer questions
      • Part B a case study
    • To pass the course students must pass the combined assignments (50%) and the exam (50%)
  • 6. USQConnect Study Desk
    • Course Home Page
    • Study materials – Intro book & Mod 1
    • Lecture Notes ( tutorial program at end of Lecture)
    • Course Website (team, resources etc)
    • Discussion Area
    • Intro and Chat
    • Assessment – Ass 1(Bus & Trsm); Ass 2; Exam
    • Discussion Forum
  • 7. Lecture & Tutorial Times
    • Lecture: Thursday 8 – 10 D303
    • Tutorial Times:
    • Tut 1 & Prac 1 Tue 11 – 1 K308; K110
    • Tut 2 & Prac 2 Tue 2 – 4 K308; K110
    • Tut 3 & Prac 3 Wed 8 – 10 K308; K110
  • 8. Week 1: Research – an overview
    • Business Research
      • Cavana et al. Chs 1,2
      • Selected Readings 1.1; 1.2; 1.3
      • Coakes & Steed Ch 1
    • Tourism Research
      • Jennings Chs 1 & 2
      • Selected Readings 1.1; 1.2
      • Coakes & Steed Ch 1
      • Market Research Society of Australia Limited MRSA
      • http://www.mrsa.com.au
  • 9. Lecture Overview
    • Course overview
    • Information & the Management Information System (MIS)
    • Business/Tourism research – what is it?
    • Characteristics of scientific research
    • Types of Business/Tourism research
    • Philosophical bases of research
    • Key research terms
    • Research process – the main steps
    • Research brief
    • Current issues
    • Research Ethics
  • 10. Course Overview: Research Methods
  • 11. Why is information needed? Market/ Environment Strategic planning Customers needs Competition Business managers need information on…
  • 12. The Management Information System Marketing Information System Management Info System Developing Information Information analysis Internal records Research Bus/Tourism Market intelligence Distributing Information Assessing information needs Business Manager Business Environment Management decisions and communications
  • 13. Research & the management process
    • Research is a fundamental component of the process of management and the management decision process
    • Research is key element of the management information system
    • Can be used to analyse and monitor market opportunities
    • Can be helpful in providing insight into organisational and individual behaviour
  • 14. Where is the Research function located within an organisation if at all?
    • Marketing Department (Mkt Info System)
    • Research Department (ie Tourism Qld ) that undertakes research work for the Mkt dept and other research – on both internal and external customers
    • Engage an independent Research Company to conduct research - Colmar Brunton; Roy Morgan: ACNielsen
    • http:// au.colmarbrunton.com/colmar/loc_per.htm
    • [Roy Morgan Research] Market Research – Splash
    • http://www.roymorgan.com.au/
    • http:// www.acnielsen.com.au/home.asp
  • 15. What is business research?
    • Systematic and organised effort to investigate a specific problem or opportunity with the goal of finding answers to the issues
    • Marketing/Tourism research and business research should be considered one and the same
    • Marketing / Tourism research is different in the focus but not in the process or outcomes from developing rigor and balance in the research process.
    • Client Needs – Colmar Brunton
  • 16. Business/Tourism Research Business/Tourism research is an organised, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem or issue with the purpose of finding solutions to it or clarifying it.
  • 17. Characteristics of scientific research : Factors to evaluate research
    • Research must be conducted with:
      • Clear purpose
      • Relevance
      • Timely
      • Efficiency
      • Rigour
      • Quality – Accurate, Reliable & Valid
      • Objectivity
      • Ethical
      • Limitations of scientific research in behavioural areas
  • 18. Types of Business/Tourism Research Applied – done with the intention of applying results to specific problems in the business Basic/Pure – to enhance the understanding of problems that commonly occur across a range of organisations. Undertaken to extend knowledge
  • 19. Why study Business/Tourism research
    • A tool that can be used in any discipline
    • Foundation of both business and academic best practice
    • If you are not a researcher in the future chances are that you will be a user of research – allows use it in more sophisticated and creative ways
    • Allows you to sift for reliable information
    • Allows you to evaluate other peoples research.
  • 20. Philosophical bases of research
    • Paradigm reflects a basic set of philosophical beliefs about the nature of the world.
      • Give guidelines and principles in the way research is conducted within a paradigm
      • Research methods and techniques should be in sympathy with the paradigm
    • Research Paradigms – Positivist; Interpretative; Critical; Feminist; Postmodern
    • Paradigm – a set of beliefs
    • Ontology – the nature of reality
    • Epistemology – relationship between researcher and the subject/object/respondent
    • Methodology – set of guidelines for conducting research; tools for data collection & analysis
  • 21. Key Research Terms
    • Observations - perceptions of reality
      • Fact – universal truth; supported by measurable evidence
      • Opinion – person’s belief
    • Concepts – general representations of ideas to be studied ie service value; service quality
    • Variables – concepts that are operationalised so it can be observed & measured
  • 22. Quantitative Res; Qualitative Res
    • Reality is objective & singular; apart from researcher
    • Researcher is independent of that being researched
    • Concepts are in the form of distinct variables
    • Measures are systematically created before data collection & are standardised
    • Reality is subjective & multiple, as seen by participants
    • Researcher interacts with that being researched
    • Concepts are in the form of themes, generalisations
    • Measures are open ended questions created for the specific research setting
  • 23. Quantitative Res; Qualitative Res
    • Data are in the form of numbers from precise measurements
    • There are many subjects or respondents
    • Procedures are standard - replication
    • Analysis – use statistics
    • Methods – Survey, Experiment
    • Triangulation – mixed method approach; both qual & quant methods are used; will be a predominant use of one method.
    • Data are in the form of words from documents, transcripts
    • Generally few subjects or participants
    • Procedures not easily replicated
    • Analysis – extract themes from evidence & present a coherent picture
    • Methods – indepth interviews; focus groups; observations; panels; case studies
  • 24. Key Research Terms
    • Secondary research – researcher uses previously collected data
    • Primary research – collection of original data by researcher
    • Research Design- framework or blueprint for conducting the research.
      • Exploratory
      • Descriptive
      • Causal (hypothesis testing)
      • Should note that researchers my use a singular, dual or multiple research design
  • 25. Why should management not automatically commission a research study? Identify a number of situations when research may be inappropriate.
  • 26. Possible reasons
    • Information is already available
    • There is insufficient time for research (tight deadlines)
    • Resources are not available (insufficient funding)
    • Costs outweigh the value of the research
  • 27. Stages in the Research Process
  • 28. Research process
    • Step One
    • Problem definition
      • Management problem
      • Research problem (in the form of a question [s])
      • Research objectives
      • Estimate the value of the information
  • 29. Research process
    • Step two
    • Research design – plan or blueprint for gathering the data
      • Linked to next 2 steps in research process
      • Techniques to be used
      • Who will be involved - respondents
      • How the data will be gathered
      • How it will be analysed
  • 30. Research process
    • Step three
    • Sampling / representation
      • How will we group people, objects, things
      • How will we select them
      • Why will we select them
      • Note: even for qualitative research we need to identify the participants/respondents and justify
  • 31. Research process
    • Step Four
    • Data collection, Data Preparation/Processing and Analysis
      • How data is collected
      • How it is recorded
      • How data is analysed
      • Interpretation of findings to arrive at conclusions
  • 32. Research process
    • Step five
    • Recommendations and reporting
      • Analysing data is not enough, it is important to be able to interpret your finding and include them in a report that the client can understand, interpret and apply to the management problem
      • Oral presentation of the research results to client
  • 33. Report writing and presentation
    • Permanent record of the entire project
    • Quality of work is usually judged by the final report and presentation
    • Should influence the action taken by management
    • Needed if you are doing the course - Research Project
  • 34. Research Brief
    • A document provided by the client to the research agency that describes the business decision problem and the expectations of a research study design to collect information to make the decision.
    • Includes: purpose, background, any previous research, need for research, research objectives, target audience, level of reporting, budget, timeline, expectations of proposal/selection criteria, professional membership/quality assurance information, contact details
  • 35. Current issues
    • Privacy Act was enacted on the 21 st December 2001, changed the procedures for conducting primary research
    • Growth of sugging (selling under the guise of a survey), frugging (fund raising under the guise of a survey), dugging (developing a database under the guise research) and telemarketing
      • These practices violate the respondents’ trust and erode willingness to support legitimate surveys
    • Misuse of research and reporting of findings by the media
  • 36. Ethical Research
    • Ethical Research Practices: those practices and procedures that lead to:
    • protection of human & non-human subjects
    • appropriate methodology
    • inferences, conclusions & recom. based on actual findings; &
    • complete & accurate research reports
  • 37. Ethics: Interaction of Rights and Obligations Subject Researcher Client Researcher’s Obligation Researcher’s Obligation Researcher’s Rights Researcher’s Rights Subject’s Obligation Client’s Obligation Subject’s Rights Client’s Obligations Subject’s Rights Client’s Rights
  • 38. Ethics
    • Most research involves three parties
      • Researcher
      • Client and
      • Respondent/ subject/ participant
      • + the public at large
    • Rights and responsibilities of the above stakeholders will be explored in the tutorial. Visit the MRSA website ; and SR 1.1
  • 39. Scientific Misconduct
    • Research fraud - falsifies or distorts the data or the methods of data collection;
    • Plagiarism - steals the ideas & writings of others without citing the source.
    • Unethical but Legal - behaviour may be unethical but not break the law
  • 40. Summary
    • Research and the MIS
    • What is research? & the main characteristics
    • Applied & Basic/pure research
    • Research paradigm – positivist, interpretative
    • Key research terms – concept; variable; qualitative; quantitative; research design – exploratory, descriptive, causal; primary & secondary research
    • Research process – steps
    • Research brief
    • Research ethics – researcher, respondent, client & public
  • 41. Tutorial - Week 2
    • Prior to tutorial complete all readings & visit MRSA website
    • Presentation details – start in week 3
    • Identify and explain the rights and obligations of each party in the research process: respondent, researcher and client; in terms of the general public what are the main ethical research concerns
    • Complete questionnaire - end of module 2; What problems can you identify? What additional information would be good to have?
    • FOR Tutorial week 3 prac – administer questionnaire to 10 students and bring completed questionnaires to lab
    • Introduction to SPSS – computer lab – second hour