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  • Brevard Community College Regents College University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Maryland University College Utah State University Weber State University 1. have substantial experience in distance education 2. are recognized as among the leaders in dl 3. are regionally accredited 4. offer more than one degree program via online distance learning.
  • Effective online instruction depends on learning experiences appropriately designed and facilitated by knowledgeable educators. Because learners have different learning styles or a combination of styles, online educators should design activities that address their modes of learning in order to provide significant experiences for each class participant. In designing online courses, this can best be accomplished by utilizing multiple instructional strategies. Teaching models exist which apply to traditional higher education learning environments, and when designing courses for the online environment, these strategies should be adapted to the new environment.
  • Of the many instructional strategies available for use in the online learning environment, most have not been developed specifically for online instruction, but are currently used in traditional classrooms, and can be successfully adapted for facilitating online learning. Educators should choose instructional strategies that are most effective for accomplishing a particular educational objective. From this perspective, instructional strategies are tools available to educators for designing and facilitate learning . Below are ten instructional strategies which have been effectively used in the traditional classroom and can likewise be used in the online learning environment:
  • Contract learning can bring about many practical benefits, including deeper involvement of the learner in the learning activities which they themselves have been involved in planning. Once a learner passes through the stage of confusion and anxiety associated with developing a contract, he/she will get excited about carrying out their own plans. Another benefit of utilizing contract learning is an increase of accountability, since the learning contract provides more functional and validated evidence of the learning outcomes. The contract also provides a means for the learner to receive continuous feedback regarding progress toward accomplishing learning objectives. Learning contracts can be extremely effective in the online environment. Because physically meeting with the class to discuss learning goals, objectives, and expectations is not possible online, instructors must be very clear and concise in what is expected from the learner. Likewise, the learner must also be clear about what he/she expects from the instructor and the course. A learning contract can facilitate negotiation and clarity of learning goals and outcomes. Sample learning contracts can be placed on a web page for the student to use as examples, and students can be encouraged to brainstorm ideas for learning contracts with their online peers as well as negotiate the final contract with the instructor through utilizing email or online conferencing.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Instructional Strategies for Online Courses Effective online instruction
    • 2.  
    • 3. Benchmarks of Quality for DL The Research Data + Our Experience
      • Seven categories of quality measures for online courses
      • Sharing what we’ve learned
      Source: “Quality on the Line” -- Institute for Higher Education Policy Study commissioned by NEA and Blackboard, Inc., March 21, 2000 based on research conducted by identifying first-hand, practical strategies being used by six U.S. colleges considered to be leaders in online distance education.
    • 4. Seven Benchmarks of Quality
    • 5.
      • A documented technology plan
      • A technology delivery system that is as failsafe as possible
      • A centralized information technology system to provide support for building and maintaining the Distributed education infrastructure
      • Start with a business plan that provides the framework, rationale, direction, and resources from which the technology plan emerges.
      • Be prepared for technology to fail.
      • Local expertise and support are also elements of successful implementation.
    • 6.
      • Guidelines regarding minimum standards are used for course development, design, and delivery.
      • Learning outcomes determine the technology being used to deliver course content.
      • Identify those faculty leaders who are eager to begin.
      • Reassure reluctant faculty that to some extent nearly every campus-based course incorporates distance education since students are expected to spend several hours outside of the classroom performing learning activities.
      Additional Points about Course Development
    • 7.
      • Instructional materials are reviewed periodically to ensure they meet program standards.
      • Courses are designed to require students to engage in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as part of their course and program requirements.
      Distributed learning courses require the same rigorous standards as campus-based courses
    • 8.
      • Student interaction with faculty and other students is an essential characteristic and is facilitated through a variety of ways including voice-mail, live chats, discussion boards, and e-mail.
      • Feedback to student assignments and questions is constructive and provided in a timely manner.
      Additional Points about Teaching and Learning
      • Guidelines need to be established for faculty so that they know the acceptable levels of response time. ??-hour response time to e-mails, discussion postings, assignment feedback. Students need to know when they can expect responses from instructor.
    • 9.
      • Students are instructed in the proper methods of effective research, including assessment of the validity of resources.
      • Effective student learning also includes the ability to be self-directed, be goal driven, work well with computers and the Internet, be proficient in written communication, be willing to interact with classmates/instructors through the electronic learning environment, take responsibility for learning outcomes.
    • 10.
      • Before starting an online program, students are advised about the program to determine if they possess the self-motivation and commitment to learn at a distance and if they have access to the minimal technology required by the course design.
      • Students receive course information before enrolling that outlines course objectives and learning outcomes.
      Additional Points about Course Structure The course structure needs to strike a balance between a course that is highly structured and detailed providing clear navigation and sequence and a course that provides a variety of ways students can access information, interact with the information, and demonstrate their mastery of course outcomes.
    • 11.
      • Students have access to sufficient library resources that may include a virtual library accessible through the Internet.
      • Faculty and students agree upon expectations regarding times for students assignment completion and faculty feedback.
    • 12.
      • Students receive information about programs, including admission requirements, tuition and fees, books and supplies, technical and proctoring requirements, and student support services.
      • Students are provided with hands-on training and information to aid them in securing material through electronic databases, interlibrary loans, government archives, news services and other sources.
    • 13.
      • Throughout the duration of the course/program, students have access to technical assistance, including detailed instructions regarding the electronic media used, practice sessions prior to the beginning of the course, and convenient access to technical support staff.
      • Questions directed to student service personnel are answered accurately and quickly, with a structured system in place to address student complaints.
      • Students are best supported when course has clearly defined expectations and due dates for assignments and discussions. The lack of spontaneous discussion and face-to-face interaction can be supported by synchronous conversation.
    • 14.
      • Technical assistance in course development is available to faculty, who are encouraged to use it.
      • Faculty members are assisted in the transition from classroom teaching to online instruction and are assessed during the process.
      • Instructor training and assistance, including peer mentoring, continues through the progression of the online course.
      • Faculty members are provided with written resources to deal with issues arising from student use of electronically-accessed data.
      Faculty development includes two distinct areas: mechanics of teaching online (technical aspects of the courseware) and the strategies and logistics of the online classroom
    • 15.
      • The effectiveness of the teaching/learning process is assessed through several methods and applies specific standards.
      • Data on enrollment, costs, successful/innovative uses of technology are used to evaluate program effectiveness.
      • Intended learning outcomes are reviewed regularly to ensure clarity, utility, and appropriateness.
      • Surveys, interviews, student/faculty follow-up, comparative exam scores to assess how well the following were accomplished:
      • students met the stated course outcomes
      • created a viable and rich learning environment
      • provided quality instructor feedback, interaction, and facilitation
      • included relevant and meaningful resources and activities
      • resulted in a successful learning experience
    • 16. Learning styles and Instructional strategies
      • Effective online instruction depends on learning experiences appropriately designed and facilitated by knowledgeable educators.
      • Because learners have different learning styles or a combination of styles, online educators should design activities that address their modes of learning
    • 17. Learning Styles and the Online Environment
    • 18.
      • Everyone has their own "style" for collecting and organizing information into useful knowledge
      • The online environment can be particularly well suited to some learning styles and personality needs
      • Introverted students often find it easier to communicate via computer-mediated communication than in face-to-face situations.
    • 19.
      • Also, the online environment lends itself to a less hierarchical approach to instruction which meets the leaning needs of people who do not approach new information in a systematic or linear fashion.
    • 20.
      • Online learning environments are used to their highest potential for collaborative learning
      • which complements many students' learning styles,
      • independent learners have also found online courses to be well suited to their needs.
    • 21.
      • Because learners have different learning styles or a combination of styles, online educators should design activities that address their modes of learning in order to provide significant experiences for each class participant.
      • In designing online courses, this can best be accomplished by utilizing multiple instructional strategies.
    • 22. Below is a table of the most common learning styles . Prefers physical hands-on experiences Tactile/Kinesthetic Prefers to listen to information Auditory/Verbal Uses graphics or diagrams to represent information Visual/Nonverbal Prefers to read information Visual/Verbal Preference for information acquisition Learning Style
    • 23. What is YOUR learning style?
      • Take this online quiz to find out.
      • http://www. metamath .com//multiple/multiple_choice_questions. cgi
      • Click on the most appropriate button after each statement.
      • I would rather read material in a textbook than listen to a lecture. Often Sometimes Seldom
      • I benefit from studying with a partner or study group Often Sometimes Seldom
    • 24. Visual/Verbal Learners:
      • These people learn best when information is presented visually and in a written form.
      • In a classroom setting, they prefer instructors who use visual aids (i.e. black board, PowerPoint presentation) to list the essential points of a lecture in order to provide them with an outline to follow during the lecture.
      • They benefit from information obtained from textbooks and class notes.
      • These learners like to study by themselves in quiet environments. They visualize information
    • 25.
      • The online environment is especially appropriate for visual/verbal learners because most of the information for a course is presented in written form.
    • 26. Visual/Nonverbal Learners:
      • They learn best when information is presented visually and in a picture or design format.
      • In a classroom setting, they benefit from instructors who supplement their lectures with materials such as film, video, maps and diagrams.
      • They relate well to information obtained from the images and charts in textbooks.
      • They tend prefer to work alone in quiet environments.
      • They may also be artistic and enjoy visual art and design.
    • 27.
      • The online environment is well suited for this type of learner because graphical representations of information can help them remember concepts and ideas.
      • Graphical information can be presented using charts, tables, graphs, and images.
    • 28. Auditory/Verbal Learners:
      • These people learn best when information is presented aurally. In a classroom setting, they
      • benefit from listening to lecture and participating in group discussions. They also benefit
      • from obtaining information from audio tape. When trying to remember something, they often
      • repeat it out loud and can mentally "hear" the way the information was explained to them.
    • 29. online
      • Online learning environments can complement these learners' style.
      • Although most information is presented visually (either written or graphically), group participation and collaborative activities are accomplished well online.
      • In addition, streaming audio and computer conferencing can be incorporated into an online course to best meet the learning style of these students.
    • 30. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners:
      • These people learn best when doing a physical "hands-on" activity. In the classroom, they
      • prefer to learn new materials in lab setting where they can touch and manipulate materials.
      • They learn best in physically active learning situations. They benefit from instructors who
      • use in-class demonstrations, hands-on learning experiences, and fieldwork outside the
      • classroom
    • 31. Online
      • Online environments can provide learning opportunities for tactile/kinesthetic learners.
      • Simulations with 3-Dimensional graphics can replicate physical demonstrations.
      • Lab sessions can be conducted either at predetermined locations or at home and then discussed online.
      • Also, outside fieldwork can be incorporated into the coursework, with ample online discussion both preceding and following the experience.
      • Finally, the online environment is well suited for presentation and discussion of either group or individual projects and activities.
    • 32. ONLINE COURSES AND MULTIPLE INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
      • Traditionally, in a teacher-centered classroom, instructors control their environment because they have a monopoly on information.
      • In an online course, with instant access to vast resources of data and information, students are no longer totally dependent on faculty for knowledge.
    • 33.
      • Visual/Verbal: use their eyes, prefer to read
      • Visual/Nonverbal: prefer seeing graphics or diagrams
      • Auditory: primarily use their ears, listen to learn.
      • Tactile/Kinesthic: use hands-on experience and movement.
      • School tends to be visual; many auditory and kinesthic learners are at a disadvantage when most information is presented visually.
    • 34. learning is becoming more collaborative, contextual and active
      • As faculty are beginning to teach online, learning is becoming more collaborative, contextual and active.
      • Educators must first design their curriculum, goals and objectives and then consider how the online environment can best serve the instructional objectives and activities of that curriculum.
    • 35. Need for a different pedagogy
      • This requires changes in pedagogy, with instructors taking the role of facilitators of information while guiding students toward solutions.
      • In order for online learning to be successful, teachers as well as learners must take on new roles in the teaching-learning relationship, and faculty must be willing to release control of learning to the students.
    • 36. Wide Range of Methods
      • Online learning environments permit a full range of interactive methodologies, and instructors have found that in adapting their courses to online models, they are paying more attention to the instructional design of their courses.
      • As a result, the quality, quantity, and patterns of communication students practice during learning are improved.
    • 37. Ten Instrucitonal Methods for Online Courses
    • 38. LEARNING CONTRACTS
      • A learning contract is a formal agreement written by a learner which details what will be learned, how the learning will be accomplished, the period of time involved, and the specific evaluation criteria to be used in judging the completion of the learning.
      • Learning contracts help the educator and learner share the responsibility for learning.
    • 39. LECTURE
      • The lecture is one of the most frequently used instructional methods in adult education.
      • It assumes the educator to be the expert and is an efficient way of disseminating information.
      • Most educators agree that the purpose of lectures is to lay foundations as the student works through the subject,
    • 40.
      • Good lecturers know their students and develop their lectures according to the students' needs.
      • Most importantly, lectures are most effective when used in combination with other instructional strategies.
    • 41. Presenting an Online Lecture
      • Online lectures can be presented in a variety of ways.
      • Lecture notes can be placed on a web page for the learner to review.
      • Notes can be put together in a packet and either downloaded from the Internet or sent via snail mail.
      • Lectures can also be presented via audio or video over the Internet
      • Example
    • 42. More
      • Also, links to related resources and other Web sites can be embedded in online lectures.
      • Online lectures are likely to be shorter and more to the point than lectures in live classrooms.
      • Short lectures provide enough information to serve as a basis for further reading, research, or other learning activities.
      • Another obvious advantage of online lectures is that they are readily available for students to revisit again and again as needed.
    • 43. DISCUSSION
      • Discussion is the instructional strategy most favored by adult learners because it is interactive and encourages active, participatory learning.
      • The discussion format encourages learners to analyze alternative ways of thinking and acting and assists learners in exploring their own experiences so they can become better critical thinkers.
      • The discussion is often the heart of an online course.
    • 44. Discussion examples
      • The Internet offers several modes for discussion including
      • mailing lists (listservs) which focus on particular topics and
      • online conferencing programs.
      • Both of these options utilize asynchronous communication.
      • Synchronous (real time) communication can be offered by utilizing chat rooms
    • 45. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
      • Self-directed learning is learning initiated and directed by the learner and can include self-paced, independent, and individualized learning as well as self-instruction.
      • Whatever terminology is used, self-directed learning places the responsibility for learning directly on the learner.
    • 46.
      • Learners who take the initiative in learning and are proactive
      • Learners learn more and better than passive learners (reactive learners).
      • Proactive learners enter into learning more purposefully and with greater motivation
    • 47.
      • They also tend to retain and make use of what they learn better and longer than reactive learners.
      • The independent learner is one who is more involved and active within the learning process.
    • 48. Learning independent of time or place
      • Online learning supports the self-directed learner in pursuing individualized, self-paced learning activities.
      • The learner, working at a computer at a convenient time and pace, is able to search and utilize the vast resources of the Internet research nearly any topic imaginable
    • 49.
      • Students can visit libraries, museums and various institutes world-wide, talk to professionals, access recent research, and read newspapers and peer reviewed scholarly journals online.
      • Students can write collaboratively with peers and even publish written and multimedia products on web pages.
    • 50. MENTORSHIP
      • The aim of mentorship is to promote learner development drawing out and giving form to what the student already knows.
      • A mentor serves as a guide rather than a provider of knowledge and serves the function of introducing students to the new world, interpreting it for them, and helping them to learn what they need to know to function in it
    • 51. Mentors also…
      • Mentors in education teach by interpreting the environment and modeling expected behaviors.
      • They also support, challenge, and provide vision for their students.
    • 52. Online Mentoring
      • A major benefit to online mentorship is the opportunity for frequent, convenient communication between mentor and student.
      • Weekly or even daily journals and communications can be sent between mentor and student via e-mail, providing an ongoing "dialogue"
    • 53.
      • This ongoing "dialogue" supports the development of the mentor relationship and offers numerous opportunities for timely feedback on student questions, concerns and issues.
    • 54. SMALL GROUP WORK
      • In small groups learners can discuss content, share ideas, and solve problems.
      • They present their own ideas as well as consider ideas put forth by others.
      • In this way, they can be exposed to a variety of viewpoints on a given subject.
      • There are many small group formats that encourage and provide opportunities for interaction:
    • 55. Discussion groups
      • Discussion groups allow learners to reflect on a subject under discussion and present their views.
      • Discussion within the small group is often on high intellectual levels - specifically analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
    • 56. Guided Design
      • Guided design encourages interaction in small groups. Here the focus is on developing learners' decision-making skills as well as on teaching specific concepts and principles.
      • Participants work to solve open-ended problems which require outside class work to gather information.
    • 57. Learning here
      • This format encourages learners to think logically, communicate ideas, and apply steps in a decision-making process.
      • Learners are also required to apply the information they have learned, exchange ideas, and reflect on suggested solutions.
      • The instructor's role is to act as a consultant to the groups.
    • 58.
      • Online learning environments offer several distinct benefits for small group work. First, they allow small groups to work independently while still having access to the instructor.
      • In some cases where it is difficult for all members of an online class to meet synchronously, small groups can be organized according to their time zones, making it possible to find a convenient time to meet synchronously
    • 59.
      • Larger groups can benefit by communicating asynchronously via conferencing programs.
      • A second benefit of online environments for group work is that they equalize control among participants.
      • Factors such as geography, gender, or disabilities do not disadvantage learners in this environment.
      • Finally, the instructor is able to respond directly to questions and needs of particular groups without taking the time of other groups
    • 60. PROJECTS
      • Online projects give students an opportunity to pursue their special interests and can be done individually or within groups.
      • Projects also provide students with practical experience and a sense of accomplishment.
      • Using projects in a learning activity makes the learning more relevant to the learners
    • 61.
      • Products can be shared with others in the class and critiqued.
      • Many times an individual project is only critiqued by the facilitator,
      • By sharing individual projects with other participants, the learner has the opportunity to obtain more diverse viewpoints and feedback.
    • 62.
      • Group projects can include simulations, role playing, case studies, problem solving exercises, group collaborative work, debates, small group discussion, and brainstorming
      • Participants in group projects should receive peer feedback to expose them to diverse viewpoints.
    • 63.
      • With independent and group projects learners pursue special interests, write or create for an audience, and publish or present their findings and conclusions via the Internet.
      • The Internet provides the potential of receiving feedback from experts or interested peers outside the course by accessing the project online.
    • 64. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
      • Collaborative learning is the process of getting two or more students to work together to learn.
      • Students often work in small groups composed of participants with differing ability levels and using a variety of learning activities to master material initially developed by an instructor, or construct knowledge on substantive issues.
      • Each member of the team is responsible for learning what is taught and for helping teammates learn.
    • 65.
      • Collaborative learning methods are now used in over a third of higher education courses, and their use has increased in the past six years more than any other learning method, according to a recent survey conducted by UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute.
    • 66.
      • Employers want workers with collaborative skills and are looking for graduates of educational programs that teach these skills.
      • Collaborative learning can be more effective than interpersonal competitive and individualistic efforts in promoting cognitive development, self-esteem, and positive student-student relationships.
    • 67.
      • Online learning models are natural environments for collaborative learning, but they are not collaborative learning environments by definition.
      • Learners may interact with other participants without collaborating, for example when receiving on-line tutorial help.
      • Learning activities have to be specifically and somewhat carefully designed to work effectively.
    • 68. CASE STUDY
      • The case study is a teaching strategy which requires learners to draw upon their past experiences, is participatory and has action components which are links to future experience.
      • The key to a successful case study is the selection of an appropriate problem situation which is relevant both to the interests and experience level of learners and to the concepts being taught.
    • 69.
      • The case report should include facts regarding the problem, the environmental context, and the characters of the people involved in the case.
      • It should be factual, but also contain the opinions and views of the people involved. Learners should have access to the problem solution, but not until they have reached their own conclusions and can then compare their results with the actual decision taken to resolve the problem.
    • 70.
      • The case analysis can be carried out with the learners working independently or in groups
      • One advantage of using the case method is that it emphasizes practical thinking and it assists learners in identifying principles after examining the facts of the case and then applying those principles to new situations
      • Case analysis is equally effective when used in combination with other instructional strategies.
    • 71.
      • In the online environment case studies can be presented on web pages and discussed in conferencing groups.
      • Cases can be developed by class groups as collaborative projects. In addition, the vast resources of the Internet can be tapped by students and educators to contribute data, information and expert advice to case development and analysis.
    • 72. FORUM
      • The forum is an open discussion carried on by one or more resource people and an entire group.
      • The moderator guides the discussion and the audience raises and discusses issues, make comments, offers information, or asks questions of the resource person(s) and each other.
      • There are two variations of the forum: the panel and the symposium.
    • 73. The panel
      • usually a group of three to six people who sit in the presence of an audience and have a purposeful conversation on a topic in which they have specialized knowledge.
      • Guided by a moderator, the panel is informal in nature, but allows for no audience participation.
    • 74. The symposium
      • a series of presentations given by two to five people on different aspects of the same theme or closely related themes.
      • Although the symposium is formal in nature, questions from the audience are encouraged following the presentations.
      • An obvious benefit of the symposium is that it gives learners exposure to a variety of experts' viewpoints and offers an opportunity for the audience to ask questions.
    • 75. online environments facilitates group communication
      • It is ideal for the types of information exchange typical in forums.
      • In fact, the forum can be more convenient and effective in the online environment than in the traditional classroom because speakers, experts and moderator can participate without having to travel or even be available at a particular time.
      • Both synchronous and asynchronous communication can be utilized to support online learning forums.
    • 76. CONCLUSION
      • The online learning environment allows educators and students to exchange ideas and information, work together on projects, around the clock, from anywhere in the world, using multiple communication modes.
      • Given the advantages and resources of this rich learning environment, how can multiple instructional strategies best be utilized for online learning?
    • 77.
      • Just as in the traditional classroom, instructional strategies are most effective when employed specifically to meet particular learning goals and objectives.
      • Effective course design can begin with asking and answering the key question: what are the major learning goals and objectives for this course? Once these goals and objectives have been identified and clearly articulated, the question of which learning strategies, activities, and experiences to employ can be addressed.
    • 78.
      • Online learning can employ any of the strategies discussed here. Much of the power of learning via the Internet lies in its
      • capacity to support multiple modes of communication including any combination of student-student, student-faculty,
      • faculty-student, faculty-faculty, student-others, others-students, etc.
    • 79.
      • Taking into account the varied learning styles of learners and providing opportunities for self-directed and collaborative learning, educators can facilitate powerful, effective courses geared to achieve specific learning goals and outcomes using the vast resources and capacities of online learning.
    • 80.
      • The online learning environment is, after all, just another learning environment, in some ways similar to and in some ways different from more traditional environments such as conventional classrooms, seminar rooms, or labs.
      • When we move our class onto the Internet, we should plan for and make the best use of the online environment
    • 81.
      • The various instructional strategies we use to meet the goals and objectives of our courses are likely to be similar in each environment.
      • However, the ways in which we utilize the strategies will differ as we make the best use of the characteristics and capacities of each environment.
    • 82. Integrating Faith and Learning in an Online Course AVLL ( Adventist Virtual Learning Lab ) Standards adopted by a North America consortium of Adventist Colleges and Universities
    • 83. Standard #1
      • Online Courses developed shall be Christ-centered and person focused
    • 84. How can this standard be met in an online course?
      • If the instructor brings prayer and encouragement to the class.
      • If the instructor asks student to apply their faith.
      • If the instructor answers e-mails quickly
      • If the instrucotr is prompt in helping students when necessary
    • 85. Standard #2
      • Courses developed shall be faith-driven and mission-oriented
    • 86. How can this standard be met in an online course?
      • Making a space available in the discussion area for prayers and prayer requests.
      • Participants may share requests and pray for each other here.
      • Readings include quotes and references to faith based literature
      • Biblical and ethical principles form the core of discussions.
    • 87. Standards of Good Practice For Teaching Online Christina Sax University of Maryland University College
    • 88. Instructional Models
      • Transmission of information
          • traditional view of education
          • classroom based education
      • Mentoring of students
      • Creation of a learning community
    • 89. What should I do . . .
      • to insure student learning & success . . .
      • to make the process go smoothly . . .
      • to manage the class effectively . . .
      … in the absence of face-to-face contact with students?
    • 90. What should I do . . . … to be a really successful, dynamic, and creative online instructor and inspire my students … without spending all my time online and without losing my sanity in the process?
    • 91. More Questions ...
      • How much time should I expect to spend online?
      • How often should faculty members communicate with students?
      • How quickly should faculty members respond to student questions/work?
    • 92. And More Questions . . .
      • How often should students interact with instructor and/or each other?
      • How much time should students spend on course work?
      • What kinds of activities should students engage in?
    • 93. And Still More Questions ?
    • 94. Seven Principles of Good Practice Chickering & Gamson June 1987 7 Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
    • 95. The Seven Principles
      • 1. Encourage student-faculty contact and
      • interaction
      • 2. Encourage cooperation among students
      • 3. Encourage active learning
      • 4. Give prompt feedback
    • 96. The Seven Principles
      • 5. Emphasize time on task
      • 6. Communicate high expectations
      • 7. Respect diverse talents and ways of
      • learning
    • 97. Two Additional Principles 8. Let students know what to expect - from you and in the course 9. Make effective use of the technology
    • 98. How to do I Put Best Practices into Action?
    • 99. 1. Encourage student-faculty contact
      • Use e-mail for announcements, news, updates, reminders, etc.
      • Encourage student questions, inquiries, feedback, input
      • Refer to students by name
      • Hold virtual office hours
      • Instructor input into discussions
    • 100. 2. Encourage cooperation among students
      • Activities that promote cooperation
        • team learning
        • asynchronous problem solving
        • group projects, presentations, debates
        • peer reviews
        • chats
      • Students exchange phone numbers and email addresses
    • 101. 3. Encourage active learning
      • Learning is not a spectator sport
      • Pose questions that foster thinking and problem solving
      • Interrupted Discussion method
      • “ Each one teach one”
    • 102. 3. Encourage active learning
      • Students provide and critique URLs
      • Students design/create Web pages
      • Students develop knowledge artifacts and concept maps
      • Encourage opinions as well as facts
    • 103. 4. Give prompt feedback
      • Hold virtual office hours
      • Return graded work in one week
      • Post grades regularly
      • Acknowledge all student questions
    • 104. 5. Emphasize time on task
      • Let student know time-on-task is important to success
      • Award points for all work
      • Require discussion participation
      • Provide specific learning objectives for each unit
      • Use assignments that allow students to apply learning
    • 105. 6. Communicate high expectations
      • Course goals and objectives in Syllabus
      • Post examples of excellent, average, and poor work
      • Model through example
    • 106. 6. Communicate high expectations
      • Make your expectations of students clear with respect to:
        • facts, concepts, critical thinking, analysis, writing, format, quantitative reasoning, internet usage, frequency of check-ins, frequency of interaction
    • 107. 7. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning
      • Recognize that online classes are not the preferred environment for some
      • Allow options for demonstrating student achievement
      • Recognize, respect and reward creativity
    • 108. 7. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning
      • Be sensitive to possible cultural differences
      • Understand and appreciate the distant learner’s lifestyle
    • 109. 8. Let students know what to expect - from the instructor
      • Response time from instructor
      • Lecture, support, mentor, facilitator?
        • What replaces seat time/contact hours of the face-to-face class?
    • 110. 8. Let students know what to expect - in the course
      • Total amount of time per week
      • Interactive vs. independent
      • Rigor
      • Schedule and due dates
    • 111. 9. Make effective use of technology
      • Does your discipline have specific requirements?
      • What technologies/materials are available in your discipline?
      • What technology/materials are available to your students?
    • 112. 9. Make effective use of the technology
      • Is it an effective means of content delivery and instruction?
      • Where are your students located?
    • 113. Is Online Teaching Really That Different?
      • student-faculty interaction
      • student-student cooperation
      • active learning
      • prompt feedback
      • time on task
      • high expectations
      • diversity
      • communication
      • effective use of materials
    • 114. Future Questions, Comments, Suggestions, Ideas …. Chris Sax UMUC 301-985-7625 [email_address]
    • 115. In Summary Strategies and Best Practices Summary
    • 116.
      • Online education is an approach to teaching and learning that utilizes Internet technologies to communicate and collaborate in an educational context….
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 5.
    • 117.
      • … This includes technology that supplements traditional classroom training with web-based components and learning environments where the educational process is experienced online.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 5.
    • 118. When the going gets tough...
      • the tough upgrade
    • 119.
      • A good way for instructors to enter the online arena is by using technology to enhance an on-campus class.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 5.
    • 120. You know you’re an email junkie when... you wake up at 3 a.m. to go to the bathroom and check your email on your way back to bed.
    • 121.
      • A auditory learner may feel more comfortable listening to a brief audio clip explaining a concept than reading about it.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 7.
    • 122.
      • A visual learner tends to do well in an environment that presents mainly text or uses video clips.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 7.
    • 123.
      • A kinesthetic learner may appreciate assignments requiring visits to other websites on the Internet and the incorporation of online research.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 7.
    • 124. You know you’re an email junkie when… ...you name your children Eudora, Mozilla, and Dotcom.
    • 125.
      • We believe that asynchronous discussion is the most effective means of promoting online learning.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 10.
    • 126. For every action, there is an equal and opposite malfunction.
    • 127.
      • Even after all these years, the most exciting online pedagogical experiences still rely on human interaction. And for the most part, these interactions continue to be text-based.
      Feenberg, in Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 10.
    • 128. As soon as you understand your computer, it will become obsolete.
    • 129.
      • People who are introverts are more adept at creating a virtual environment because they can process information internally and are less outgoing socially. It is more comfortable for an introvert to spend time thinking about information before responding to it.
      Palloff and Pratt, 1999, p. 22.
    • 130. If at first you don’t succeed… blame your computer.
    • 131.
      • Above all, keep it simple! A simply constructed course site with minimal or no graphics, audio, or video is more likely to be accessible to all users and cause fewer problems in the long run.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 63.
    • 132. To foul up is human, to foul-up royally requires a computer .
    • 133.
      • Building an online course is similar to writing a textbook and developing associated learning materials – it is a process that takes a tremendous amount of time and energy.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 106.
    • 134. A computer program will do what you tell it to, seldom what you want it to.
    • 135.
      • An online course that uses different types of assignments and approaches to learning can accomplish the same objective without using more complex technologies, such as audio or video.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 112.
    • 136. Half the cause of computer problems, is computer solutions.
    • 137.
      • The failing of many computer-mediated distance learning programs stems from the instructor’s inability or unwillingness to facilitate a collaborative learning process.
      Palloff and Pratt, 2000, Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom , p. 115.