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  • 1. Mi’kmaq Association For Cultural Studies Mi’kmaq Cultural Tourism Network Market Analysis
  • 2. Disclaimer This report has been prepared in conjunction with the Mi‟kmaq Association for Cultural Studies on a best-effort basis and reflects the conditions prevailing at the time of the analysis completed on March 31, 2008. The projections, recommendations, and conclusions contained in this report are, to some degree, based on opinions and assumptions that are subject to variation depending upon evolving events. Therefore, we cannot represent them as results that will necessarily be achieved but only as those that could be attained provided the opinions and assumptions relied upon remain valid. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre March 31, 2008 Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre i
  • 3. This report was produced as part of the multi-year strategy developed by the Mi‟kmaq Cultural Tourism Network (MCTN). Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre ii
  • 4. Executive Summary A number of First Nation communities across Nova Scotia are developing a tourism product that is market ready and/or has the potential for market readiness. The need to bring the product together and brand the “experience” for visitors has been identified as a gap that must be bridged so that the product/services offered can be sustained. The Mi‟kmaq Association for Cultural Studies (MACS) engaged the Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre (SMUBDC) to assist in the creation and implementation of a market analysis to identify the primary target markets and preferences for the “Ideal Mi‟kmaq Heritage Experience”. Although the growing Aboriginal cultural tourism industry in Canada has prompted a good deal of research in this area, the research conducted for this project is unique in a number of ways. For example, many studies have looked at what people do or have done, the present study examines what people would like to see or do without limiting responses to what is currently available. Information was gathered on what would attract people who have not yet visited Atlantic Canada, as well as past visitors. Most importantly, the research was tailored to benefit Atlantic Canadian Aboriginal peoples by asking questions specific to Atlantic Canada. The research conducted for this study consisted of focus groups and best practice interviews conducted in key cities in the United States (US) and Canada. An online survey was also conducted, collecting information from over 1,100 individuals in select European countries and across North America. Some of the key findings from the research include a strong preference for hands on experiences; overall respondents want to be active participants in learning about Aboriginal culture. Nature Tours, History, Archeological Sites, Traditional Arts, Cuisine and Legends/Stories are the themes that individuals are most interested in experiencing in Aboriginal tourism attractions. A preference for pre-packaged travel options was also clear. Packaged vacation deals are especially popular among French and German travellers. Specific to Nova Scotia, respondents indicated an interest in experiencing multiple cultures on a single trip. One of the most astonishing findings was the lack of Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre iii
  • 5. awareness revealed by the survey results. In Canada 63% of respondents were not aware that Aboriginal cultural tourism products existed in Atlantic Canada (In only those provinces outside of Atlantic Canada, 66% were unaware). Of respondents outside of Canada, 80% were unaware of Aboriginal cultural tourism product and services in Atlantic Canada, 61% were not even aware of the presence of Aboriginal peoples in Atlantic Canada. In addition to traveller preferences, research was also conducted to identify potential challenges in the development of Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia and solutions. Through best practice interviews six key challenges were identified as hurdles in the development of Aboriginal cultural tourism: 1. Lack of resources: Both human and financial. 2. Government instability: Changes in government can interrupt momentum. Support is can be temporary and uncertain making it difficult to implement long term strategies. 3. Fragmentation: Many individuals and groups are working toward similar goals in isolation; this creates inconsistency and openings for the repetition of mistakes. 4. Consistency: It is difficult to maintain consistency in program implementation, levels of customer service and the „image‟ presented to potential and past visitors. 5. Reaching the People: A lack of resources or simply „not knowing how‟ can prevent Aboriginal business owners from reaching their intended audience. 6. Avoiding Exploitation: Using cultural tourism to preserve culture, tradition and history without distorting or exploiting Mi‟kmaq values and heritage and ensuring the authenticity of Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services is an immense challenge. It is important to avoid misrepresentation by non-Aboriginal tourism operators presenting Aboriginal themed product and services. These potential challenges in the development of an Aboriginal tourism product underlie the need for sustained activity in Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia. To address the identified challenges and to utilize the information gained from the primary and secondary research conducted for this study, the following recommendations were made: Primarily, a strategy for how the Mi‟kmaq of Nova Scotia wish to present themselves to target markets is an essential first step toward developing Aboriginal cultural tourism in the province. In addition to providing guidance around what should be communicated in Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre iv
  • 6. promoting and raising awareness, a strategy also proactively addresses many of the potential challenges identified above. In addition to developing a strategy for how the Mi‟kmaq of Nova Scotia wish to present themselves, other recommendations that are outlined in the following report are to communicate, unify, develop, partner and evaluate. Below is a brief description of each of these recommendations. Strategy: As mentioned, a strategy which would build consensus around how the Mi‟kmaq of Nova Scotia want to be seen would provide guideposts to help prevent misrepresentation and ensure that tourism offerings promoted as Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services in Nova Scotia represent the Mi‟kmaq in a way that is reflective of the people. Communicate: Increased communication is needed to address the general lack of awareness of Aboriginal cultural tourism products and services in Nova Scotia. Research identified lack of awareness as a barrier in participating in Aboriginal tourism. Unify: Connecting Aboriginal cultural businesses is of value to Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia for two reasons: 1. Bringing business owners together to work toward the same goals will contribute to the development of individual businesses and 2. Linking Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings through a map or guide may be a bigger draw for travellers who would be hesitant to travel to see a single attraction. Develop: Providing resources, training and assisting in identifying funding opportunities to move businesses to a market ready stage will enrich Nova Scotia‟s Aboriginal cultural tourism. Partner: Partnering with non-Aboriginal organizations and tourism operators is beneficial for improving visibility and awareness of products/services. Partnerships may also enable smaller businesses to work with accommodation and dining establishments to make packaging more feasible. Evaluate: An evaluation of Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services will serve as a check that initiatives are achieving desired goals. Evaluation is a good way to keep track of progress and to identify issues and next steps. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre v
  • 7. Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................... iii 1.0 Project Background .................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Study Approach and Methodology ...................................................................... 2 1.2 Focus Groups........................................................................................................ 2 1.3 Best Practice Interviews ....................................................................................... 3 1.4 Online Survey....................................................................................................... 3 2.0 Situational Analysis ................................................................................................. 5 2.1 Industry Analysis.................................................................................................. 5 2.1.1 Visitors to Nova Scotia ................................................................................. 5 2.1.2 Aboriginal Culture Tourism .......................................................................... 6 2.2 Asset Inventory for Nova Scotia .......................................................................... 6 2.2.1 Mi‟kmaq Culturally Significant Site Inventory ............................................ 6 2.2.2 Mi‟kmaq Cultural Knowledge Inventory...................................................... 7 2.2.3 Mi‟kmaq Cultural Businesses ....................................................................... 8 2.3 Market Readiness ................................................................................................. 9 2.3.1 Comparison of Nova Scotia Market Ready Product to Promoted Aboriginal tourism Products ....................................................................................................... 12 2.4 SWOT of Aboriginal Tourism in Nova Scotia................................................... 13 2.5 Best Practices in Cultural and Heritage Tourism ............................................... 14 2.5.1 Challenges ................................................................................................... 14 3.0 Unique Value Proposition ...................................................................................... 18 4.0 Marketing Program ................................................................................................ 20 4.1 Target Markets ................................................................................................... 20 4.1.1 Target Markets Summary ........................................................................... 20 4.1.2 North America ............................................................................................ 20 4.1.3 Overseas ...................................................................................................... 22 5.0 Market Research .................................................................................................... 26 5.1 Level of Awareness ............................................................................................ 26 5.2 Factors Affecting Activity Selection .................................................................. 27 5.3 Ideal Travel Experience ..................................................................................... 28 5.3.1 Packaging .................................................................................................... 28 5.3.2 Cost ............................................................................................................. 30 5.3.3 Length of Participation ............................................................................... 32 5.3.4 Location/Distribution of Activities ............................................................. 34 Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre vi
  • 8. 5.4 Themes That Generated the Most Interest ......................................................... 35 5.5 Presentation Preference ...................................................................................... 37 5.6 Authenticity ........................................................................................................ 38 5.7 Barriers ............................................................................................................... 39 6.0 Marketing Recommendations ................................................................................ 40 6.1 Strategy............................................................................................................... 41 6.2 Communicate ..................................................................................................... 41 6.2.1 Overall Promotional Material ..................................................................... 42 6.2.2 Reaching Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts ..................................................... 43 6.2.3 Overseas market .......................................................................................... 44 6.3 Unify................................................................................................................... 45 6.3.1 Unifying the people..................................................................................... 45 6.3.2 Unifying the product ................................................................................... 45 6.4 Develop .............................................................................................................. 46 6.4.1 Theme Preferences and Presentation .......................................................... 46 6.4.2 Packaging .................................................................................................... 47 6.4.3 Pricing ......................................................................................................... 47 6.5 Partner ................................................................................................................ 48 6.6 Evaluate .............................................................................................................. 48 7.0 Appendices – Available Upon Request From MACS ........................................... 49 Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre vii
  • 9. 1.0 Project Background The Mi‟kmaq Association for Cultural Studies (MACS) is a not-for-profit organization representing the interests of all thirteen (13) First Nation communities in Nova Scotia with a mandate to promote and preserve the culture of the Mi‟kmaq people. MACS has taken a lead role to unite Nova Scotia‟s First Nation communities in tourism and cultural initiatives. MACS recognizes that the link between the tourism and culture sectors is strong and is one that should be nurtured as visitors are being drawn to Nova Scotia for an authentic experience, an experience that is an integral part of the diverse cultural fabric of this province and in particular, Mi‟kmaq culture. To respond to the demand for authentic experiences, First Nation communities across Nova Scotia are now developing a tourism product that is market ready and/or has the potential for market readiness. The need to bring the product together and brand the “experience” for visitors has been identified as a gap that must be bridged so that the products/services offered can be sustained. The Mi‟kmaq Association for Cultural Studies engaged the Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre to assist in the creation and implementation of a market analysis to identify the primary target markets and preferences for the “Ideal Mi‟kmaq Heritage Experience”. The overall goals of the project include the exploration of what visitors would consider to be an ideal Mi‟kmaq experience, and determining what would encourage their participation; what themes, programming styles, products and services are most attractive. In addition, the assessment of visitors appeal for potential participation in various proposed offerings, how best to reach this market and an exploration of Mi‟kmaq traditions and culture to identify those most reflective of Mi‟kmaq heritage. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 1
  • 10. 1.1 Study Approach and Methodology Although existing research and literature on Aboriginal cultural tourism in Canada was reviewed to compile the results included in this report, it was also necessary to conduct primary research that specifically considered the First Nation peoples of Atlantic Canada.1 The primary research included in this report was conducted throughout the months of March and April of 2008, and incorporated focus groups, interviews and online surveys which are described in more detail in the following sections. 1.2 Focus Groups Focus groups are discussions, guided by a facilitator with the goal of gathering information on a given topic. The focus groups conducted for the purposes of this analysis were intended to gather information on past and potential travellers‟ level of awareness, and preferences pertaining to Aboriginal cultural tourism and Aboriginal cultural tourism specific to Atlantic Canada. Focus groups were conducted by SMUBDC in the Canadian cities of Halifax, Montreal and Toronto, and the cities of Boston and New York in the United States. A focus group guide was developed by SMUBDC with participation and feedback from MACS and The Department of Canadian Heritage to maintain consistency in how the discussions were facilitated across various locations (Appendix A). To achieve objectivity in participant selection, professional recruiting firms were contracted to recruit focus group participants in each city where a focus group was held. Twelve individuals were recruited for each focus group, of those recruited between 8 and 12 individuals were present for each session. Individual participants were compensated for their time and participation in the project. Note summaries from each focus group can be found in Appendix B. Individuals with some past experience with Aboriginal tourism in Atlantic Canada were invited to participate in the focus groups labelled „Past Visitors‟, those with an interest in participating in Aboriginal cultural tourism in Atlantic Canada but no past experience were invited to participate in the focus groups labelled „.Non-Visitors‟. 1 To maintain consistency with the terminology used in the research conducted for this study and with tourism strategies throughout Canada the term „Aboriginal‟ is used in this paper to refer to the Mi‟kmaq and First Nation peoples of Atlantic Canada. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 2
  • 11. 1.3 Best Practice Interviews In addition to a review of secondary research, information on best practices in Aboriginal cultural tourism development was gathered by conducting best practice interviews (Appendix C). The best practice interview utilized in this study was adapted in part, from the findings of the National Survey of Aboriginal Cultural Tourism Experiences.2 Individuals representing provincial/state business development departments, federal regional development agencies, provincial/state tourism departments, provincial/state Aboriginal departments, provincial/state heritage departments, travel and tourism associations, Aboriginal marketing associations, Aboriginal communities and successful Aboriginal run businesses or cultural centers were contacted to participate in best practice interviews in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, and the city of Phoenix located in the state of Arizona, United States of America. Locations from which the best practice interview contacts were selected were chosen because of the presence of established Aboriginal cultural tourism products/services and/or strategies in the selected areas. Interviews were conducted via telephone and focused on obtaining information that could be used to identify challenges and opportunities faced in the development of Aboriginal cultural tourism, as well as tried solutions that could be taken into advisement in the development of Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings in Nova Scotia (Complete interview responses broken down by location can be found in Appendix D). 1.4 Online Survey An online survey (The Atlantic Aboriginal Cultural Tourism Survey) was developed by SMUBDC with participation and feedback from MACS and The Department of Canadian Heritage to confirm and add to information obtained through the focus groups and secondary research (Appendix E). A professional market research company with access to a panel of 2.5 million individuals worldwide was contracted to distribute the survey via e-mail. A response rate for this data is difficult to estimate due to the type of distribution system used and time constraints which limited the amount of time the survey was active, so results from the survey should be interpreted with caution. The Atlantic Aboriginal 2 Turtle Island Tourism, C. (2006). Aboriginal Tourism and Cross-Cultural Understanding Project. Quebec: Canadian Heritage. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 3
  • 12. Cultural Tourism Survey was distributed in North America, Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Past research has shown that these geographic regions have a high level of interest in Aboriginal cultural tourism.3 A total of 1176 individuals completed the survey. Twenty-six responses were removed after data was reviewed for errors and response bias, leaving 1150 cases (524 Male, 622 Female), included in the analysis. The table below displays the number of respondents included in the analysis by country.4 Figure 1. Survey Respondents by Country Country Number of Responses North America 523 Canada 295 United States 228 France 205 Germany 198 United Kingdom 224 Total 1150 3 Canadian Tourism Commission (2005). International Travel Survey: Overseas Resident Trips to Canada. 4 Further demographic information and survey results can be found in Appendix F Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 4
  • 13. 2.0 Situational Analysis 2.1 Industry Analysis The tourism sector in Nova Scotia is estimated to have generated $1.33 billion in 2007 (this figure includes provincial residents traveling within NS and out-of-province visitors). An estimated 32,700 people in Nova Scotia are employed in tourism, garnishing $519 million in direct and indirect wages and salaries.5 2.1.1 Visitors to Nova Scotia There has been an average of 2.14 million non-resident visitors to Nova Scotia in the past five years. The number of non-resident visitors to Nova Scotia has remained relatively stable with an average change of only 2% per year for the period of 2003 to 2007. The following graph depicts the visitation trend in Nova Scotia from 2003 to 2007.5 Graph 1. Nova Scotia Visitation trend 2003 – 2007. The following graph depicts visitation of non-residents. The graph does not include the near 2 million over night trips and 4 millions same-day trips made annually by residences of Nova Scotia. (000’s) 2260 Visitors by the 1,000,000's 2210 2160 2110 2060 2010 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 5 NS Tourism, Culture and Heritage (2007). Tourism Industry Facts. http://www.gov.ns.ca/tch/pubs/insights/AbsPage.aspx?siteid=1&lang=1&id=6 2004 Tourism Industry Facts. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 5
  • 14. 2.1.2 Aboriginal Culture Tourism Aboriginal cultural tourism has experienced significant growth in recent years. This growth is due in part to the recognition of tourisms potential role in the preservation of culture and sustainable economic development6. In 2005 and 2006, over 2 million adult Canadians and 14 million adult Americans participated in Aboriginal-related activities in Canada while on an over night or out of town trip. In 2001, the total economic impact of tourism spending on Aboriginal businesses, goods and services (excluding casinos), was $862 million, with paid employment of 11,000 full-time equivalent jobs. 2.2 Asset Inventory for Nova Scotia An inventory of assets, or currently existing Aboriginal cultural tourism product or services in Nova Scotia, is important in determining the current state of Aboriginal cultural tourism in the province. Identifying the current state of Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia will help in determining the direction of next steps toward Aboriginal cultural tourism development. MACS has initiated the development of a series of inventories that will catalogue Mi‟kmaq cultural business, Mi‟kmaq cultural knowledge and Mi‟kmaq culturally significant sites or locations in Nova Scotia. Not all information contained in the inventories will be useful in the promotion of cultural tourism, or shared with the public at large. These inventories were initiated to serve as a record of culturally relevant information that can be used for a wide variety of purposes, from the protection of culture and heritage to the development and promotion of cultural tourism. The following sections outline brief descriptions of the initial inventory. 2.2.1 Mi’kmaq Culturally Significant Site Inventory The initial Mi‟kmaq Culturally Significant Site Inventory defines four site types to categorize locations of cultural importance, the definitions are listed on the following page: 6 Bearing Point LP, Gross Gilroy Inc. & Associates (2003). Aboriginal Tourism in Canada, Part 1: Economic Impact Analysis. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 6
  • 15. Figure 2. Definitions for Culturally Significant Site Inventory categories. Category Definition Site that has had some importance or impact on Historic Site Mi'kmaq history. Site that is connected to sacred things or matters; Spiritual Site religious; devotional etc. Traditional/Cultural Part or location of ceremony, traditional or cultural Activity Site activities. Site that has been identified or used in recovery of Archeological Site material evidence of past Mi'kmaq life such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery. Two Traditional/Cultural Activity Sites, eight historic sites, three spiritual sites and numerous archeological sites were identified in the initial inventory of Mi‟kmaq culturally significant sites (Appendix G - The collection of information for the inventories is in progress, please contact MACS to obtain more information). Many of the sites were not primarily recognized or promoted as Mi‟kmaq sites, most were owned by the crown and operated by Parks Canada. Those locations not operated by Parks Canada were not identified as easily accessible or clearly marked. The initial inventory of Mi‟kmaq culturally significant sites found in Appendix G (available upon request from MACS) is not exhaustive or final, it must be continually expanded and updated through the collection and recording of the oral history of the Mi‟kmaq and as areas are protected, become more clearly marked or as ownership of land changes. 2.2.2 Mi’kmaq Cultural Knowledge Inventory Similar to the inventory described above, the Mi‟kmaq Cultural Knowledge Inventory uses knowledge types to categorize the information. The definitions of the five knowledge types are listed on the following page: Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 7
  • 16. Figure 3. Definitions for Cultural Knowledge Inventory categories. Category Definition Any knowledge pertaining to the making of Mi'kmaq Art and Craft arts and crafts. Cultural Knowledge: Any knowledge pertaining to Cultural Mi'kmaq culture, traditions, way of life. This would include traditional ecological knowledge. Language Any knowledge relating to Mi'kmaq language. Any knowledge pertaining to traditional Mi'kmaq Medicinal medicines. Any knowledge related to scared, religious ceremony, Spiritual beliefs or practices. Most of the knowledge recorded in the initial Mi‟kmaq cultural knowledge inventory falls into the spiritual or cultural categories. Almost all of the knowledge in the initial inventory is currently held by individuals and is preserved and passed on through oral tradition. The initial Mi‟kmaq Cultural Knowledge Inventory found in Appendix H (available upon request from MACS) is not exhaustive or final, it must be continually updated as knowledge is shared, changes format and is passed on. 2.2.3 Mi’kmaq Cultural Businesses Following the same format as the previously described inventories, the initial Mi‟kmaq Cultural Business Inventory uses categories to classify types of Aboriginal cultural tourism business. The definitions of the six cultural tourism business types are listed on the following page: Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 8
  • 17. Figure 4. Mi’kmaq Cultural Business Inventory categories. Category Definition Accommodations Lodging of any kind, cabins, camp sites, hotels. Attractions Activity or workshop centered on Aboriginal culture. Dining Aboriginal cuisine options, traditional food, feasts. Any craft person/artist/shop that produces or sells Art and Craft traditional or modern Aboriginal art and craft. Any knowledge related to sacred, religious ceremony, Festivals and Events beliefs or practices. Tour Guided or self-guided tours by foot or bus. A review of the information gathered for the initial Mi‟kmaq Cultural Business Inventory indicates that while Nova Scotia has a great deal to offer in terms of Aboriginal art and craft and some attractions (the majority of which are cultural centres) there are far fewer Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings that fit into the other categories. The Mi‟kmaq Cultural Business Inventory found in Appendix I (available upon request from MACS) is not exhaustive or final; it must be continually updated as new business is initiated and as existing business grows and develops. The next section will review the market readiness of the businesses identified in the initial Mi‟kmaq Cultural Business Inventory. 2.3 Market Readiness To determine the product development and marketing capability of Mi‟kmaq tourism enterprises across Nova Scotia, all operations can be separated into three development stages: Start-up product stage, Existing but not market ready product, and Market ready. The following descriptions of these stages are used by Aboriginal Tourism British Columbia.7 7 www.aboriginalbc.com Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 9
  • 18. Start-up product stage (Tier I) - where Aboriginal cultural tourism businesses, potential start-ups and product are undeveloped but have an interest in exploring cultural tourism as an economic development activity. Activities under this tier are those that encourage communities and entrepreneurs with an interest in cultural tourism, to develop products and help them understand tourism‟s working environment. Existing but not market ready product (Tier II) - where Aboriginal businesses are operating but do not have market ready products and there are clear gaps in terms of market ready industry standards, hospitality, service levels and other shortfalls; and Market ready (Tier III) - where tourism products that satisfy market ready standards are fully integrated into local, regional and provincial destination marketing programs. Based on these definitions, the Mi‟kmaq tourism operations that have been collected so far for the initial Mi‟kmaq Cultural Business Inventory are divided up as follows: Tier 1 - Start-Up Product Stage Attractions Mi‟kmawey Debert Cultural Centre – Debert Membertou Heritage Centre Tier II - Existing But Not Market Ready Product Art/Craft: A.M. Products – A Touch of Nature - Acadia Aboriginal Originals Customized – Glooscap Autumn Leaf Productions – Brookfield Bear Town Baskets – Bear River Dozay‟s Native Art Gallery – Membertou First Chief Trading Post – Wagmatcook Glassy Lady – Pictou Landing Indian Lake Handcraft & Variety – Chapel Island Kinoway Kisitagn – Sydney Little Arrow‟s Porcupine Quill Jewelry – Lunenburg Madeline‟s Wooden Flowers – New Glasgow Margaret‟s Glassworks and Quillwork – Pictou Landing Metis Centre Crafts – Bear River Mi‟kmaq Creations by Marlene – My. Uniacke Mi‟kmaq Dream Quilts – Eskasoni Mi‟kmaq Wooden Flowers – Eskasoni Minuitagn – Eskasoni Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 10
  • 19. Muin Claw Enterprises – Eskasoni Negemow Basket Shop – Waycobah Three Thumbs First Nation – Annapolis Valley Waterdancer Mi‟kmaq Arts – Brookfield Wild Eagle Spirit - Eskasoni Tours Native Trail Tours – Wagmatcook Other Sarah Denny Cultural Centre – Eskasoni Spirit Wind Stables – Hebbs Cross Tier III - Market Ready Attractions Glooscap Heritage Centre – Millbrook Bear River First Nation Heritage and Cultural Centre – Bear River Wagmatcook Culture and Heritage Centre – Wagmatcook Dining Mescalero‟s Open Grill Steak House - Membertou Tours Stone Bear Tracks and Trails – Bear River Other Membertou Trade and Convention Centre (Gift Shop/Artifacts) – Membertou The following table provides a quick summary of how many Aboriginal tourism businesses from each category are represented in each market readiness Tier. Figure 5. Market readiness summary count8 Market Readiness Art/Craft Attractions Tours Dining Other Product Summary Tier 1 - 2 - - - Tier II 22 - 1 - 2 Tier III - 3 1 1 1 8 Numbers are based on the initial Mi‟kmaq Cultural Business inventory and may underestimate total participation of NS Mi‟kmaq business in each sector. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 11
  • 20. 2.3.1 Comparison of Nova Scotia Market Ready Product to Promoted Aboriginal tourism Products The following table is a summary of the main Aboriginal tourism product/service offerings that are currently being promoted in a sample of areas with established Aboriginal tourism product/services and/or strategies. Figure 6. Summary count of market ready Aboriginal tourism offerings in Nova Scotia and those currently being promoted in Arizona, British Columbia and Alberta. Promoted Aboriginal Tourism Products Available, Market Aboriginal Tourism Product Ready Product in Type British Arizona Alberta Nova Scotia Columbia Attractions * * * * Tours * * *  Historic/Archeological Sites * * * * Art and Craft * * * * Festivals / Performances or Events  * * * Dining (Cuisine)  * Accommodations  * * * Indicates product/service for which information was easily accessible from state/province tourism website at the time this study was conducted. As the table above highlights, some Aboriginal tourism product/service offerings are currently being promoted on the provincial tourism website. The Aboriginal tourism product/service offerings are a small sample of what is currently available in the province. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 12
  • 21. 2.4 SWOT of Aboriginal Tourism in Nova Scotia Figure 7. SWOT analysis of Aboriginal Tourism in Nova Scotia. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Some market ready products (tour operators, Lack of coordination between communities/ cultural centers) local authorities, tourism groups/tourism providers Not overdeveloped province Signage – welcoming, identifying attractions, Artisans and crafters Lack of tourism leadership (tourism officer – Access – roads, airport regional tourism development) Attractive scenery (old highway routes) Awareness – general lack of awareness of Unique offerings, over 11, 000 years of Aboriginal presence in Atlantic Canada history Perception that tourist are unwelcome „negative image in media‟ Many smaller attractions spread out over a wide geographic area Resources The majority of current Aboriginal tourism offerings are not at a market ready stage (Tier III) OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Networking - tourism Strong competition with Aboriginal tourism industry/agencies/local authorities in Western Canada Tourism committee Financial restraints Coordinated planning Exploitation/misrepresentation of culture Coordinated marketing (united front) Leverage 2010 Olympic games in British Columbia to create awareness of Aboriginal tourism offerings in Atlantic Canada Determine how the Mi‟kmaq want to be viewed Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 13
  • 22. 2.5 Best Practices in Cultural and Heritage Tourism Information on best practices was obtained from interviews conducted in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia and in Phoenix, Arizona in the United States of America (For more detail on interview process see section 1.3). Full interviews by question can be found in Appendix D. 2.5.1 Challenges Based on information gathered from the best practice interviews, six key challenges were identified as hurdles in the development of Aboriginal Tourism: Figure 8. Challenges identified by review of best practice in Aboriginal tourism. The following section details the six challenges highlighted above as well as potential solutions and recommendations for how the potential solutions identified could be utilized in Nova Scotia. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 14
  • 23. 1. Lack of Resources “…lack of funding for organizations, staffing.”9 Challenge: Lack of resources both in the retention of staff and the education and training of Aboriginal individuals to participate in the tourism industry. Insufficient funding is also an issue in terms of the ability to conduct necessary research and to maintain momentum in implementing strategies. Potential Solutions: To overcome this challenge organizations have initiated: Raising funds through government programs Obtaining financing from bands Conducting research (feasibility studies) Developing for profit tourism offerings Hosting events that generate revenue (fundraisers) Recommendations: Promoting community awareness of available funding and providing support in obtaining funding will increase individual and business owner access to government financing and initiatives. Attention must also be given to motivating Mi‟kmaq youth to participate in education opportunities and the tourism industry. Mapping out business opportunities and developing a staffing plan is an opportunity to proactively address staffing issues. …………………………………………….. Making market information available to communities in a way that is clear and easy to understand will help guide individuals who wish to pursue for-profit tourism offerings. Resources may also be increased through creating partnerships among Aboriginal organizations to share resources, and through partnering with private tourism businesses or non-Aboriginal foundations that have similar mandates.10 2. Government Instability “Stability of the governmental structures…when the government leadership changes then the department heads change. There is a large disruption in the flow of activities.” 9 Quotes illustrating each of the 6 challenges are taken from the Best Practice Interviews found in Appendix D. 10 Aboriginal Tourism Canada (2004). Best Practices in Aboriginal Tourism. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 15
  • 24. Challenge: Momentum in tourism development is interrupted by changes in government. Support can be temporary and uncertain which can make it difficult to implement long term strategies. Potential Solutions: To overcome this challenge organizations have initiated: Involving community members in development to obtain political support. Developing for-profit tourism offerings. Recommendations: Promotion of for profit tourism offerings that may be more resilient to changes in government could positively contribute to the progression of Aboriginal tourism development in Atlantic Canada on the whole. Implementing a long term strategic approach and obtaining community support may also help maintain government support through leadership changes. 3. Fragmentation “Fragmentation, people working in isolation, there needs to be volume; there are remote communities in province…, transportation, support [is needed] in making linkages.” Challenge: Many Aboriginal communities are not located near major centers. Distance between tourism products and services and poor communication make it challenging for industry participants to work together. Organizations, business operators, government and individuals are all working toward similar goals in isolation; this creates inconsistency and openings for the repetition of mistakes. Potential Solutions: To overcome this challenge organizations have initiated: Efforts to improve communication The bringing together of artisans at different events The development of an inventory of Aboriginal tourism offerings Efforts to promote sharing, working together Recommendations: A communication strategy would tie Aboriginal tourism operators together and increase sharing. An inventory of Aboriginal tourism offerings and services mapped out or offered in a guide would link tourism offerings across the province. Rather than being promoted individually, Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings could be promoted as pieces of a complete Atlantic Canadian Aboriginal experience or as part of a journey or tour. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 16
  • 25. 4. Consistency “Many Tribes don’t have a Tourism Department and have one person doing multiple tasks. If you don’t have the consistency, sometimes you won’t be successful.” Challenge: Difficulty maintaining consistency in program implementation, levels of customer services and the „image‟ presented to potential and past visitors. Government instability, poor communication and non-native individuals operating Aboriginal themed tourism products and services, make maintaining consistency especially challenging. Potential Solutions: To overcome this challenge organizations have initiated: Cultural committees, everything in print is reviewed and approved Efforts to improve communication Addressing program elements by hiring a professional firm Engaging in a strategic approach Education, offering customer service training cd Recommendations: Joining together through a committee or tourism organization and developing a strategy would help unite and guide individual tourism development efforts. Promoting training and communicating best practices in customer service may help operators of Aboriginal tourism product/services work towards meeting visitor expectation and industry standards. 5. Reaching the People “Biggest [challenge] besides building... is reaching the audience.” “Communication is key. They need to partner with people outside of community (hotels, convention centers) to bring tourists to their attractions.” Challenge: Raising awareness of the existence of Aboriginal tourism offerings. A lack of resources or simply not knowing how, can prevent operators of Aboriginal tourism products and services from reaching their intended audience. Potential Solutions: To overcome this challenge organizations have initiated: Building relationships, partnerships with non-Aboriginal tourism operators Utilizing professional marketing materials (photographer/cd for trade shows) Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 17
  • 26. Recommendations: Building relationships and partnerships with tourism operators and branding Aboriginal tourism in Atlantic Canada will facilitate raising the awareness of the existence of Aboriginal tourism offerings in Nova Scotia. Tourism operators may be encouraged to promote Aboriginal tourism if there was a greater presence in the media, at trade shows and more opportunities to experience tourism products first hand. A central website with easily accessible information, as well as booking and reservation options may also increase support from tourism operators and awareness in general11. 5. Avoiding Exploitation “There is a fine line that we as Native American individuals have to walk, to what end of the culture do you want to promote without exploiting.” Challenge: Using cultural tourism to preserve culture, tradition and history without distorting or exploiting Mi‟kmaq values and heritage, and ensuring the authenticity of Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services is an immense challenge. It is important to avoid misrepresentation by non-Aboriginal tourism operators presenting Aboriginal themed tourism product and services. Potential Solutions: To overcome this challenge organizations have initiated: Forming a cultural committee Open communication and consultation with the community Recommendations: Building capacity within the Mi‟kmaq Nation to manage their own cultural affairs and an agreement to a policy on standards of appropriate use of cultural knowledge may be an effective way to avoid exploitation. A structured decision making process and community consultation is imperative to keep developments in check. A definition of cultural authenticity may reduce misrepresentation by non-Aboriginal tourism operators. 3.0 Unique Value Proposition A Unique Value Proposition (UVP) will be the attraction to draw tourists and to create awareness about Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia. The UVP will centre on the 11 BearingPoint LP and Goss Gilroy and Associates. (2003). Aboriginal Tourism in Canada - Final Report - Part II: Trends, Issues, Constraints and Opportunities. Ottawa: Aboriginal Tourism Team Canada. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 18
  • 27. rich culture and tradition of the Mi‟kmaq people to promote Nova Scotia as a choice Aboriginal destination. Although it is recommended that a public relations professional complete the UVP wording, a sample is as follows: For thousands of years before European settlers arrived on Canada’s eastern shores, Nova Scotia was home to the Mi’kmaq of Atlantic Canada. The history, heritage and values of the Mi’kmaq peoples are inseparable from Nova Scotia’s scenic natural landscape and the history of this province, from its birth to the present. The culture of the Mi’kmaq; the skills, traditions, oral histories and values have endured for generations. Throughout the First Nation communities of Nova Scotia, Mi’kmaq traditions are practiced, remembered and preserved in a blend of modern and traditional ways of life. Each community has its own unique story but they tell it with one voice, the voice of the Mi’kmaq. Using a tag line to promote Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia will require joining together what Aboriginal tourism in Nova Scotia has to offer with what people are looking for. Research indicates that in general, travellers are looking for an authentic Aboriginal culture experience as well as learning opportunities. Sample tag lines are as follows: Explore Aboriginal Culture and Heritage in Nova Scotia with the Mi’kmaq people. Aboriginal Culture and Heritage in Nova Scotia - Experience over 11,000 years of history and tradition with the Mi’kmaq.12 Discover true heritage with Nova Scotia’s first people, the Mi’kmaq - over 11,000 years of history and tradition.12 These tag lines fit well with how the Aboriginal communities of Nova Scotia feel Mi‟kmaq tourism should be presented. When the Aboriginal communities throughout Nova Scotia were asked to define „Mi‟kmaq tourism‟, the common threads were that the Mi‟kmaq were the first people of Nova Scotia and that there is a desire to educate and share the rich culture and traditions of the Mi‟kmaq. Through continued community involvement, worldwide marketing, developing current and creating new business opportunities, Nova Scotia will be able to educate both tourists and Atlantic Canadians about the presence, history and rich culture of the Mi‟kmaq people.13 12 Davis, S., A. (1991). Two concentrations of Palaeo-Indian Occupations in the far Northeast. Journal of American Archaeology, No. 3, 31-56. 13 Lafford Business Consulting (2006). Report on Nova Scotia First Nation Community Tourism Information Sessions. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 19
  • 28. 4.0 Marketing Program 4.1 Target Markets 4.1.1 Target Markets Summary The primary target markets for Nova Scotia Aboriginal cultural tourism consists of the North American Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts (HTE‟s) and Overseas travellers with an interest in Aboriginal cultural tourism, specifically in Atlantic Canada. Short term estimates of the primary and secondary overseas markets indicate an expected 140,562 potential travellers to Nova Scotia with an interest in Aboriginal cultural tourism by 2009. Long term projections of the North American markets show that the Canadian HTE‟s in Atlantic Canada are expected to grow to 1 million by 2026. The growth for the American HTE‟s market visiting Atlantic Canada is expected to reach 1.8 million by 2025.15 4.1.2 North America The North American Market consists of tourists from the United States and within Canada. Survey findings show that a total of 52% of Canadians and 26% of Americans indicated they were likely or very likely to visit Atlantic Canada in the next 10 years. Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts, as identified by the TAMS study are the key participants in Aboriginal tourism in this market.14 HTEs are generally, in their forties, well-educated, and have a higher household income than typical North American travellers, which allows greater discretionary income for travel. The following are characteristics of the Primary North American market travellers: Age: On average these travellers are in their 40‟s Income: Average yearly household income of $71,000 Education: 34% have a university degree, 49% have some post secondary education Family Status: Most live in households with no young children 4.1.2.1 Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts In 2000, the domestic market size of Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts was 2.2 million. Canadian HTEs have an average age of 45 years and income of $60,000. 14 Canadian Tourism Commission, (2002) U.S. and Canada Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts – A Special Analysis of the Travel Activities and Motivations Survey, Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 20
  • 29. However, 32% of Canadian THE‟s have a household income of under $40,000, suggesting tourism activities appealing to this group should have fees that are not too expensive. Forty-two percent of Canadian HTEs have attained some post-secondary education and the majority live in adults-only households. Two relevant sub-segments exist for the Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts, the Heritage Activities used to define the market sub-segments are as follows:  Aboriginal Attractions  Aboriginal Cultural Experiences in Remote or Rural Setting Participation in these sub-segments activities was not mutually exclusive. Based on HTE visitation to Atlantic Canada, estimates for the number of tourists by country within each segment is provided below. Figure 9. Sub-Segments of Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts Heritage Activities Used to Define Number of Canadian Tourists within each Market Segment Segment who Visited Atlantic Canada15 Aboriginal Attractions 98,560 Aboriginal Cultural Experiences 110,880 in Remote or Rural Setting Although Atlantic Canada is home to only 8% of Canadian HTEs, the region has a high attraction rate, luring a total of 616,500 Canadian HTE‟s in 1999 and 2000. The domestic market for Canadian HTEs is expected to grow to 3.7 million by 2026 with 28% visiting Atlantic Canada (1 million).16 4.1.2.2 US Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts In 2000, 17% of American adults were Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts (2.6 million) with almost 25% taking a leisure trip within Canada in the past two years. Therefore, the Canadian market for HTEs is about 8.3 million. Canada attracted 28% of its American HTEs from Tier I (border) states, 33% from Tier II states, and 40% from Tier III states (please see Appendix J for geographical distribution). Atlantic Canada attracted 15 percent of American HTEs (1.25 million tourists). 16 Canadian Tourism Commission. Canada‟s Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts: A Special Analysis of the Travel Activities and Motivation Survey (TAMS). Research Resolutions & Consulting Ltd. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 21
  • 30. The relevant sub-segments that exist for the American Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts are the same as those defined above for the Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts. The Heritage Activities used to define the market sub-segments for the American Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts are:  Aboriginal Attractions  Aboriginal Cultural Experiences in Remote or Rural Setting Participation in these sub-segments activities was not mutually exclusive. Based on HTE visitation to Atlantic Canada, estimates for the number of tourists by country within each segment is provided on the following page. Figure 10. Sub-Segments of US Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts Heritage Activities Used to Define Number of US Tourists within each Market Segment Segment who Visited Atlantic Canada17 Aboriginal Attractions 348,600 Aboriginal Cultural Experiences 286,350 in Remote or Rural Setting The Canadian market for American Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts is expected to grow to 12.3 million by 2025 with 15% expected to visit Atlantic Canada (1.8 million). 4.1.3 Overseas Travellers from the United Kingdom, France and Germany make up the largest portion of the overseas target market and represent the primary European market for Nova Scotia. The total number of person-trips to Nova Scotia in 2007 from these three countries was 39,748, which represented 77% of the European travellers visiting Nova Scotia. The following are characteristics of the Primary European market travellers: Age: On average these travellers are in their 40‟s Income: Approximately half have a yearly income of $50,000 or more Education: 20% - 39% have a college or university degree Family Status: Approximately half are married, most live in households with no young children European travellers may be responsive to environmental and social concerns 17 Equals 1,245,000 (US HTEs who visited Atlantic Canada) multiplied by percent of HTEs who participated in each activity. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 22
  • 31. The secondary overseas market is comprised of person-trips from European countries (Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, and Ireland) and Japan. The following graphs depict visitation to Canada and Nova Scotia by overseas country of origin in 2005.18 Graph 2. Visitation to Canada by Overseas origin countries. Ireland Netherlands 2% 5% Switzerland 4% UK Italy Germany Other 38% 4% France Italy UK France Switzerland 66% 15% Other Netherlands 19% Ireland UK Germany France 13% Germany Graph 3. Visitation to Nova Scotia by Overseas origin countries. Ireland Italy 4% 1% Switzerland Other 11% UK 4% Germany Netherlands France 4% UK Netherlands France 44% Switzerland 8% Ireland Germany Italy 24% Other The secondary market, comprised of person-trips from The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, Ireland and Japan represented 6,261 tourists to Nova Scotia in 2007. 18 International Travel Survey: Overseas Residents 2005, from Europe and selected countries, Canadian Tourism Commission. [Japan excluded as graphs depict visitation based on European countries only.] Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 23
  • 32. The Alberta Aboriginal Tourism Product Opportunity Analysis (2002) defined the Aboriginal Culture Segment for the long-haul overseas market as “travellers who „saw or experienced unique Aboriginal or native groups‟ on their most recent (long-haul) trip.” The analysis also provided the long-haul overseas market potential for the Aboriginal Culture Traveller segment, in terms of number of tourists interested in visiting Canada by 2007. Using these projections of interest in Aboriginal Cultural Tourism and in travel to Canada applied to travel trends from 2007 Nova Scotia visitation data, the market potential of the Aboriginal Culture Traveller segment expected to visit Nova Scotia by 2009 was estimated at 140,562 travellers (detailed calculations are found in Appendix K). 4.1.3.1 Primary Overseas Market United Kingdom A total of 26% of online survey respondents from the United Kingdom indicated they 19 were likely to visit Atlantic Canada in the next 10 years. With close to 1 million travellers from the UK visiting Canada in 2007 it is estimated that a potential 30,162 Aboriginal Culture Travellers will visit Nova Scotia in 2009. France A total of 24% of online survey respondents from France indicated they were likely to visit Atlantic Canada in the next 10 years.19 Total trips to Canada from France equaled 379,268 travellers in 2007. With an estimated 1.46 million Aboriginal culture travellers in France, it is estimated that a potential 42,017 Aboriginal culture travellers will show an interest in visiting Nova Scotia by 2009. Germany A total of 25% of survey respondents from Germany indicated they were likely to visit 19 Atlantic Canada in the next 10 years. Total trips to Canada from Germany equaled 318,165 travellers in 2007. With an estimated 2.33 million Aboriginal culture travellers in Germany it is estimated that 42,017 Aboriginal Culture Travellers will show an interest in visiting Nova Scotia by 2009. 19 Data obtained from results of the Atlantic Canada Aboriginal Tourism conducted for the Mi‟kmaq Association for Cultural Studies Market Analysis. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 24
  • 33. 4.1.3.2 Secondary Overseas Target Market The secondary overseas target market includes Switzerland, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Japan. The four European countries (Switzerland, Italy, Ireland and the Netherlands) were either identified as having strong Aboriginal culture traveller populations or as having strong prior visitation to Nova Scotia. Although Nova Scotia currently attracts only a small percentage of Japanese travellers to Canada (0.03% in 2007), Japan was identified as having significant market potential, with an estimated 1,045,000 Aboriginal culture travellers and 343,451 travellers visiting Canada in 2007. Total market potential for secondary overseas markets for 2009 is 6,924. Figure 11. Summary of Overseas Target Market Tourists Origin Country Estimate of Aboriginal culture travellers interested in visiting NS by 200920 Primary Market UK 30,162 France 42,017 Germany 61,459 Total Primary Market 133,638 Secondary Market Netherlands 3,706 Switzerland 1,836 Italy 427 Ireland 413 Japan 542 Total Secondary Market 6,924 Total Overseas Market 140,562 20 Adjusted to account for 2006 tourism activity changes. Detailed calculations found in Appendix K. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 25
  • 34. 5.0 Market Research 5.1 Level of Awareness There is a general lack of knowledge, even in Canada, around who the Aboriginal people of Nova Scotia are. Most international respondents were unaware of the presence of Aboriginal peoples in Atlantic Canada. Germany (34% unaware) and France (56% unaware) were more informed about the presence of Aboriginal peoples in Atlantic Canada than the United States (75% unaware) and the United Kingdom (74% unaware). Canadian (20% unaware) respondents had the highest level of awareness of the presence of Aboriginal peoples in Atlantic Canada. Not surprisingly, there is also a lack of awareness that Aboriginal tourism products and services exist in Atlantic Canada. The following graph represents responses to the question „Were you aware that there are Aboriginal tourism products and services in Atlantic Canada?‟ Graph 4. Awareness of Aboriginal tourism products and services in Atlantic Canada21 France Germany UK Yes No USA Canada 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Older individuals may be more aware of the existence of Aboriginal tourism offerings in Atlantic Canada. Results of the online survey indicated that individuals over 40 years of age had a higher awareness of both the existence of Aboriginal peoples in Atlantic 21 How to read Graph 4: The blue section represents the percentage of respondents who were aware of Aboriginal tourism products and services in Atlantic Canada, the red section represents the percentage of respondents who were unaware. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 26
  • 35. Canada and the existence of Aboriginal tourism offerings, than individuals under 40 years of age. Graph 5. Awareness of Aboriginal peoples in Atlantic Canada broken down by over and under 40 years of age22 Over 40 Years Yes Under 40 Years No 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Graph 6. Awareness of Aboriginal tourism product/services in Atlantic Canada broken down by over and under 40 years of age23 Over 40 Years Yes Under 40 Years No 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Information gathered from focus group discussions indicated lack of awareness as a main barrier to participating in Aboriginal tourism in Atlantic Canada (See section 5.6). 5.2 Factors Affecting Activity Selection The most notable factors considered when selecting vacation activities, were the value (cost and quality) of the activity, the availability of information, the availability of activities themselves, personal safety and location. Some differences were evident between the United States and Canadian focus groups in the discussion around factors that affect activity selection. The following table lists the 22 How to read Graph 5&6: The blue section represents the percentage of respondents who were aware of Aboriginal tourism products and services in Atlantic Canada, the red section represents the percentage of respondents who were unaware. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 27
  • 36. factors discussed by country in order of importance, as determined by group agreement and how often a factor was brought up across focus groups. Figure 12. Factors affecting activity selection for Canada and USA. Canada USA Cost Cost Information What is available Location Safety What is available Value Safety Transportation Authenticity Quality Time Cultural element Reviews 5.3 Ideal Travel Experience 5.3.1 Packaging There is a clear preference for all inclusive travel packages among international travellers. Germany and France were especially strong in their preference for travel packages in planning a trip to Atlantic Canada to experience Aboriginal culture. All inclusive packages for the purposes of this report include trips of any length for which a single cost encompasses accommodation, food and activity. The following graph depicts packaging preferences broken down by country. Graph 5. Packaging preferences by country. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 28
  • 37. Individuals who indicated an interest in purchasing a travel package were willing to travel farther from their accommodations for an Aboriginal cultural tourism experience, and were willing to dedicate more days to Aboriginal cultural tourism on a 7 day trip. Individuals who indicated an interest in purchasing a travel package were also willing to spend more time per individual Aboriginal experience, than those who preferred no planning or to self plan their trip. Although focus group discussions indicated that pre-packaging was considered very appealing, individuals still placed a great deal of importance on the availability of options within a package (e.g. packages varying in length, price, and choice of activities etc.). Focus group discussions indicated some interest in travel packages focused exclusively on Aboriginal cultural tourism activities, however, 61% of respondents indicated a desire to experience a mix of culture on a trip to Atlantic Canada. The following graph depicts survey respondents‟ level of interest in experiencing the four cultures present in Atlantic Canada. The strongest interest in Aboriginal culture was present in Germany and France. Graph 8. Overall interest in experiencing cultures present in Atlantic Canada. 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 Aboriginal African Acadian Celtic Survey respondents over 40 years of age had a stronger interest in Aboriginal culture (71% were somewhat interested or very interested in Aboriginal culture) than survey respondents under 40 years of age (61% of respondents were somewhat interested or very interested in Aboriginal culture). Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 29
  • 38. 5.3.2 Cost 5.3.2.1 Full Trip Costing Expectations Although there were variations around cost expectations for an Aboriginal tourism experience in Atlantic Canada, a preference for packaged tour options was clear in both the focus group discussions and the online survey data. There is a desire for costing to be visible up front. All inclusive packages allow you to see exactly what a vacation will cost. Individuals expect an all inclusive Atlantic Canadian Aboriginal experience to be similar in cost to other alternative all inclusive trips. For example, it was suggested that trips would need to be competitive with all inclusive island trips, which generally cost from $800 - $3000 for an individual per week for accommodation, food and activities. $350 per day ($2,450 for 7 days) was a common expectation of an all inclusive price.24 5.3.2.2 Activity Costing Expectations Information collected from the focus groups suggest that for an Atlantic Canadian Aboriginal activity that might engage a person for an afternoon, costing expectations range from $15 - $30. An example given of a half day activity is visiting a historical site or replica village. Costing expectations for a day long activity ranged from $30 - $100. The online survey found similar results with 54% indicating they would participate in day long activities at a cost of between $10 and $50 per individual. Graph 7. Expected cost for day long activity focused on Aboriginal cultural tourism in Atlantic Canada. 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 24 All inclusive packages for the purposes of this report includes trips for which a single cost encompasses accommodation, food and activity. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 30
  • 39. 5.3.2.3 Product Costing Expectations Survey results indicated that 55% of individuals had some interest (37% Somewhat interested, 18% Very interested) in purchasing authentic hand made Aboriginal products on a trip to Atlantic Canada. Focus group responses indicated that on average individuals expect to pay between $50 and $100 when purchasing an Aboriginal product. In addition to purchasing pre-made handmade items at shops, focus group participants indicated an interest in participating in workshops where they were able to take something away. The following graph depicts prices individuals are willing to pay for different products.25 How to read the below graph: Each price point is represented by a color on the graph. The amount of color in each bar represents the percentage of respondents who choose the corresponding price point. For example, a large amount of a color indicates that a large percentage of respondents selected a given price point) Graph 8. Pricing expectations for various Aboriginal product categories. Up tp $20 Up to $50 Up to $100 Up to $150 Up to $200 Up to $300 Traditional Art Modern Art Basket Wood Carving Musical… Book… Book (Factual) Traditional… Jewelry 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 25 The graph illustrates responses for only those individuals who indicated some interest in purchasing Aboriginal product on a trip to Atlantic Canada. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 31
  • 40. 5.3.2.4 Accommodation Focus group participants indicated interest in a variety of accommodation types ranging from luxury all amenity resorts to traditional or „authentic‟ accommodations. Although an „authentic‟ experience was a key theme in most of the focus groups, there seems to exist a general lack of awareness as to what that authentic experience might be. For example, there was considerable interest in the option of staying in a traditional accommodation, it was suggested that this might include staying in a „log house‟ or a „teepee‟. Most were interested in accommodations that were either near desired vacation activities or that were a part of the experience, for example, a traditional accommodation that was either within a replica village, or a part of a tour teaching about traditional ways of life. 5.3.3 Length of Participation 5.3.3.1 Combined Activities Information gathered from the focus groups indicated that for individuals who prefer packaged vacations, trip package length options of a weekend or week were most attractive. Results from the survey indicated that on a 7 day trip to Atlantic Canada most individuals would dedicate 3 days or less to Aboriginal tourism experiences. Although travellers with children still fall into the 3 days or less range, overall individuals with children are willing to dedicate more days to Aboriginal tourism on a trip to Atlantic Canada than those who travel without children. When examined by country, respondents from France indicated a greater degree of interest in dedicating more days to Aboriginal activities. The difference is evident in the percentage of individuals who indicated interest in dedicating 5 or more days of a 7 day trip to Aboriginal tourism experiences in Atlantic Canada, 18% of respondents from the France sample selected the „5 days of more‟ option when asked „how many days they would dedicate to Aboriginal tourism on a 7 day trip to Atlantic Canada‟. The following graph compares the percentage of individuals who indicated interest in dedicating more than 5 days to Aboriginal tourism on a 7 day trip to Atlantic Canada broken down by country. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 32
  • 41. Graph 9. Breakdown by country of individuals interested in dedicating more than 5 days to Aboriginal tourism on a 7 day tip. 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 5 days or more 4% 2% 5.3.3.2 Single Activities The graph below depicts length of time preferences for single activities focused on Aboriginal tourism in Atlantic Canada. Results from the online survey indicate that 77% of respondents are looking for an activity length of a half day or more. Graph 10. Length of participation, single activities focused on Aboriginal tourism. 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1/2 hour 1 hour 2 hour Half Day Whole DayMore Than 1 Day Results from the online survey indicate that individuals who are 40 years of age or older may dedicate more time to a single activity than individuals under 40 years of age. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 33
  • 42. Respondents from Germany and France indicated a stronger preference for single activities, with a length of a whole day or more than the North America and UK respondents. Graph 11. Germany/France and Canada/USA/UK comparison for length of participation preferences for single activities focused on Aboriginal tourism. 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% Germany/France 15% Canada/USA/UK 10% 5% 0% 1/2 hour 1 hour 2 hour Half Day Whole More Day Than 1 Day 5.3.4 Location/Distribution of Activities Information gathered from the focus groups indicated that most individuals prefer attractions close to their accommodations where possible. For those who did not consider travel to be an issue, 2 to 3 hours was the maximum travel distance that individuals were willing to venture from their accommodations for an activity. Generally, close and convenient was indicated as more desirable. It was suggested that a big draw was needed to entice travellers to go out of the way or a series of smaller attractions that would allow for multiple stops on a path. The online survey showed a similar pattern with 80% of respondents falling below 3 hours for the maximum distance they would travel from their accommodations for an Aboriginal tourism experience. The graph on the following page depicts the response distribution for the maximum distance respondents would travel from their accommodations for an Aboriginal tourism experience in Atlantic Canada. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 34
  • 43. Graph 12. Maximum distance respondents would travel from their accommodation for an Aboriginal tourism experience in Atlantic Canada. 26% 21% 16% 11% 6% 1% 1/2 hour 1 hour 2 hour 3 hour 1/2 day Whole day More than 1 day Distance was less of an issue on guided tours or if you were following a trail and staying at multiple locations through the duration of your trip. Focus group participants also indicated they would be more likely to travel farther for a larger attraction or a site with multiple activities. 5.4 Themes That Generated the Most Interest Overall guided nature tours and historical themes like Aboriginal history, archeological sites, traditional arts, legend and stories and cuisine generated the most interest. For the most part interest in the themes listed above was reflected in the focus group discussions where food, culture and storytelling were key interest points. Music festivals, spirituality and medicine were also commonly preferred themes among focus group participants, however, when rated in the online survey‟s the interest they generated was not as strong among respondents as some of the other themes. It is important to keep in mind that the focus group information only took into account the North American market which is a likely cause of the discrepancy between some of the preferred themes that emerged in the focus groups and those that were evident in the online survey. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 35
  • 44. The following diagram depicts overall theme preferences in order of level of interest. Highest interest is represented in the red and orange sections, those themes that generated less interest are represented in the lower yellow to green sections. Ratings for themes that are grouped together in a single color were not rated significantly different from each other and are therefore assumed to generate an equal level of interest for potential travellers. Figure 13. Atlantic Canadian Aboriginal tourism product/services theme preferences Guided Nature Tours History / Archeological Sites / Traditional Arts Cuisine / Legend & Stories Festivals / Present Day Life Modern Art / Living off the Land Music & Dance / Medicine / Role of Women Language / Spirituality Hunting / Fishing Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 36
  • 45. Figure 13. Atlantic Canadian Aboriginal tourism top six theme preferences by Country. Canada USA UK France Germany History Food/Cuisine History Guided Nature Tours Guided Nature Tours Archaeological Sites Festivals Legend/Storytelling Present Day Life History Legend/Storytelling Legend/Storytelling Guided Nature Tours Archaeological Sites Food/Cuisine Traditional Arts/Craft Traditional Arts/Craft Food/Cuisine Food/Cuisine Archaeological Sites Guided Nature Tours Archaeological Sites Archaeological Sites Traditional Arts/Craft Legend/Storytelling Food Guided Nature Tours Traditional Arts/Craft Legend/Storytelling Living off the Land 5.5 Presentation Preference Overall, the most attractive Aboriginal tourism offerings are hands on activities that allow individuals to be a participant in what is going on around them. Focus group participants expressed a desire to interact with people from the community, learn skills and „experience‟ rather than just learn about culture and traditions through more passive observation. The preference for active hands on experience was evident from the online survey results as well. The graph below depicts overall presentation preferences. Hands on activities (both indoor and outdoor) and exhibits with art and text were the top three presentation preferences indicated in the online survey. Graph 13. Overall presentation preferences. These specific presentation types can be fit into the following broader categories: Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 37
  • 46. Hands On Presentation Types: which encompasses hands on outside activities and hands on inside activities Hands Off Presentation Types: which includes exhibits with art and text, oral storytelling, film and video and audio. Performance Presentation Types: which includes dance, musical and theater performances When presentation preferences were examined by country, it is German, French and Canadian respondents that show the strongest interest in Hands On activities. Presentation preferences among respondents from the United States and the United Kingdom were more balanced between the three presentation types. The graph below depicts these broader presentation preference categories by country. Graph 14. Presentation preference broken down by country. Survey results suggest that individuals who indicate a preference for hands on activities are willing to spend more time on a single aboriginal tourism activity than an individual who indicates more of a preference for Hands Off or Performance based presentations. 5.6 Authenticity Focus group discussions on a variety of topics around Aboriginal cultural tourism often came back to the issue of Authenticity. The value of authenticity was stressed, particularity in the Canadian focus groups. The majority of participants indicated a desire Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 38
  • 47. to purchase or experience Aboriginal products and services created or owned by an Aboriginal individual. Most respondents felt that tourism offerings should adequately reflect the culture and should not be „cheesy‟ or exploitative. Participants showed considerable concern for ensuring that any money spent on an Aboriginal tourism experience would go back to the community. 5.7 Barriers Information gathered from the focus group discussions indicates that some of the main barriers to participating in Aboriginal tourism in Atlantic Canada are: Cost - One of the biggest barriers to participation in Aboriginal cultural tourism in Atlantic Canada is cost. The price of activities can be prohibiting for some individuals. Lack of Awareness/Information - Individuals in many cases are simply unaware of opportunities to participate in Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services in Atlantic Canada. A lack of information on cost, hours of operation and what to expect (e.g. appropriate clothing, details about the activity such as how long it might take) may deter potential visitors. Not feeling welcome - A sense of being an outsider, not welcome in communities at festivals or events is a barrier to participation in Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings. Safety - Individuals place high value on personal safety and are less likely to participate in a tourism offering where they do not feel safe. Weather - Poor weather is another factor that was indicated as a potential barrier that may keep travellers from participating in Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings. Commercialization - Most focus group participants indicated that a lack of authenticity would discourage them from participating in Aboriginal tourism activities. Individuals indicated strong feelings that tourism attractions should not be exploitive or seem „cheesy‟. Level of Service - Poor quality customer service, for example, attractions being closed during posted operating hours were a deterrent for potential travellers. Bad Publicity - Hearing negative stories in the news and stereotypes to some degree may discourage participation in Aboriginal cultural tourism. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 39
  • 48. Size - Smaller attractions or a perception that there are not enough activities or „things to do‟ may be a barrier to participating in Aboriginal tourism activities in Atlantic Canada. Survey respondents who have visited Atlantic Canada in the past but did not participate in Aboriginal tourism offerings indicated a lack of awareness as the most common reason for not including an Aboriginal tourism activity on their trip. 6.0 Marketing Recommendations The key marketing recommendation for MACS to move forward in promoting Mi‟kmaq cultural tourism in Nova Scotia is outlined below. The recommendation includes the basic pieces depicted below in Figure 14., communicate, unify, develop, partner and evaluate. In order to initiate these five pieces, a strategy for how the Mi‟kmaq of Nova Scotia as a people want to promote themselves is needed to provide direction and keep the pieces together. Figure 14.Marketing recommendations Communicate Raise awareness & visibility Evaluate Unify Implement a Link Aboriginal common cultural tracking tool STRATEGY business How do the Mi'kmaq of Nova Scotia want to be viewed? Partner Develop Link with Tools to non-Aboriginal progress operators businesses Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 40
  • 49. 6.1 Strategy A strategy for how the Mi‟kmaq of Nova Scotia wish to present themselves to target markets is an essential first step to developing Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia. In addition to providing guidance around what should be communicated in promoting and raising awareness, a strategy also proactively addresses three of the six challenges identified through the best practice interviews. Consistency – A strategy would help unite Aboriginal tourism operators and provide direction around what image operators should be striving to present. Reaching the people – Clarification of „the message‟ is important in effective communication. A strategy for how the Mi‟kmaq wish to present themselves would provide something clear to communicate in promotional materials. Additionally, a strategy would allow the promotion of Aboriginal tourism in Nova Scotia as a whole, united rather than individually. Avoiding exploitation – Building consensus around how the Mi‟kmaq of Nova Scotia want to be seen will help set boundaries for what is not acceptable as well. It would provide guideposts to help prevent misrepresentation and ensure that tourism offerings promoted as Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services in Nova Scotia represent the Mi‟kmaq in a way that is reflective of the people. 6.2 Communicate Increased communication is needed to address the general lack of awareness of Aboriginal tourism products and services in Nova Scotia. The survey results, information gathered from focus groups and best practice interviews all revealed a lack of awareness of Aboriginal tourism in offerings in Nova Scotia as a barrier, a current state or a challenge (reaching the people). Below are some recommendations around communicating to the identified target markets. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 41
  • 50. 6.2.1 Overall Promotional Material Press release: A press release regarding the development of Mi‟kmaq cultural tourism offerings in Nova Scotia would be a cost effective way to increase awareness of attractions and reach a large audience. A press release can be completed for about $300, and can be published in Canadian newspapers through the Canadian Press and in newspapers worldwide through the Associated Press. This channel will effectively reach the North American Heritage Tourists Enthusiasts (avid newspaper readers) and the Aboriginal culture traveller, with no subsequent cost. Website: The development of an attractive website is a valuable tool of communication since many potential tourists will discover Aboriginal cultural tourism attractions in Atlantic Canada through the internet. A website connecting Aboriginal tourism product and services throughout Nova Scotia could be linked to other high traffic sites to increase visibility (e.g. www.aboriginaltourism.ca). Canada’s Virtual Aboriginal Trade Show: There is also an aboriginal specific, and free of charge, website on which products can be marketed. Canada‟s Virtual Aboriginal Trade Show (http://www.vats.ca/abdt/apps/vats2.nsf/splash.html) is available in several languages and showcases all types of aboriginal businesses in Canada. A specific Aboriginal Tourism category links website visitors to The Virtual Tour of Aboriginal Canada. Here, Aboriginal communities are listed by province, with a direct link to individual websites. Travel Trade Shows: A variety of travel trade shows are hosted annually, throughout North America and Europe. Many of the trade shows are attended by the Canadian Tourism Commission and NS Department of Tourism, and are featured on the CanadaEastCoast.com website for potential visitors. Although not a travel show, attending the Canadian Aboriginal Festival could help create awareness of developments in Aboriginal cultural tourism in Nova Scotia within the domestic market. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 42
  • 51. Travel Guides: Print and online travel guides, such as Fodor‟s or Lonely Planet Travel Guides, are a consultation source for North American travellers interested in Aboriginal Tourism.26 Contacting travel guide companies to invite them to participate or experience established attractions for a free trip to review the attraction and/or to apply for inclusion within their print and online publications provides an opportunity to raise awareness and reach travellers who use these guides as a travel resource. 6.2.2 Reaching Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts The TAMS study identifies several ways of reaching the Canadian and American Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts (HTEs), through print, television, and club/association memberships. Print media is more effective than television and HTE‟s generally consult a large number of sources to plan brief and lengthy vacations. 6.2.2.1 Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts Print Canadian Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts are avid local newspaper readers (84%), with 50 % and 59% reading the travel sections of the weekday and weekend edition, respectively. While 91 % of Canadian HTEs read magazines, 42 % read travel magazines habitually (specifically, Canadian or National Geographic), suggesting this magazine type would be efficient at reaching this market. In addition, Canadian Geographic Travel is a full-sized issue of Canadian Geographic, whose readership identifies with the target market. Television Programming As for television programming, the TAMS study stated newspapers may have better reach among HTEs than any specific program. However, 63% watch the early evening news and 67 % watch nature shows. These areas could be reached through documentary production and news report, rather than substantially investing into creating a television commercial. 26 Travel Activities & Motivation Survey – Aboriginal Tourism Report. Lang Research. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 43
  • 52. Auto Clubs Forty-five percent of Canadian HTEs belong to an auto club, such as CAA, which can be a feasible marketing channel since most people drive to Canadian destinations.27 For example, offering discounts for auto club members or CAA‟s Explore Our Canada tourism website may be an effective way to attract HTE members of such clubs. 6.2.2.2 US Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts Print American Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts are avid local newspaper readers (92 %), with 63 % and 76 % reading the travel sections of the weekday and weekend edition, respectively. Ninety-five percent of US HTEs read magazines, with 56 % reading travel magazines habitually and 46 % reading National Geographic regularly, suggesting this magazine type would be the most efficient at reaching this market. Television Programming Similar to Canadian HTEs, newspapers may have better reach among American HTEs than any specific television programming. However, 64 % watch the early evening news and 63 % watch nature shows. As with the Canadian market, these areas could be reached through the documentary production and news report, rather than creating a television commercial. Auto Clubs Fifty-nine percent of American HTEs belong to an auto club, such as AAA, which can be a feasible marketing channel since most Americans drive to Canadian destinations.28 Offering discounts for auto club members may be an effective way to attract HTE members of such clubs. 6.2.3 Overseas market Advertising through the Nova Scotia Department of Tourism may be an effective way to reach the Aboriginal Culture Traveller market overseas. The Department promotes 27 Canada’s Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts – A Special Analysis of the Travel Activities and Motivation Survey. 28 U.S. Heritage Tourism Enthusiasts – A Special Analysis of the Travel Activities and Motivation Survey. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 44
  • 53. Atlantic Canada as a destination region and a total experience to European markets and Japan. This segment will also be reached through targeting receptive tour operators. 6.3 Unify Connecting Aboriginal cultural businesses is of value to Aboriginal tourism in Nova Scotia for two reasons: 1. Unifying the people - bringing business owners together to work toward the same goals will contribute to the development of individual businesses and 2. Unifying the physical location - more literal linkages, by mapped out routes or a guide of different attractions in Nova Scotia will provide more of a draw for travellers. 6.3.1 Unifying the people Linking operators of Aboriginal tourism product/services provides the opportunity for business owners to learn from each other and benefit from each others experience. Connections will also allow businesses to work together to compliment each other rather than compete. For example, multiple cultural sites could focus on different aspects of culture, or present information in a different way so that travellers would be interested in visiting multiple sites rather than choosing just one. 6.3.2 Unifying the product Focus group participants identified attraction size as a barrier to participating in Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings in Atlantic Canada. Travellers wanted to know that there would be enough to do to keep them entertained. A potential strategy for combating this barrier that came out of the focus groups was an Aboriginal guide to Nova Scotia, similar to the tourism routes outlined in the doers and dreamers guide. Linking smaller individual attractions together creates a „journey‟ or an „area‟ that travellers are interested in visiting rather than relying on a single product/service to attract visitors. Two things that could impact the effectiveness of a Mi‟kmaq guide are Travel – the ease of which an individual can travel to and through the route, and Roadway Signage – how easily an individual can find attractions indicated on the route. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 45
  • 54. Travel: To encourage travellers to participate in Aboriginal tourism offerings activities that are more spread out, it is recommended that the following be provided within promotional products:29  Clear directions and maps  Travel time estimates and distances from key cities, locations and markets  Direct and scenic travel route recommendations  Identification of attractions and support facilities located along various travel routes  Alternative travel methods (i.e. airlines, railroads, bus lines) Roadway Signage: Utilizing Department of Tourism signage on highways and near local Provincial Parks is recommended. These signs vary according to the type of attraction being promoted, but are strategically placed for maximizing tourist volumes and they will help direct travellers from main roadways to various attractions. 6.4 Develop A number of Aboriginal cultural businesses that are not yet market ready have been identified. Providing resources, training and assisting in identifying funding opportunities to move these businesses to a market ready stage will enrich the Aboriginal tourism product in Nova Scotia. In developing new product and services and adapting existing product and services to reach a market ready state, the following should be taken into consideration. 6.4.1 Theme Preferences and Presentation In general, hands on activities focused on Guided Nature Tours, History, Archeological Sites, Traditional Arts, Cuisine and Legends and Stories are what individuals are most interested in experiencing in an Aboriginal cultural tourism attraction. Although Individuals from the United Kingdom and the United States were still interested in hands on activities, they showed less interest than Germany, France and 29 Tourism Marketing, E. Mahoney & G. Warnell, Michigan State University, 1987. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 46
  • 55. Canada. Presentation preferences among United Kingdom and United States respondents were more evenly spread between hands on, hands off and performance presentation options. 6.4.2 Packaging There is a clear preference for pre-packaged travel options. Tours that structure vacations for travellers and packaged vacation deals are especially popular among the French and German respondents. The popularity of pre-packaged vacations among French and German travellers may be because of the language barrier in visiting a primarily English speaking province. Packaged vacations and tours would ensure a degree of comfort as food, accommodations and often transportation to and from activities or a site is taken care of for you. Individuals are interested in experiencing multiple cultures on a trip to Nova Scotia. Next to Aboriginal culture, Celtic culture is of the most interest to travellers. There may be benefit in packaging tours that include both Aboriginal and Celtic tourism offerings. 6.4.3 Pricing Pricing for Aboriginal cultural tourism offerings should be competitive and should take into account consumer expectations outlined in section 5.3.2. Pricing should be comparable to other tourism offerings in Atlantic Canada of similar length and structure. Summary regarding pricing preferences: Information about costing available up front (e.g. in pamphlets or on website). Discounts available for families and groups. Packages that allow bundled activities or bundles that include accommodation, food and entertainment or activities (through partnerships with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal business). Prices comparable to other activities or vacation packages of similar length. General pricing expectations are $50 - $100 for a product, $15 - $30 for an afternoon activity, $30 - $100 for a day long activity. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 47
  • 56. 6.5 Partner Partnering with non-Aboriginal organizations and tourism operators is beneficial for improving visibility and awareness of products. Partnerships may also enable smaller businesses to work with accommodation and dining establishments to make packaging feasible. 6.6 Evaluate An evaluation of Aboriginal cultural tourism product/services will serve as a check that initiatives are achieving desired goals. Surveys should be created to be given to visiting tourists. These short surveys would ask visitors their opinions regarding their experiences. Evaluation is a good way to keep track of progress and to identify issues and next steps. Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 48
  • 57. 7.0 Appendices – Available Upon Request From MACS Saint Mary‟s University Business Development Centre 49